Pacer Funds Trust

10/19/2021 | Press release | Distributed by Public on 10/19/2021 08:35

Post-Effective Amendment to Registration Statement by Investment Company (Form 485BPOS)

ck0001616668-20210430

Filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on October 19, 2021
1933 Act Registration File No. 333-201530
1940 Act File No. 811-23024

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM N-1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 [ X ]
Pre-Effective Amendment No.
[ ]
Post-Effective Amendment No.
82 [ X ]
and/or
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 [ X ]
Amendment No.
84 [ X ]
(Check appropriate box or boxes.)

PACER FUNDS TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
500 Chesterfield Parkway,
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
(Address of Principal Executive Offices, including Zip Code)
Registrant's Telephone Number, including Area Code: (610) 644-8100
Joe M. Thomson, Chairman and President
Pacer Funds Trust
500 Chesterfield Parkway,
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

With Copies to:

John F. Ramirez
Practus, LLP
11300 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Suite 310
Leawood, Kansas 66211

As soon as practical after the effective date of this Registration Statement
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)
[ X ] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
[ ] 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
[ ] 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
[ ] on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485

Explanatory Note: This Post-Effective Amendment No. 82 to the Registration Statement of Pacer Funds Trust (the "Trust") is being filed for the purpose of registering the Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF as a new series of the Trust.





PROSPECTUS
October 19, 2021


FLRT Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
Listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc.















The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") has not approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.



INVESTMENT PRODUCTS: *ARE NOT FDIC INSURED *MAY LOSE VALUE *ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED



Table of Contents
SUMMARY SECTION
3
Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
3
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
12
ADDITIONAL NON-PRINCIPAL RISK INFORMATION
20
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
21
MANAGEMENT
21
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON BUYING AND SELLING FUND SHARES
22
ADDITIONAL TAX INFORMATION
24
DISTRIBUTION
26
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
26
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
26
FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
27
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SUMMARY SECTION
Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
Investment Objective
The Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF (the "Fund") is an exchange traded fund ("ETF") that seeks to provide a high level of current income.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund ("Shares"). The fees are expressed as a percentage of the Fund's average net assets. You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and Example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees* 0.60%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees None
Other Expenses** 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.60%
*Restated to reflect current fees.
**Estimated for the current fiscal year.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of the Shares at the end of those periods. The example assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund's operating expenses remain the same.Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$61 $192 $335 $750
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or "turns over" its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund's performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the portfolio turnover rate for the Predecessor Fund (as defined below) was 35% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
Pacific Asset Management LLC (the "Sub-Adviser") seeks to achieve the Fund's investment objective by selecting a focused portfolio comprised primarily of income-producing adjustable rate securities.
Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in senior secured floating rate loans and other adjustable rate securities. Other adjustable rate securities will typically include collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs"), asset-backed securities ("ABS"), and commercial mortgage backed securities ("CMBS") (collectively, "Adjustable Rate Securities"). The Fund is expected to invest primarily in loans and Adjustable Rate Securities that are rated below investment grade (i.e., high yield securities, sometimes called "junk bonds" or non-investment grade securities) or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Sub-Adviser.
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The Fund may invest in U.S.-dollar denominated senior floating rate loans and Adjustable Rate Securities of domestic and foreign issuers. Senior floating rate loans are debt instruments that may have a right to payment that is senior to most other debts of borrowers. Borrowers may include corporations, partnerships and other entities that operate in a variety of industries and geographic regions, which may from time to time prepay their loan obligations in response, for example, to changes in interest rates. Senior loans in which the Fund may invest include secured and unsecured loans. Generally, secured floating rate loans are secured by specific assets of the borrower. An adjustable rate security includes any fixed income security that requires periodic changes in its interest rate based upon changes in a recognized index interest rate or another method of determining prevailing interest rates. The Fund invests in various types of ABS, such as auto loan and student loan ABS. The Fund is actively managed.
The Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in certain other types of debt instruments or securities, including corporate bonds (including floating rate investment grade bonds) and secured or unsecured second lien floating rate loans. Second lien loans generally are second in line behind senior loans in terms of prepayment priority with respect to pledged collateral and therefore have a lower credit quality as compared to senior loans but may produce a higher yield to compensate for the additional risk.
The secondary market on which high yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to sell a high yield security or the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield security, and could adversely affect the daily NAV of Fund shares. When secondary markets for high yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available. The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, as such term is defined by Rule 22e-4 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act").
When the Sub-Adviser believes that current market, economic, political or other conditions are unsuitable and would impair the pursuit of the Fund's investment objectives, the Fund may invest some or all of its assets in cash or cash equivalents, including but not limited to obligations of the U.S. government, money market fund shares, commercial paper, certificates of deposit and/or bankers acceptances, as well as other interest bearing or discount obligations or debt instruments that carry an investment grade rating by a national rating agency. When the Fund takes a temporary defensive position, the Fund may not achieve its investment objectives. The Fund may invest from time to time more heavily in one or more sectors of the economy than in other sectors.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
You can lose money on your investment in the Fund. The Fund is subject to the risks summarized below. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund's net asset value per share ("NAV"), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund's prospectus entitled "Additional Information about the Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund."
Floating Rate Loan Risk.Floating rate loans (or bank loans) are usually rated below investment grade. The market for floating rate loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. Investments in floating rate loans are typically in the form of an assignment or participation. Investors in a loan participation assume the credit risk associated with the borrower and may assume the credit risk associated with an interposed financial intermediary. Accordingly, if a lead lender becomes insolvent or a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could experience delays in receiving payments or suffer a loss. In an assignment, the Fund effectively becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning bank or other financial intermediary. Accordingly, if the loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral. In addition, the floating rate feature of loans means that floating rate loans will not generally experience capital appreciation in a declining interest rate environment. Declines in interest rates may also increase prepayments of debt obligations and require the Fund to invest assets at lower yields. Floating rate loans are also subject to prepayment risk. Such loans may not be considered securities and, therefore, may not be afforded the protections of the federal securities laws.
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Senior Loans Risk. The risks associated with senior loans are similar to the risks of junk bonds, although senior loans typically are senior and secured, whereas junk bonds often are subordinated and unsecured. Investments in senior loans typically are below investment grade and are considered speculative because of the credit risk of their issuers. Such companies are more likely to default on their payments of interest and principal owed, and such defaults could reduce the Fund's NAV and income distributions. An economic downturn generally leads to a higher nonpayment rate, and a senior loan may lose significant value before a default occurs. There is no assurance that the liquidation of the collateral would satisfy the claims of the borrower's obligations in the event of the non-payment of scheduled interest or principal, or that the collateral could be readily liquidated. Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for certain senior loans or senior loans generally, which may reduce market prices. Senior loans and other debt securities also are subject to the risk of price declines and to increases in prevailing interest rates, although floating-rate debt instruments such as senior loans in which the Fund may be expected to invest are substantially less exposed to this risk than fixed-rate debt instruments. No active trading market may exist for certain senior loans, which may impair the ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to liquidate such assets. Adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of some actively traded senior loans. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in value as a result of changes in market interest rates.
Covenant-Lite Loan Risk.Covenant-lite loans contain fewer maintenance covenants, or no maintenance covenants at all, than traditional loans and may not include terms that allow the lender to monitor the financial performance of the borrower and declare a default if certain criteria are breached. This may hinder the Fund's ability to reprice credit risk associated with the borrower and reduce the Fund's ability to restructure a problematic loan and mitigate potential loss. As a result, the Fund's exposure to losses on such investments is increased, especially during a downturn in the credit cycle. A significant portion of floating rate loans may be "covenant-lite" loans.
Loan Participation Risk.The Fund may not have a readily available market for loan participation interests and, in some cases, the Fund may have to dispose of such securities at a substantial discount from face value. Loan participations also involve the credit risk associated with the underlying corporate borrower.
CLO Risk. CLOs are typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. The cash flows from CLOs are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches as well as market anticipation of defaults.
Asset-Backed Securities Risk. Asset-backed securities represent interests in "pools" of assets, including consumer loans or receivables. Movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of asset-backed securities. Although certain asset-backed securities are guaranteed as to timely payment of interest and principal by a government entity, the market price for such securities is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. The purchase of asset-backed securities issued by non-government entities may entail greater risk than such securities that are issued or guaranteed by a government entity. Asset-backed securities issued by non-government entities may offer higher yields than those issued by government entities, but may also be subject to greater volatility than government issues and can also be subject to greater credit risk and the risk of default on the underlying assets. Investments in asset-backed securities are subject to both extension risk, where borrowers pay off their debt obligations more slowly in times of rising interest rates, and prepayment risk, where borrowers pay off their debt obligations sooner than expected in times of declining interest rates.
CMBS Risk. The Fund may invest in CMBS. CMBS are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and are subject to risk of default on the underlying mortgages. The value of the collateral securing CMBS may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, CMBS may not be fully collateralized and may decline significantly in value. In addition, commercial mortgage loans are secured by commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure, and risks of loss. In the event of any default under a mortgage, the Fund will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the commercial mortgage loan. Stressed conditions in
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the markets for CMBS and mortgage-related assets as well as the broader financial markets have in the past resulted in a temporary but significant contraction in liquidity for CMBS. To the extent that the market for CMBS suffers such a contraction, securities that were previously considered liquid could become temporarily illiquid, and the Adviser may experience delays or difficulty in selling assets at the prices at which the Fund carries such assets, which may result in a loss to the Fund.
High Yield Securities Risk.High yield debt obligations (commonly known as "junk bonds") are speculative investments and entail greater risk of loss of principal than securities and loans that are investment grade rated because of their greater exposure to credit risk. The high yield market at times is subject to substantial volatility and high yield debt obligations may be less liquid than higher quality securities. As a result, the value of the Fund may be subject to greater volatility than other funds, and the Fund may be exposed to greater tracking risk (described below) than other funds.
Fixed Income Risk. The value of the Fund's direct or indirect investments in fixed income securities will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities owned by the Fund. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. The value of the Fund's direct or indirect investments in fixed income securities may be affected by the inability of issuers to repay principal and interest or illiquidity in debt securities markets.
Call Risk.During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may "call" or repay the security prior to its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund's income.
Credit Risk.Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due. Changes in an issuer's credit rating or the market's perception of an issuer's creditworthiness may also affect the value of an investment in that issuer. Credit risk is heightened to the extent the Fund invests in non-investment grade securities.
Event Risk.Event risk is the risk that corporate issuers may undergo restructurings, such as mergers, leveraged buyouts, takeovers, or similar events financed by increased debt. As a result of the added debt, the credit quality and market value of a company's bonds and/or other debt securities may decline significantly.
Extension Risk.When interest rates rise, certain obligations will be paid off by the obligor more slowly than anticipated, causing the value of these securities to fall.
Interest Rate Risk.Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.
Prepayment Risk.When interest rates fall, certain obligations will be paid off by the obligor more quickly than originally anticipated, and the proceeds may have to be invested in securities with lower yields. The Fund investing in such securities will be forced to reinvest this money at lower yields, which can reduce the Fund's returns.
Income Risk.The income from the Fund's investments may decline because of falling market interest rates. This can result when the Fund invests the proceeds from new share sales, or from matured or called bonds, at market interest rates that are below the Fund's portfolio current earnings rate.
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LIBOR Risk.Instruments in which the Fund invests may pay interest at floating rates based on the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") or may be subject to interest caps or floors based on LIBOR. The Fund and issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests may also obtain financing at floating rates based on LIBOR. Plans are underway to phase out the use of LIBOR between December 31, 2021 and June 30, 2023. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments that reference LIBOR without including fallback provisions and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades. Any pricing adjustments to the Fund's investments resulting from a substitute reference rate may also adversely affect the Fund's performance and/or NAV. The effect of a phase out of LIBOR on instruments in which the Fund may invest is currently unclear.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments. Markets and economies throughout the world are becoming increasingly interconnected, and conditions or events in one market, country or region may adversely impact investments or issuers in another market, country or region.
Market Risk. An investment in the Fund involves risks similar to those of investing in any fund of equity securities, such as market fluctuations caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. The values of equity securities could decline generally or could underperform other investments. Different types of equity securities tend to go through cycles of out-performance and under-performance in comparison to the general securities markets. In addition, securities may decline in value due to factors affecting the securities markets generally or a specific issuer or market. The Fund is subject to the risk that its investment strategy, the implementation of which is subject to a number of constraints, may not produce the intended results. Market risk refers to the possibility that the market values of securities or other investments that the Fund holds will fall, sometimes rapidly or unpredictably, or fail to rise. Security values may fall or fail to rise because of a variety of actual or perceived factors affecting an issuer (e.g., an unfavorable earnings report), the industry or sector in which it operates, or the market as a whole, which may reduce the value of an investment in the Fund. Accordingly, an investment in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods. The market values of the securities the Fund holds can be affected by changes or perceived changes in U.S. or foreign economies and financial markets, and the liquidity of these securities, among other factors. Although equity securities generally tend to have greater price volatility than debt securities, under certain market conditions, debt securities may have comparable or greater price volatility. In addition, stock prices may be sensitive to rising interest rates, as the cost of capital rises and borrowing costs increase.
ETF Risks.The Fund is an ETF and, as a result of an ETF's structure, is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants ("APs"), Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, shares of the Fund may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares of the Fund.Due to the costs of buying or selling shares of the Fund, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of shares of the Fund may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in shares of the Fund may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares of the Fund May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV.As with all ETFs, shares of the Fund may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. The price of shares of the Fund, like the price of all traded securities, will be subject to factors such as supply and demand, as well as the current value of the Fund's
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portfolio holdings. Although it is expected that the market price of the shares of the Fund will approximate the Fund's NAV, there may be times when the market price of the shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount). This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Certain securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund's primary listing exchange is open, and the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of ETFs that hold securities that are traded only in the United States.
Trading.Although shares of the Fund are listed for trading on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (the "Exchange"), and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that shares of the Fund will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of shares of the Fund may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund's underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than shares of the Fund.
Liquidity Risk.Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. This can reduce the Fund's returns because the Fund may be unable to transact at advantageous times or prices. Trading opportunities are more limited for Adjustable Rate Securities that have complex terms or that are not widely held. These features may make it more difficult to sell or buy a security at a favorable price or time. Infrequent trading of securities may also lead to an increase in their price volatility.
Privately Issued Securities Risk.The Fund may invest in privately-issued securities, including those that may be resold only in accordance with Rule 144A or Regulation S under the 1933 Act ("Restricted Securities"). Restricted Securities are not publicly traded and are subject to a variety of restrictions, which limit a purchaser's ability to acquire or resell such securities. Delay or difficulty in selling such securities may result in a loss to the Fund.
Management Risk. The Fund is subject to management risk because it is an actively managed portfolio. In managing the Fund's investment portfolio, the portfolio managers will apply investment techniques and risk analyses that may not produce the desired result. There can be no guarantee that the Fund will meet its investment objective.
Sector Risk.Sector risk is the possibility that securities within the same group of industries will decline in price due to sector-specific market or economic developments. If the Fund invests more heavily in a particular sector, the value of its shares may be especially sensitive to factors and economic risks that specifically affect that sector. As a result, the Fund's share price may fluctuate more widely than the value of shares of a fund that invests in a broader range of industries.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk.The Fund may invest in companies in the consumer discretionary sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Industrials Sector Risk. The Fund may invest in companies in the industrials sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. The industrials sector may be affected by changes in the supply of and demand for products and services, product obsolescence, claims for environmental damage or product liability and general economic conditions, among other factors.
Small Fund Risk.When the Fund's size is small, the Fund may experience low trading volume and wide bid/ask spreads. In addition, the Fund may face the risk of being delisted if the Fund does not meet certain conditions of the listing exchange. Any resulting liquidation of the Fund could cause the Fund to incur elevated transaction costs for the Fund and negative tax consequences for its shareholders.
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Fund Performance
The Fund is the successor to the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF, a series of Pacific Global ETF Trust, as a result of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into the Fund at the close of business on October 22, 2021. In addition, the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF was the successor to the investment performance of AdvisorShares Pacific Asset Enhanced Floating Rate ETF, a series of AdvisorShares Trust, as a result of the reorganization of the series of AdvisorShares Trust into a series of Pacific Global ETF that occurred on December 27, 2019 (together, the "Predecessor Fund").
Accordingly, any performance information for periods prior to October 22, 2021 is that of the series of Pacific Global ETF Trust; any performance for periods prior to December 27, 2019 is that of the series of AdvisorShares Trust. While the Predecessor Fund had the same investment objective as the Fund, the Fund's investment strategies and policies changed after the reorganization. From the Predecessor Fund's inception to October 22, the Predecessor Fund invested at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in senior secured floating rate loans. After the reorganization, the Fund invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in senior secured floating rate loans and other adjustable rate securities. As part of the Fund's 80% policy, other adjustable rate securities will typically include CLOs, ABS, and CMBS (collectively, "Adjustable Rate Securities"). Other than each Fund's respective 80% policy and the associated risks with investing in Adjustable Rate Securities, the Funds had similar investment objectives, strategies, and policies.
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Predecessor Fund's performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Predecessor Fund's average annual returns for the one-year, five-year, and since inception periods compare to (i) the S&P 500 Index, which is a broad-based, unmanaged measurement of changes in stock market conditions based on the average of 500 widely held common stocks and (ii) the S&P/LSTA U.S. Leveraged Loan 100 Index, which is an index designed to track the market-weighted performance of the largest institutional leveraged loans based on market weightings, spreads and interest payments. The Fund's past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is also available on the Fund's website at www.PacerETFs.com.
Calendar Year Total Return
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Predecessor Fund's highest quarterly return was 5.83% for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and the lowest quarterly return was -9.07% for the quarter ended March 31, 2020. The Predecessor Fund's calendar year-to-date return as of September 30, 2021 was 2.80%.
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Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2020
Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
1 Year
5 Year
Since Inception
(2/18/15)
Return Before Taxes 2.51% 4.27% 3.25%
Return After Taxes on Distributions 1.00% 2.68% 1.68%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares 1.44% 2.57% 1.78%
S&P 500® Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 12.67%
S&P/LSTA U.S. Leveraged Loan 100 Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
2.84% 5.31% 3.77%
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor's tax situation and may differ from those shown. In certain cases, the figure representing "Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares" may be higher than the other return figures for the same period.After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account ("IRA") or other tax-advantaged accounts.
Management
Investment Adviser
Pacer Advisors, Inc. (the "Adviser") serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Investment Sub-Adviser
Pacific Asset Management LLC (the "Sub-Adviser" or "Pacific Asset Management") serves as investment sub-adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers
Bob Boyd, Portfolio Manager and Managing Director of the Sub-Adviser, and Ying Qiu, CFA, Portfolio Manager and Managing Director of the Sub-Adviser, are the primary persons responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. Mr. Boyd has served as the Sub-Adviser's portfolio manager for the Fund since the Predecessor Fund's inception in February 2015. Ms. Qiu has served as the Sub-Adviser's portfolio manager for the Fund since October 2021.
Buying and Selling Fund Shares
The Fund is an ETF. This means that individual Shares of the Fund may only be purchased and sold in the secondary market through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund generally issues and redeems shares at NAV only in large blocks of shares known as "Creation Units," which only institutions or large investors may purchase or redeem. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities (the "Deposit Securities") and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash that the Fund specifies each day.
Investors may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the "bid-ask spread"). Recent information about the Fund, including its net asset value, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads is available on the Fund's website at www.PacerETFs.com.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged retirement account. Distributions may be taxable upon withdrawal from tax-deferred accounts.
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Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
If you purchase the Fund through a broker or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, and their related companies may pay the intermediary for activities related to the marketing and promotion of the Fund. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your sales person to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your sales person or visit your financial intermediary's website for more information.
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUND
Additional Information About the Fund
Investment Objective. The Fund's investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed by the Board of Trustees (the "Board") of Pacer Funds Trust (the "Trust") without a vote of shareholders upon 60 days' written notice to shareholders.
Additional Information About Investment Strategies
The Sub-Adviser seeks to achieve the Fund's investment objective by selecting a focused portfolio comprised primarily of income producing adjustable-rate securities of domestic and U.S. dollar denominated foreign issuers.
Senior floating rate loans will generally be purchased from banks or other financial institutions through assignments or participations. A direct interest in a senior floating rate loan may be acquired directly from the agent of the lender or another lender by assignment or an indirect interest may be acquired as a participation in another lender's portion of such loan. The Fund invests in various types of ABS, such as auto and student loan ABS. The Fund is actively managed.
The Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in certain other types of debt instruments or securities including corporate bonds (including floating rate investment grade bonds) and secured or unsecured second lien floating rate loans. Second lien loans generally are second in line behind senior loans in terms of prepayment priority with respect to pledged collateral and therefore have a lower credit quality as compared to senior loans but may produce a higher yield to compensate for the additional risk.
The secondary market on which high yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to sell a high yield security or the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield security, and could adversely affect the daily NAV of Fund shares. When secondary markets for high yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available. The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, as such term is defined by Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act.
Investment Philosophy.The Sub-Adviser believes a disciplined portfolio decision-making process that focuses on credit fundamentals for individual security selection will lead to outstanding long-term performance versus the Fund's peers and benchmark. The Sub-Adviser believes that the focus should be on the fundamentals of the businesses in which the Fund invests.
Selection Process.The Sub-Adviser's selection process consists of four steps:
1.Determine Universe of Investable Securities: The Fund aims to provide exposure to the most liquid segment of the bank loan and adjustable rate securities marketplace. The factors considered by the Sub-Adviser when determining liquidity specifically for loans may include the frequency of trading or quotes, the number of dealers in the market willing to purchase or sell the loan, trading volume, the nature of the security, and the market for the security including prospects for future demand for the loan.
2.Portfolio Risk Assessment: Once the Sub-Adviser has determined the investable universe, both the macro-economic environment and technical factors that could materially impact the credit markets are assessed. The Sub-Adviser assesses the economic and market climates and then determines an overall target of portfolio risk to employ for the near term.
3.Portfolio Construction: Once the Sub-Adviser has determined the target risk and investable universe, the Sub-Adviser constructs what is believed to be the most effective mix of investments in accordance with the overall portfolio guidelines. As a result, investments with the most favorable risk/reward analyses will tend to have a greater representation in the Fund's portfolio. Due to the nature of ETF structure and liquidity requirements, the portfolio will place a higher value on liquidity relative to products without such a requirement. The portfolio will
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be diversified by industry and issuer, with no individual issuer representing more than 5% of the portfolio. The Sub-Adviser will consider duration when constructing the portfolio. Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a fixed income security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time. The typical duration positioning of the portfolio will be between 0.25 years to 0.75 years or as determined by the Sub-Adviser.
4.Monitor: Once an investment is made, monitoring takes place each business day. Portfolio values are monitored through daily third-party pricing. Credit updates are captured through the Sub-Adviser's research system. This system serves as a centralized credit hub for the Sub-Adviser's research team. The system aggregates information such as portfolio holdings, outlooks, analyst comments, and investment theses for the portfolio management, operations, and credit teams.
Investments are sold based upon relative value opportunities or changes in corporate fundamentals, or when the Sub-Adviser believes another security is a more attractive investment opportunity.
Additional Information about the Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described under "Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund" in each of the Fund Summaries. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the applicable Fund's performance and trading prices.
Floating Rate Loan Risk
Floating rate loans (or bank loans) are usually rated below investment grade. The market for floating rate loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. The Fund's investment in loans may take the form of a participation or an assignment. Loan participations typically represent direct participation in a loan to a borrower, and generally are offered by financial institutions or lending syndicates. The Fund may participate in such syndications, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a part lender. When purchasing loan participations, the Fund assumes the credit risk associated with the borrower and may assume the credit risk associated with an interposed financial intermediary. If the lead lender in a typical lending syndicate becomes insolvent, enters FDIC receivership or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy, the Fund may incur certain costs and delays in receiving payment or may suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. When the Fund is a purchaser of an assignment, it succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning bank or other financial intermediary and becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning bank or other financial intermediary. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.
Floating rate loans generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and the Fund may be unable to sell its bank loans at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or may be able to sell them only at prices that are less than their fair market value. The Fund may find it difficult to establish a fair value for loans it holds. Further, the trading market for floating rate loans could be impacted by regulatory action or reforms around the manner in which floating interest rates are determined. If a published rate is unavailable, the rate of interest on a floating rate loan could effectively become fixed, which would in turn adversely affect the value of the floating rate loan. In addition, floating rate loans generally are subject to extended settlement periods in excess of seven days, which may impair the Fund's ability to sell or realize the full value of its loans in the event of a need to liquidate such loans. A loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value. In addition, the Fund's access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. Further, loans held by the Fund may not be considered securities and, therefore, purchasers, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws.
If the Fund acquires a participation in a loan, the Fund may not be able to control the exercise of remedies that the lender would have under the loan and likely would not have any rights against the borrower directly. Loans made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions may be especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market
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conditions. A loan may also be in the form of a bridge loan, which are designed to provide temporary or "bridge" financing to a borrower, pending the sale of identified assets or the arrangement of longer-term loans or the issuance and sale of debt obligations. A borrower's use of a bridge loan involves a risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower's perceived creditworthiness.
Senior Loans Risk. The risks associated with senior loans are similar to the risks of junk bonds, although senior loans typically are senior and secured, whereas junk bonds often are subordinated and unsecured. While senior loans are less risky than junior loans, they still have significant risk. Investments in senior loans, similar to junk bonds, typically are below investment grade and are considered speculative because of the credit risk of their issuers. Such companies are more likely to default on their payments of interest and principal owed, and such defaults could reduce the Fund's NAV and income distributions. An economic downturn generally leads to a higher nonpayment rate, and a senior loan may lose significant value before a default occurs. There is no assurance that the liquidation of the collateral would satisfy the claims of the borrower's obligations in the event of the non-payment of scheduled interest or principal, or that the collateral could be readily liquidated. Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for certain senior loans or senior loans generally, which may reduce market prices. Senior loans and other debt securities also are subject to the risk of price declines and to increases in prevailing interest rates, although floating-rate debt instruments such as senior loans in which the Fund may be expected to invest are substantially less exposed to this risk than fixed-rate debt instruments. No active trading market may exist for certain senior loans, which may impair the ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to liquidate such assets. Adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of some actively traded senior loans. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in value as a result of changes in market interest rates.
Some loans are subject to the risk that a court, pursuant to fraudulent conveyance or other similar laws, could subordinate the loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the borrower or take other action detrimental to lenders, including the Fund, such as invalidation of loans or causing interest previously paid to be refunded to the borrower. Investments in loans also are subject to the risk of changes in legislation or state or federal regulations. If such legislation or regulations impose additional requirements or restrictions on the ability of financial institutions to make loans, the availability of loans for investment by the Fund may be adversely affected. Many loans are not registered with the SEC or any state securities commission and often are not rated by any nationally recognized rating service. Generally, there is less readily available, reliable information about most loans than is the case for many other types of securities. Although a loan may be senior to equity and other debt securities in a borrower's capital structure, such obligations may be structurally subordinated to obligations of the borrower's subsidiaries.
There is no organized exchange on which loans are traded and reliable market quotations may not be readily available. Therefore, elements of judgment may play a greater role in valuation of loans than for securities with a more developed secondary market and the Fund may not realize full value in the event of the need to sell a loan. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain loans, the market may be subject to volatility, irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, decreased liquidity and extended trade settlement periods, any of which may impair the Fund's ability to sell loans within its desired time frame or at an acceptable price and its ability to accurately value existing and prospective investments. Extended trade settlement periods for certain loans may result in cash not being immediately available to the Fund upon sale of the loan. As a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments with shorter settlement periods or engage in borrowing transactions to raise cash to meet its obligations.
Covenant-Lite Loan Risk. Covenant-lite loans contain fewer maintenance covenants, or no maintenance covenants at all, than traditional loans and may not include terms that allow the lender to monitor the financial performance of the borrower and declare a default if certain criteria are breached. This may hinder the Fund's ability to reprice credit risk associated with the borrower and reduce the Fund's ability to restructure a problematic loan and mitigate potential loss. As a result, the Fund's exposure to losses on such investments is increased, especially during a downturn in the credit cycle. A significant portion of floating rate loans may be "covenant-lite" loans.
Loan Participation Risk. A loan participation agreement involves the purchase of a share of a loan made by a bank to a company in return for a corresponding share of borrower's principal and interest payments. The principal credit risk associated with acquiring loan participation interests is the credit risk associated with the underlying corporate
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borrower. There is also a risk that there may not be a readily available market for loan participation interests and, in some cases, this could result in the Fund disposing of such securities at a substantial discount from face value or holding such securities until maturity.
CLO Risk
A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults.
For a CLO, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the "equity" tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Since it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than their underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class.
Asset-Backed Securities Risk
Asset-backed securities represent interests in a pool of assets other than mortgages, such as home equity loans, automobile receivables or credit card receivables. Most asset-backed securities involve consumer or commercial debts with maturities of less than 10 years. However, almost any type of fixed-income asset (including other fixed-income securities) may be used to create an asset-backed security. Asset-backed securities may take the form of commercial paper, notes or pass-through certificates. A structured asset-backed security is a multiclass instrument that is typically backed by a pool of auto loans, credit card receivables, home equity loans or student loans.
Unscheduled prepayments of asset-backed securities may result in a loss of income if the proceeds are invested in lower-yielding securities. Conversely, in a rising interest rate environment, a declining prepayment rate will extend the average life of many asset-backed securities, which increases the risk of depreciation due to future increases in market interest rates. In addition, issuers of asset-backed securities may have limited ability to enforce the security interest in the underlying assets, and credit enhancements (if any) may be inadequate in the event of default. Asset-backed securities may experience losses on the underlying assets as a result of certain rights provided to consumer debtors under federal and state law. The value of asset-backed securities may be affected by the factors described above and other factors, such as interest rate risk, the availability of information concerning the pool and its structure, the creditworthiness of the servicing agent for the pool, the originator of the underlying assets or the entities providing credit enhancements and the ability of the servicer to service the underlying collateral. The value of asset-backed securities representing interests in a pool of utilities receivables may be adversely affected by changes in government regulations. Under certain market conditions, asset-backed securities may be less liquid and may be difficult to value. If a structured asset-backed security is subordinated to other classes backed by the same pool of collateral, the likelihood that it will make payments of principal may be substantially limited.
CMBS Risk
The Fund will invest in CMBS. CMBS are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and are subject to risk of default on the underlying mortgages. The value of the collateral securing CMBS may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, CMBS may not be fully collateralized and may decline significantly in value. CMBS may also react differently to changes in interest rates than other bonds and the prices of CMBS may reflect adverse economic and market conditions. Small movements in interest rates may significantly reduce the value of CMBS. The CMBS in which the Fund is expected to invest are subject to the risks of the underlying mortgage loans. Commercial mortgage loans are secured by commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure, and risks of loss. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by an income-producing property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. If the net operating income of the property is reduced, the borrower's
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ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Net operating income of an income-producing property can be affected by, among other things, tenant mix, success of tenant businesses, property management decisions, property location and condition, competition from comparable types of properties, changes in laws that increase operating expense or limit rents that may be charged, any need to address environmental contamination at the property, the occurrence of any uninsured casualty at the property, changes in national, regional or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments, declines in regional or local real estate values, declines in regional or local rental or occupancy rates, increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, including environmental legislation, acts of God, terrorism, social unrest and civil disturbances.
In the event of any default under a mortgage, the Fund will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the commercial mortgage loan. Foreclosure of a commercial mortgage loan can be an expensive and lengthy process which could have a substantial negative effect on the Fund's anticipated return on the foreclosed mortgage loan. Stressed conditions in the markets for CMBS and mortgage-related assets as well as the broader financial markets have in the past resulted in a temporary but significant contraction in liquidity for CMBS. To the extent that the market for CMBS suffers such a contraction, securities that were previously considered liquid could become temporarily illiquid, and the Sub-Adviser may experience delays or difficulty in selling assets at the prices at which the Fund carries such assets, which may result in a loss to the Fund. There is no way to predict reliably when such market conditions could re-occur or how long such conditions could persist. In the event of a severe market contraction precipitated by general market turmoil, economic conditions, changes in prevailing interest rates or otherwise, the Fund may have to consider selling its holdings at a loss including at prices below the current value on the Fund's books, borrowing money to satisfy redemptions in accordance with the Fund's borrowing policy, suspending redemptions, or other extraordinary measures. In addition, if the Fund needed to sell large blocks of investments to raise cash, those sales could further reduce prices, particularly for lower-rated and unrated securities.
High Yield Securities Risk
Securities rated "BB+" or below by S&P or "Ba+" or below by Moody's are known as high yield securities and are commonly referred to as "junk bonds." Such securities entail greater price volatility and credit and interest rate risk than investment-grade securities. Analysis of the creditworthiness of high yield issuers is more complex than for higher-rated securities, making it more difficult for the Sub-Adviser to accurately predict risk. There is a greater risk with high yield fixed income securities that an issuer will not be able to make principal and interest payments when due. If the Fund pursues missed payments, there is a risk that Fund expenses could increase. In addition, lower-rated securities may not trade as often and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities, especially during periods of economic uncertainty or change. As a result of all of these factors, these securities are generally considered to be speculative.
Fixed Income Risk
The value of the Fund's direct or indirect investments in fixed income securities will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities owned by the Fund. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. In general, the market price of fixed income securities with longer maturities will increase or decrease more in response to changes in interest rates than shorter-term securities. The value of the Fund's direct or indirect investments in fixed income securities may be affected by the inability of issuers to repay principal and interest or illiquidity in debt securities markets.
Call Risk.During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may "call" or repay the security prior to its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund's income.
Credit Risk.Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due. Changes in an issuer's credit rating or the market's perception of an issuer's creditworthiness may also affect the value of an investment in that issuer. Credit risk is heightened to the extent the Fund invests in non-investment grade securities.
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Event Risk.Event risk is the risk that corporate issuers may undergo restructurings, such as mergers, leveraged buyouts, takeovers, or similar events financed by increased debt. As a result of the added debt, the credit quality and market value of a company's bonds and/or other debt securities may decline significantly.
Extension Risk.When interest rates rise, certain obligations will be paid off by the obligor more slowly than anticipated, causing the value of these securities to fall.
Interest Rate Risk.Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.
Prepayment Risk.When interest rates fall, certain obligations will be paid off by the obligor more quickly than originally anticipated, and the proceeds may have to be invested in securities with lower yields. The Fund investing in such securities will be forced to reinvest this money at lower yields, which can reduce the Fund's returns.
LIBOR Risk
Instruments in which the Fund invests may pay interest at floating rates based on LIBOR or may be subject to interest caps or floors based on LIBOR. The Fund and issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests may also obtain financing at floating rates based on LIBOR. Derivative instruments utilized by the Fund and/or issuers of instruments in which the Fund may invest may also reference LIBOR. The Fund also may utilize leverage or borrowings primarily based on LIBOR. Plans are underway to phase out the use of LIBOR between December 31, 2021 and June 30, 2023. There is currently no definitive information regarding the future utilization of LIBOR or of any particular replacement rate. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could have adverse impacts on newly issued financial instruments and existing financial instruments that reference LIBOR. The effect of a phase out of LIBOR on U.S. instruments in which the Fund may invest is currently unclear. While some instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate setting methodology, not all instruments may have such provisions, and there is significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. To the extent that any replacement rate differs from that utilized for a structured product that holds those securities, the structured product would experience an interest rate mismatch between its assets and liabilities. Structured products generally contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by requiring the structured product's administrator to calculate a replacement rate primarily through dealer polling on the applicable measurement date. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the dealer polling processes, including the willingness of banks to provide such quotations. Recently, some structured products have included, or have been amended to include, language permitting the structured product's investment manager to implement a market replacement rate upon the occurrence of certain material disruption events. However, not all structured products may adopt such provisions, nor can there be any assurance that structured products' investment managers will undertake the suggested amendments when able. Abandonment of or modifications to LIBOR could lead to significant short-term and long-term uncertainty and market instability. It remains uncertain how such changes would be implemented and the effects such changes would have on the Fund, issuers of instruments in which the Fund invests and financial markets generally.
Foreign Securities Risk
Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund's portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund's Shares. Conversely, Fund Shares
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may trade on days when foreign exchanges are close. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Market Risk
Overall market risks may affect the value of the Fund. Factors such as U.S. economic growth and market conditions, interest rate levels and political events affect the securities markets. The prices of securities held by the Fund may decline in response to certain events taking place in the U.S. and around the world, including those directly involving the companies whose securities are owned by the Fund. Securities in the Fund's portfolio may underperform due to inflation (or expectations for inflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, terrorism, regulatory events and governmental or quasi-governmental actions. There is a risk that you may lose money by investing in the Fund.
ETF Risks
The Fund is an ETF and, as a result of an ETF's structure, is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk.The Fund may have a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares of the Fund may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services; or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the "bid" price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the "ask" price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the "spread" or "bid/ask spread." The bid/ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares of the Fund May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV.As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund's NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant. Certain securities held by the Fund may trade on foreign exchanges that are closed when the Fund's primary listing exchange is open, and the Fund may experience premiums and discounts greater than those of ETFs that hold securities that are traded only in the United States.
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Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than its applicable Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of its applicable Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on its applicable Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to each Exchange's "circuit breaker" rules, which temporarily halt trading on such Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500 Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to each Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund's underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Liquidity Risk
In certain circumstances, it may be difficult for the Fund to purchase and sell particular portfolio investments due to infrequent trading in such investments. The prices of such securities may change over time or experience significant volatility, make it more difficult for the Fund to transact significant amounts of such securities without an unfavorable impact on prevailing market prices, or make it difficult for the Sub-Adviser to dispose of such securities at a fair price at the time the Sub-Adviser believes it is desirable to do so. Adjustable Rate Securities that have complex terms may have limited trading opportunities. Floating rate loans and Adjustable Rate Securities generally are subject to extended settlement periods in excess of seven days, which may impair the Fund's ability to sell or realize the full value of its loans in the event of a need to liquidate such loans.
Privately Issued Securities Risk
The Fund may invest in privately-issued securities, including those that may be resold only in accordance with Rule 144A or Regulation S under the 1933 Act ("Restricted Securities"). Restricted Securities are not publicly traded and are subject to a variety of restrictions, which limit a purchaser's ability to acquire or resell such securities. Delay or difficulty in selling such securities may result in a loss to the Fund.
Management Risk
The Fund is subject to management risk because it is an actively managed portfolio. In managing the Fund's investment portfolio, the portfolio managers will apply investment techniques and risk analyses that may not produce the desired result. There can be no guarantee that the Fund will meet its investment objective(s), meet relevant benchmarks or perform as well as other funds with similar objectives.
Sector Risk
To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The Fund may invest in companies in the consumer discretionary sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Industrials Sector Risk. The Fund may invest in companies in the industrials sector, and therefore the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting this sector. The industrials sector may be affected by changes in the supply of and demand for products and services, product obsolescence, claims for environmental damage or product liability and general economic conditions, among other factors. As the demand for, or prices of, industrials increase, the value of the Fund's investments generally would be expected to also increase. Conversely, declines in the demand for, or prices of, industrials generally would be expected to contribute to declines in the value of such securities. Such declines may occur quickly and without warning and may negatively impact the value of the Fund and your investment.
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Small Fund Risk
When the Fund's size is small, the Fund may experience low trading volume and wide bid/ask spreads. In addition, the Fund may face the risk of being delisted if the Fund does not meet certain conditions of the listing exchange. Any resulting liquidation of the Fund could cause the Fund to incur elevated transaction costs for the Fund and negative tax consequences for its shareholders.
ADDITIONAL NON-PRINCIPAL RISK INFORMATION
Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments
Normally, the Fund invests substantially all of its assets to meet its investment objective. The Fund may invest the remainder of its assets in securities with maturities of less than one year or cash equivalents, or each may hold cash. The percentage of the Fund invested in such holdings varies and depends on several factors, including market conditions. For temporary defensive purposes and during periods of high cash inflows or outflows, the Fund may depart from its principal investment strategies and invest part or all of its assets in these securities, or it may hold cash. During such periods, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective. The Fund may adopt a temporary defensive strategy when the portfolio managers believe securities in which the Fund normally invests have elevated risks due to political or economic factors and in other extraordinary circumstances. For more information on eligible short-term investments, see the SAI.
Absence of a Prior Active Market
Although the Fund's Shares are approved for listing on a national securities exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market will develop and be maintained for Fund Shares. There can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to or maintain an economically viable size, in which case the Fund may ultimately liquidate.
Liquidity Risk
The Fund may hold certain investments that may be subject to restrictions on resale, trade over-the-counter or in limited volume, or lack an active trading market. Accordingly, the Fund may not be able to sell or close out of such investments at favorable times or prices (or at all), or at prices approximating those at which the Fund currently values them. Illiquid securities may trade at a discount from comparable, more liquid investments and may be subject to wide fluctuations in market value.
Risk of Investing in the United States
Certain changes in the U.S. economy, such as when the U.S. economy weakens or when its financial markets decline, may have an adverse effect on the securities to which the Fund has exposure. A decrease in imports or exports, changes in trade regulations, and/or an economic recession in the United States may have a material adverse effect on the U.S. economy and the securities listed on U.S. exchanges. Proposed and adopted policy and legislative changes in the United States are changing many aspects of financial and other regulation and may have a significant effect on the U.S. markets generally, as well as on the value of certain securities. In addition, a continued rise in the U.S. public debt level or the imposition of U.S. austerity measures may adversely affect U.S. economic growth and the securities to which the Fund has exposure. The United States has developed increasingly strained relations with a number of foreign countries. If relations with certain countries continue to worsen, it could adversely affect U.S. issuers as well as non-U.S. issuers that rely on the United States for trade. The United States has also experienced increased internal unrest and discord. If this trend were to continue, it may have an adverse impact on the U.S. economy and the issuers in which the Fund invests.
Securities Lending Risk
There are certain risks associated with securities lending, including the risk that the borrower may fail to return the securities on a timely basis or even the loss of rights in the collateral deposited by the borrower, if the borrower should fail financially. As a result, the Fund may lose money. The Fund could also lose money in the event of a decline in the value of collateral provided for loaned securities or a decline in the value of any investments made with cash collateral. These events could also trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund.
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PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
Information about the Fund's daily portfolio holdings is available at www.PacerETFs.com. A summarized description of the Fund's policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund's portfolio holdings is available in the Fund's Statement of Additional Information ("SAI").
MANAGEMENT
The Fund is series of Pacer Funds Trust (the "Trust"), a Delaware statutory trust, which is overseen by a board of trustees.
Investment Adviser
The Adviser has overall responsibility for the general management and administration of the Trust and each of its separate investment portfolios. The Adviser is a registered investment adviser with offices located at 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355. The Adviser has managed ETFs since 2015. The Adviser also arranges for sub-advisory, transfer agency, custody, fund administration, securities lending, and all other related services necessary for the Fund to operate.
The Adviser provides oversight of the sub-adviser, monitoring of the sub-adviser's buying and selling of securities for the Fund, and review of the sub-adviser's performance. For its services, the Adviser receives a fee of 0.60%, computed daily and paid monthly, based on a percentage of the Fund's average daily net assets.
Under the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and the Trust, on behalf of the Fund (the "Investment Advisory Agreement"), the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except for: the fee paid to the Adviser pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, distribution (12b-1) fees and expenses, and the unified management fee payable to the Adviser. The Adviser, in turn, compensates the sub-adviser from the management fee it receives.
The basis for the Board of Trustees' approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund's first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders.
Sub-Adviser
Pacific Asset Management LLC (the "Sub-Adviser" or "Pacific Asset Management"), located at 840 Newport Center Drive, 7thFloor, Newport Beach, CA 92660, serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund. As of June 30, 2021, the Sub-Adviser had approximately $16.7 billion in assets under management. The Sub-Adviser provides advisory services to registered investment companies, private domestic and offshore pooled investment vehicles and institutional accounts. The Sub-Adviser is an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Pacific Life Insurance Company. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund's portfolio pursuant to an investment sub-advisory agreement between the Trust, the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser with respect to the Fund ("Sub-Advisory Agreement"). For its services, the Adviser pays Pacific Asset Management the following percentages of net profits as a sub-advisory fee: 40% on assets up to $500 million; 50% on assets of more than $500 million. Net profits for the Fund are determined as the management fee of the Fund, less (i) 0.10% of the Fund's average net assets and (ii) expenses related to operating the Fund.
The basis for the Board of Trustees' approval of the Fund's Sub-Advisory Agreement will be available in the Fund's first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders.
Portfolio Managers
The Fund's portfolio management team consists of Bob Boyd and Yin Qiu, who are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund's portfolios.
Bob Boyd, Portfolio Manager.Mr. Boyd is a Managing Director for the Sub-Adviser. He serves as a Portfolio Manager and Credit Analyst for Pacific Asset Management. Mr. Boyd joined the Sub-Adviser in 2012. Previously, he was with Pacific Investment Management Company ("PIMCO") for 14 years, where he was a Vice President, Bank Loan Portfolio
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Manager, and Credit Analyst. Mr. Boyd has over 19 years of investment experience, focused on leveraged finance, credit analysis, and structured products. He holds a bachelor's degree from California State University, Long Beach and an MBA from the University of Southern California.
Yin Qiu, CFA, Portfolio Manager.Ms. Qiu is a Managing Director for the Sub-Adviser. She serves as a Portfolio Manager for various investment grade portfolios and Pacific Asset Management's CLO Opportunity Strategy. In addition, Ms. Qiu has credit research responsibilities focusing on Asset-Backed Securities ("ABS"). Prior to joining Pacific Asset Management, Ms. Qiu was with PIMCO for 8 years, where she was a Senior Vice President, portfolio manager and trader for both investment grade corporate and ABS. Prior to that, she worked at ING Investment Management for 9 years and was an ABS portfolio manager and trader. Ms. Qiu has 22 years fixed income investment experience, is a CFA Charterholder, and holds a bachelor's degree from Renmin University of China and an MBA from Emory University.
The SAI provides additional information about each Portfolio Manager's compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers' ownership of Shares of the Fund.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON BUYING AND SELLING FUND SHARES
Most investors will buy and sell Shares of the Fund through brokers. Shares of the Fund trade on its applicable Exchange and elsewhere during the trading day and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other shares of publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, most investors will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges. Shares of the Fund trade under the trading symbol listed on the cover of this Prospectus. Only authorized participants ("Authorized Participants" or "APs") who have entered into agreements with the Fund's distributor may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV in Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in amounts less than a Creation Unit.
Share Trading Prices
Transactions in the Fund's Shares will be priced at NAV only if you purchase Shares directly from the Fund in Creation Units. As with other types of securities, the trading prices of Shares in the secondary market can be affected by market forces such as supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. The price you pay or receive when you buy or sell your Shares in the secondary market may be more or less than the NAV of such Shares.
Determination of Net Asset Value
The NAV of the Fund's Shares is calculated each day the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") is open for trading as of the close of regular trading on the NYSE, generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time (the "NAV Calculation Time"). If the NYSE closes before 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time, as it occasionally does, the NAV Calculation Time will be the time the NYSE closes. In addition, any U.S. fixed-income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time of trading in fixed income instruments on any day that the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association announces an early closing time. The Fund's NAV per share is calculated by dividing the Fund's net assets by the number of Fund Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, the Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. Debt obligations with maturities of 60 days or less are valued at amortized cost.
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund investments whose market prices are not "readily available" or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security's primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security's primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security's value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security's primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing an investment, the Adviser and Sub-Adviser will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer's business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the
22

specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. The Adviser and Sub-Adviser makes fair value determinations in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the investment upon the sale of such investment.
Dividends and Distributions
The Fund expects to declare and distribute all of its net investment income, if any, to shareholders as dividends monthly. The Fund expects to distribute its net realized capital gains to investors annually. The Fund occasionally may be required to make supplemental distributions at some other time during the year. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Book Entry
Shares of the Fund are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company ("DTC") or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares of the Fund.
Investors owning Shares of the Fund are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares of the Fund. Participants include DTC, securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any securities that you hold in book-entry or "street name" form. Your broker will provide you with account statements, confirmations of your purchases and sales, and tax information.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents - Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Fund. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Fund is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Fund Shares
The Fund imposes no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Fund Shares. In determining not to impose such restrictions, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with the Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Fund share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Fund accommodates frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effective trades. In addition, the Fund and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares of the Fund. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.
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ADDITIONAL TAX INFORMATION
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. Your investment in the Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Fund intends to qualify each year for treatment as a regulated investment company ("RIC"). If it meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, the Fund's failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless you are a tax-exempt entity or your investment in Fund Shares is made through a tax advantaged retirement account, such as an IRA, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:
The Fund makes distributions;
You sell Fund Shares; and
You purchase or redeem Creation Units (institutional investors only).
Taxes on Distributions
Tax reform legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act") was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Tax Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. The application of certain provisions of the Tax Act is uncertain, and the changes in the act may have indirect effects on the Fund, its investments and its shareholders that cannot be predicted. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or "qualified dividend income." Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) depend on how long the Fund owned the assets that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Fund Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of the Fund's net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are properly reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends ("Capital Gain Dividends") are taxable as long-term capital gains. For noncorporate shareholders, long-term capital gains are generally subject to tax at reduced rates and currently set at a maximum rate of 20%. Distributions of short-term capital gain are generally taxable as ordinary income. Distributions of investment income reported by the Fund as derived from "qualified dividend income" will be taxed at long term capital gain rates for non-corporate shareholders.
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on all or a portion of their "net investment income," which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gain distributions and capital gains realized on the sale or exchange of Fund Shares).
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by the Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Fund Shares' NAV when you purchased your Fund Shares).
The Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. The Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
Nonresident aliens, foreign corporations and other foreign shareholders in the Fund will generally be exempt from U.S. federal income tax on Capital Gain Dividends. The exemption may not apply, however, if the investment in the Fund is connected to a trade or business for the foreign shareholder in the United States or if the foreign shareholder is present in the United States for 183 days or more in a year and certain other conditions are met.
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Distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to individual shareholders that are neither citizens nor residents of the U.S. or to foreign entities will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an "interest-related dividend" or a "short-term capital gain dividend," which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Short-term capital gain dividends received by a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year are not exempt from this 30% withholding tax. Gains realized by foreign shareholders from the sale or other disposition of Shares of the Fund generally are not subject to U.S. taxation, unless the recipient is an individual who is physically present in the U.S. for 183 days or more per year.
The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which shareholders own Fund Shares) generally is required to withhold and to remit to the US Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and the sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
A U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends effective July 1, 2014 (and proceeds of sales in respect of Fund Shares (including certain capital gain dividends) received by Fund shareholders beginning after December 31, 2018) for shareholders who own their Shares through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. The Fund will not pay any additional amounts in respect to any amounts withheld.
To the extent that the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to foreign withholding taxes with respect to dividends or interest the Fund received from sources in foreign countries. If more than 50% of the total assets of the Fund consists of foreign securities, the Fund will be eligible to elect to treat some of those taxes as a distribution to shareholders, which would allow shareholders to offset some of their U.S. federal income tax. The Fund (or its administrative agent) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
Taxes When Fund Shares Are Sold
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Fund Shares is generally treated as a long-term gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Fund Shares held for one year or less is generally treated as a short-term gain or loss, except that any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent that Capital Gain Dividends were paid with respect to such Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited depending on your circumstances.
A foreign shareholder will generally not be subject to U.S. tax on gains realized on sales or exchange of Fund Shares unless the investment in the Fund is connected to a trade or business of the investor in the United States or if the shareholder is present in the United States for 183 days or more in a year and certain other conditions are met. All foreign shareholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences in their country of residence of an investment in the Fund.
Creation and Redemption Units
An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger's aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger's basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing "wash sales," or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will be
25

treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Persons purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction.
The Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Internal Revenue Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Fund also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial Share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled "Federal Income Taxes" in the SAI.
State and Local Taxes
Shareholders may also be subject to state and local taxes on income and gain attributable to your ownership of Fund Shares. State income taxes may not apply, however, to the portions of the Fund's distributions, if any, that are attributable to interest earned by the Fund on U.S. government securities. You should consult your tax professional regarding the tax status of distributions in your state and locality.
Foreign Taxes
To the extent the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to foreign withholding taxes with respect to dividends or interest the Fund received from sources in foreign countries.
DISTRIBUTION
The Distributor, Pacer Financial, Inc., is a broker-dealer registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Fund on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Fund or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Fund. The Distributor's principal address is 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania, 19355. The Distributor is an affiliate of the Adviser.
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the "Plan") pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.
No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of the Fund's assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
PREMIUM/DISCOUNT INFORMATION
Information regarding how often Shares of the Fund traded on an Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of the fund will be available in the future on the Fund's website at www.PacerETFs.com.
ADDITIONAL NOTICES
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by NYSE Arca, Inc. (the "Exchange"). The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Shares or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of the shares of the Fund to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of the shares of the Fund in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the shares of the Fund. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
26

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund's financial performance for the period of the Fund's operations. The financial information presented for each applicable period is that of the Predecessor Fund. The Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF ("FLRT") is the accounting successor to its Predecessor Fund as a result of the reorganization of the Predecessor Fund into FLRT as of the close of business on October 22, 2021. FLRT has adopted the Financial Statements of the series of Pacific Global ETF Trust. In addition, FLRT is the accounting successor to AdvisorShares Pacific Asset Enhanced Floating Rate ETF, a series of AdvisorShares Trust, as a result of the reorganization of the series of AdvisorShares Trust into the series of Pacific Global ETF Trust as of the close of business on December 27, 2019. The financial information presented for FLRT for the period from February 18, 2015, the inception date of the series of AdvisorShares Trust, through December 27, 2019, the date on which Shares of the series of AdvisorShares Trust converted to Shares of the Predecessor Fund, is that of the series of AdvisorShares Trust.
Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). The information presented in the table below for the periods ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020 has been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Predecessor Fund's financial statements, are included in the annual report of the Predecessor Fund, which is available upon request. The information for each of the three years in the period June 30, 2019, June 30, 2018, and June 30, 2017 for the Target Fund, were audited by other auditors.
27

Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each year/period
Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended Year Ended
June 30, 2021 June 30, 2020 June 30, 2019 June 30, 2018 June 30, 2017
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period $ 46.52 $ 48.73 $ 48.87 $ 49.35 $ 48.73
Income (Loss) from Investment Operations:
Net Investment Income (Loss)(1)
1.47 1.90 2.10 1.78 1.73
Net Gain (Loss) on Investments (Realized and Unrealized) 2.47 (2.20) (0.15) (0.63) 0.58
Total from Investment Operations 3.94 (0.30) 1.95 1.15 2.31
Less Distributions: )
From Net Investment Income (1.56) (1.91) (2.09) (1.63) (1.69)
Total Distributions (1.56) (1.91) (2.09) (1.63) (1.69)
Capital Share Transactions:
Net Asset Value, End of Period $ 48.90 $ 46.52 $ 48.73 $ 48.87 $ 49.35
Net Asset Value Total Return 8.63 % -0.70 % 4.09 % % 2.36 % 4.78 %
Ratio / Supplemental Data:
Net Assets, End of Period (000's) $ 31,788 $ 27,911 $ 29,240 $ 29,323 $ 27,143
Ratio of Expenses (Prior to Expense Waivers) to Average Net Assets 0.68 % 1.06 % 1.63 % 1.62 % 1.39 %
Expenses After Advisory Fees (Waived) and Other Fees (Reimbursed)/Recouped (2)
0.68 % 0.86 % 1.10 % 1.10 % 1.10 %
Ratio of Net Investment Income (Loss) to Average Net Assets 3.04 % 3.98 % 4.31 % 3.61 % 3.49 %
Portfolio Turnover Rate 35 % 48 % 70 % 73 % 52 %
__________
(1)Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(2)As of December 30, 2019, the expense cap for the Fund changed from 1.10% to 0.68%.
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Adviser
Pacer Advisors, Inc.
500 Chesterfield Parkway
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
Distributor
Pacer Financial, Inc.
500 Chesterfield Parkway
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
Sub-Adviser
Pacific Asset Management LLC
840 Newport Center Drive, 7thFl
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Fund Accountant, Administrator and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
615 East Michigan Street Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Legal Counsel
Practus LLP
11300 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Suite 310, Leawood, Kansas 66211
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Sanville & Company
1514 Old York Road
Abington, PA 19001
The Trust's current SAI provides additional detailed information about the Fund. A current SAI dated October 19, 2021, as supplemented from time to time, is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus.
Additional information about the Fund's investments is available in the Fund's annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders (when available). In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund's performance after the first fiscal year the Fund is in operation.
To make shareholder inquiries, for more detailed information on the Fund, or to request the SAI or annual or semi-annual shareholder reports (once available) free of charge, please:
Call:
1-800-617-0004
Monday through Friday
8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. (Central time)
Write:
Pacer Funds Trust, (Name of Fund)
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, LLC
P.O. Box 701
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Visit:
www.PacerETFs.com
Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC's Internet site at www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: [email protected]
No person is authorized to give any information or to make any representations about the Fund and its Shares not contained in this Prospectus and you should not rely on any other information. Read and keep this Prospectus for future reference.

(The Trust's SEC Investment Company Act file number is 811-23024)
29

PACER FUNDS TRUST

FLRT Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
Listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc.


STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

October 19, 2021

This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") is not a Prospectus. It should be read in conjunction with the current Prospectus, as may be revised from time to time ("Prospectus"), for the exchange traded fund ("ETF") listed above (the "Fund"), each a separate series of Pacer Funds Trust (the "Trust"). The current Prospectus for the Fund is dated October 19, 2021. Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted.
A copy of the Prospectus for the Fund may be obtained, without charge, by calling 1-800-617-0004, visiting www.PacerETFs.com, or writing to Pacer Funds Trust, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-0701.
An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of any bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or any other government agency or any bank. An investment in the Fund involves investment risks, including possible loss of principal.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND
3
INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
3
GENERAL RISKS
4
SPECIFIC INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
5
INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS
28
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
29
CONTINUOUS OFFERING
30
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
31
INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER
35
THE ADMINISTRATOR AND TRANSFER AGENT
37
THE CUSTODIAN
37
SECURITIES LENDING ACTIVITIES
37
THE DISTRIBUTOR
38
LEGAL COUNSEL
39
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
39
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
39
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TRUST
41
LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES' LIABILITY
42
PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS
43
DETERMINATION OF NAV
48
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
48
FEDERAL INCOME TAXES
49
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
55
APPENDIX A
A-1
APPENDIX B
B-1



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND
The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on August 12, 2014 and is authorized to issue multiple series or portfolios. The Trust is an open-end, management investment company, registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act"). The offering of the Trust's shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act").
The Fund described in this SAI seeks to provide a high level of current income.
The Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF ("FLRT" or the "Fund") is the successor in interest to the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF, a series of Pacific Global ETF Trust, which was managed by Pacific Global Advisors LLC and sub-advised by Pacific Asset Management LLC, and has the substantially similar investment objective, strategies, and policies as those of the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF since the Fund's inception in February 28, 2015, with the exception of the Fund's 80% policy and related risks. On October 20, 2021, the shareholders of the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF approved the reorganization of the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF into FLRT and, effective as of the close of business on October 22, 2021, the assets and liabilities of the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF were transferred to FLRT in exchange for shares of the Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF. Previously, the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF, a series of Pacific Global ETF Trust, acquired all of the assets and liabilities of the AdvisorShares Pacific Asset Enhanced Floating Rate ETF, a series of AdvisorShares Trust, in a tax-free reorganization on December 27, 2019 (together, the "Predecessor Fund"). Accordingly, the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF was the successor to the investment performance of the AdvisorShares Pacific Asset Enhanced Floating Rate ETF, as a result of the December 27, 2019 reorganization.
Pacer Advisors, Inc. ("Pacer" or the "Adviser") is the investment adviser to the Fund, and Pacific Asset Management LLC ("Pacific Asset Management" or the "Sub-Adviser") serves as sub-adviser to the Fund. Pacer Financial, Inc. is the distributor (the "Distributor") of the shares of the Fund and is an affiliate of the Adviser.
The Fund issues and redeems shares ("Shares") at net asset value per share ("NAV") only in large blocks of Shares ("Creation Units" or "Creation Unit Aggregations"). Currently, Creation Units generally consist of 20,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. These transactions are usually in exchange for a basket of securities included in its portfolio and an amount of cash. As a practical matter, only institutions or large investors (authorized participants) who have entered into agreements with the Trust's distributor, can purchase or redeem Creation Units. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares of the Fund are not redeemable securities.
Shares of the Fund are listed on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (the "Exchange"), and trade throughout the day on the Exchange and other secondary markets at market prices that may differ from NAV. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers' commissions on transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
The Trust reserves the right to adjust the prices of Shares in the future to maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the applicable Fund.
INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
The Fund's investment objective, principal investment strategies and associated risks are described in the Fund's Prospectus. The sections below supplement these principal investment strategies and risks and describe the Fund's additional investment policies and the different types of investments that may be made by the Fund as a part of its non-principal investment strategies. With respect to the Fund's investments, unless otherwise noted, if a percentage limitation on investment is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a subsequent increase or decrease as a result of market movement or redemption will not result in a violation of such investment limitation.
The Fund intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company (a "RIC") under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), so that it will not be subject to federal income tax on income and gains that are timely distributed to Fund shareholders. The Fund will invest its assets, and otherwise conduct its operations, in a manner that is intended to satisfy the qualifying income, diversification and distribution requirements necessary to establish and maintain RIC qualification under Subchapter M of the Code.
A-3

GENERAL RISKS
An investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding that the value of the Fund's portfolio securities may fluctuate in accordance with changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic, political, public health or cyber conditions that affect a particular security or issuer and changes in general economic, political, public health or cyber conditions. An investor in the Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time.
An investment in the Fund should also be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the Fund's portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares of the Fund). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic, public health, cyber, or banking crises.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
There can be no guarantee that a liquid market for the securities held by the Fund will be maintained. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of the Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for the Fund's portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid/ask spreads are wide.
Cyber Security Risk.As the use of technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, the Fund may be more susceptible to operational and financial risks associated with cyber security, including: theft, loss, misuse, improper release, corruption and destruction of, or unauthorized access to, confidential or highly restricted data relating to the Fund and its shareholders; and compromises or failures to systems, networks, devices and applications relating to the operations of the Fund and its service providers. Cyber security risks may result in financial losses to the Fund and its shareholders; the inability of the Fund to transact business with its shareholders; delays or mistakes in the calculation of the Fund's NAV or other materials provided to shareholders; the inability to process transactions with shareholders or other parties; violations of privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties and reputational damage; and compliance and remediation costs, legal fees and other expenses. The Fund's service providers (including, but not limited to, its investment adviser, any sub-advisers, administrator, transfer agent, and custodian or their agents), financial intermediaries, companies in which the Fund invests and parties with which the Fund engages in portfolio or other transactions also may be adversely impacted by cyber security risks in their own businesses, which could result in losses to the Fund or its shareholders. While measures have been developed which are designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there is no guarantee that those measures will be effective, particularly since the Fund does not directly control the cyber security defenses or plans of their service providers, financial intermediaries and companies in which they invest or with which they do business.
Pandemic Risk. Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, financial markets in the United States and around the world experienced extreme and in many cases unprecedented volatility and severe losses due to the global pandemic caused by COVID‑19, a novel coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a wide range of social and economic disruptions, including closed borders, voluntary or compelled quarantines of large populations, stressed healthcare systems, reduced or prohibited domestic or international travel, supply chain disruptions, and so-called "stay-at-home" orders throughout much of the United States and many other countries. The fall-out from these disruptions has included the rapid closure of businesses deemed "non-essential" by federal, state, or local governments and rapidly increasing unemployment, as well as greatly reduced liquidity for certain instruments at times. Some sectors of the economy and individual issuers have experienced particularly large losses. Such disruptions may continue for an extended period of time or reoccur in the future to a similar or greater extent. In response, the U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have taken extraordinary actions to support the domestic economy and financial markets, resulting in very low interest rates and in some cases negative yields. It is unknown how long circumstances related to the pandemic will persist, whether they will reoccur in the future, whether efforts to support the economy and financial markets will be successful, and what additional implications may follow from the pandemic. The impact of these events and other epidemics or pandemics in the future could adversely affect Fund performance.
A discussion of some of the other risks associated with investments in the Fund is contained in the Fund's Prospectus.
A-4

SPECIFIC INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
The following are descriptions of the Fund's permitted investments and investment practices and the associated risk factors. The Fund will only invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices if such investment or activity is consistent with the Fund's investment objective and permitted by the Fund's stated investment policies.
BORROWING. Although the Fund does not intend to borrow money, the Fund may do so to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, the Fund may borrow up to one-third of its total assets. The Fund will borrow money only for short-term or emergency purposes. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. Borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of the Fund's portfolio. Money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. The Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
DEPOSITARY RECEIPTS.To the extent the Fund invests in stocks of foreign corporations, the Fund's investment in securities of foreign companies may be in the form of depositary receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs") are dollar-denominated receipts representing interests in the securities of a foreign issuer, which securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. ADRs are receipts typically issued by United States banks and trust companies which evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities.
The Fund will not invest in any unlisted Depositary Receipts or any Depositary Receipt that the Adviser deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available. In addition, all Depositary Receipts generally must be sponsored; however, the Fund may invest in unsponsored Depositary Receipts under certain limited circumstances. The issuers of unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States, and, therefore, there may be less information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the market value of the Depositary Receipts.
DERIVATIVES.Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are based on the value of one or more indicators, such as a security, asset, currency, interest rate, or index. The Fund's use of derivatives involves risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. Moreover, although the value of a derivative is based on an underlying indicator, a derivative does not carry the same rights as would be the case if the Fund invested directly in the underlying securities.
Futures and Options
Futures contracts and options may from time to time be used by the Fund to facilitate trading or to reduce transaction costs. The Fund may enter into futures contracts and options that are traded on a U.S. or non-U.S. exchange. The Fund will not use futures or options for speculative purposes.
Risk of Futures and Options
There are several risks accompanying the utilization of futures contracts and options on futures contracts. A position in futures contracts and options on futures contracts may be closed only on the exchange on which the contract was made (or a linked exchange). While the Fund plans to utilize futures contracts only if an active market exists for such contracts, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist for the contract at a specified time. In the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily cash payments to maintain its required margin. In such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell portfolio securities to meet daily margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Fund may be required to deliver the instruments underlying the futures contracts it has sold.
The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The Fund does not plan to use futures and options contracts in this way. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit. The Fund, however, intends to utilize futures and options contracts in a manner designed to limit their risk exposure to levels comparable to a direct investment in the types of stocks in which they invest.
There is a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a futures contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM's customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that
A-5

the FCM could use the Fund's assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM's other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty.
Utilization of futures and options on futures by the Fund involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to its underlying index if the index underlying the futures contract differs from the underlying index. There is also the risk of loss of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom the Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option. The purchase of put or call options will be based upon predictions by the Adviser as to anticipated trends, which predictions could prove to be incorrect.
Because the futures market generally imposes less burdensome margin requirements than the securities market, an increased amount of participation by speculators in the futures market could result in price fluctuations. Certain financial futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. The daily limit establishes the maximum amount by which the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day's settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. It is possible that futures contract prices could move to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting the Fund to substantial losses. In the event of adverse price movements, the Fund would be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin.
Futures
Futures contracts provide for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific asset, currency, rate or index at a specified future time and at a specified price. Stock index futures are based on investments that reflect the market value of common stock of the firms included in an underlying index. The Fund may enter into futures contracts to purchase securities indexes when the Adviser anticipates purchasing the underlying securities and believes prices will rise before the purchase will be made. To the extent required by law, liquid assets committed to futures contracts will be maintained.
Futures contracts may be bought and sold on U.S. and non-U.S. exchanges. Futures contracts in the U.S. have been designed by exchanges that have been designated "contract markets" by the CFTC and must be executed through a futures commission merchant ("FCM"), which is a brokerage firm that is a member of the relevant contract market. Each exchange guarantees performance of the contracts as between the clearing members of the exchange, thereby reducing the risk of counterparty default. Futures contracts may also be entered into on certain exempt markets, including exempt boards of trade and electronic trading facilities, available to certain market participants. Because all transactions in the futures market are made, offset or fulfilled by an FCM through a clearinghouse associated with the exchange on which the contracts are traded, the Fund will incur brokerage fees when it buys or sells futures contracts.
Upon entering into a futures contract, the Fund will be required to deliver to an account controlled by the FCM an amount of cash or cash equivalents known as "initial margin," which is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract and is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, known as "variation margin," to and from the FCM will be made daily as the price of the instrument or index underlying the futures contract fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as "marking-to-market."
At any time prior to the expiration of a futures contract, the Fund may elect to close the position by taking an opposite position, which will operate to terminate the Fund's existing position in the contract. This transaction, which is effected through a member of an exchange, cancels the obligation to make or take delivery of the underlying instrument or asset. Although some futures contracts by their terms require the actual delivery or acquisition of the underlying instrument or asset, some require cash settlement.
A call option gives a holder the right to purchase a specific security at a specified price ("exercise price") within a specified period of time. A put option gives a holder the right to sell a specific security at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. The initial purchaser of a call option pays the "writer" a premium, which is paid at the time of purchase and is retained by the writer whether or not such option is exercised. The Fund may purchase put options to hedge its portfolio against the risk of a decline in the market value of securities held and may purchase call options to hedge against an increase in the price of securities it is committed to purchase. The Fund may write put and call options along with a long position in options to increase its ability to hedge against a change in the market value of the securities it holds or is committed to purchase. Investments in futures contracts and other investments that contain leverage may require the Fund to maintain liquid assets. Generally, the Fund maintains an amount of liquid assets equal to its obligations relative to the position involved, adjusted daily on a marked-to-market basis. With respect to futures contracts that are contractually required to "cash-settle," the Fund maintains liquid assets in an amount at least equal to the Fund's daily marked-to-market obligation (i.e., the Fund's daily net liability, if any), rather than the contracts' notional value (i.e., the value of the underlying asset). By maintaining assets equal to its net obligation under cash-settled futures contracts, the Fund may employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund set aside assets equal to the futures contracts' full notional value. The Fund bases its asset maintenance policies on methods permitted by the staff of the SEC and may modify these policies in the future to comply with any changes in the guidance articulated from time to time by the SEC or its staff.
A-6

Options
An option on a futures contract, as contrasted with the direct investment in such a contract, gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in the underlying futures contract at a specified exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option. The writer of the option becomes contractually obligated to take the opposite futures position specified in the option.
Upon exercise of an option on a futures contract, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer's futures margin account that represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the futures contract. The potential for loss related to the purchase of an option on a futures contract is limited to the premium paid for the option plus transaction costs. Because the value of the option is fixed at the point of sale, there are no daily cash payments by the purchaser to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option changes daily and that change would be reflected in the NAV per Share of the Fund.
The Fund may purchase and write put and call options on futures contracts that are traded on an exchange as a hedge against changes in value of its portfolio securities, or in anticipation of the purchase of securities, and may enter into closing transactions with respect to such options to terminate existing positions. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected.
The Fund's use of options on futures contracts is subject to the risks related to derivative instruments generally. In addition, the amount of risk the Fund assumes when it purchases an option on a futures contract is the premium paid for the option plus related transaction costs. The purchase of an option also entails the risk that changes in the value of the underlying futures contract will not be fully reflected in the value of the option purchased. The writer of an option on a futures contract is subject to the risk of having to take a possibly adverse futures position if the purchaser of the option exercises its rights. If the writer were required to take such a position, it could bear substantial losses. The potential for loss related to writing call options is unlimited. The potential for loss related to writing put options is limited to the agreed upon price per share, also known as the "strike price," less the premium received from writing the put.
Swaps
OTC swap agreements are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make payments to the other party based on the change in market value or level of a specified index or asset. In return, the other party agrees to make payments to the first party based on the return of a different specified index or asset. Although OTC swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations thereunder, the Fund seeks to reduce this risk by entering into agreements that involve payments no less frequently than quarterly. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund's obligations over its entitlements with respect to each swap is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Trust's custodian bank.
The use of such swap agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the counterparty, under a swap agreement, defaults on its obligation to make payments due from it as a result of its bankruptcy or otherwise, the Fund may lose such payments altogether or collect only a portion thereof, which collection could involve costs or delays.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") and related regulatory developments require the eventual clearing and exchange-trading of many standardized OTC derivative instruments that the CFTC and Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") recently defined as "swaps" and "security-based swaps," respectively. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing is occurring on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and exchange trading. In a cleared swap, the Fund's ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. The Fund initially will enter into cleared swaps through an executing broker. Such transactions will then be submitted for clearing and, if cleared, will be held at regulated futures commission merchants ("FCMs") that are members of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. When the Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via an FCM) an amount referred to as "initial margin." Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a "variation margin" amount may also be required to be paid by the Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts, depending upon changes in the price of the underlying reference asset subject to the swap agreement. At the conclusion of the term of the swap agreement, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.
Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant's swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely. There is also a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position in a swap contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or
A-7

central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available Funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM's customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund's assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM's other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Exchange trading is expected to increase liquidity of swaps trading.
In addition, with respect to cleared swaps, the Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable terms as it would be able to negotiate for an uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally impose position limits or additional margin requirements for certain types of swaps in which the Fund may invest. Central counterparties and FCMs generally can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions at any time, and can also require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement. Margin requirements for cleared swaps vary on a number of factors, and the margin required under the rules of the clearinghouse and FCM may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar uncleared swap. However, regulators are expected to adopt rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps in the near future, which could change this comparison.
The Fund is also subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the central counterparty would void the trade. Before the Fund can enter into a new trade, market conditions may become less favorable to the Fund.
The Adviser will continue to monitor developments regarding trading and execution of cleared swaps on exchanges, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the Fund's ability to enter into swap agreements and the costs and risks associated with such investments.
U.S. Federal Tax Treatment of Futures Contracts
The Fund may be required for federal income tax purposes to mark-to-market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts or options contracts as of the end of the year as well as those actually realized during the year. Gain or loss from futures contracts or options contracts on broad-based indexes required to be marked-to-market will be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders. The Fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on futures contracts or options contracts to the extent of any unrecognized gains on related positions held by the Fund.
In order for the Fund to continue to qualify for U.S. federal income tax treatment as a "regulated investment company" under Section 851 of the Code, at least 90% of the Fund's gross income for a taxable year must be derived from qualifying sources, including, dividends, interest, income derived from loans of securities, gains from the sale of securities or of foreign currencies or other income derived with respect to the Fund's business of investing in securities. It is anticipated that any net gain realized from the closing out of futures contracts or options contracts will be considered gain from the sale of securities and, therefore, will be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% requirement.
The Fund intends to distribute to shareholders annually any net capital gains that have been recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes (including unrealized gains at the end of the Fund's fiscal year) on futures transactions and certain options contracts. Such distributions are combined with distributions of capital gains realized on the Fund's other investments, and shareholders are advised on the nature of the distributions.
Leverage Risk
Leverage is investment exposure that exceeds the initial amount invested. The loss on a leveraged investment may far exceed the Fund's principal amount invested. Leverage can magnify the Fund's gains and losses and, therefore, increase its volatility. There is no guarantee that the Fund leveraging strategy will be successful. The Fund cannot guarantee that the use of leverage will produce a high return on an investment. The Sub-Adviser will segregate liquid assets or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to leverage risk to the extent of the financial exposure to the Fund. This requirement limits the amount of leverage the Fund may have at any one time, but it does not eliminate leverage risk. The use of leverage may result in the Fund having to liquidate holdings when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its obligation or to meet segregation requirements.
EQUITY SECURITIES.Equity securities, such as the common stocks of an issuer, are subject to stock market fluctuations and therefore may experience volatile changes in value as market conditions, consumer sentiment or the financial condition of the issuers change. A decrease in value of the equity securities in the Fund's portfolio may also cause the value of Shares to decline.
An investment in the Fund should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of the Fund's portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations
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regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic, public health, cyber or banking crises.
All countries are vulnerable economically to the impact of a public health crisis, which could depress consumer demand, reduce economic output, and potentially lead to market closures, travel restrictions, and quarantines, all of which would negatively impact the country's economy and could affect the economies of its trading partners.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
When-Issued Securities- A when-issued security is one whose terms are available and for which a market exists, but which has not been issued. When the Fund engages in when-issued transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the sale. If the other party fails to complete the sale, the Fund may miss the opportunity to obtain the security at a favorable price or yield.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield changes. At the time of settlement, the value of the security may be more or less than the purchase price. The yield available in the market when the delivery takes place also may be higher than those obtained in the transaction itself. Because the Fund does not pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with its other investments.
Decisions to enter into "when-issued" transactions will be considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company's index membership. The Fund will segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to commitments for the when-issued transactions. The Fund will segregate additional liquid assets daily so that the value of such assets is equal to the amount of the commitments.
Types of Equity Securities:
Common Stocks- Common stocks represent units of ownership in a company. Common stocks usually carry voting rights and earn dividends. Unlike preferred stocks, which are described below, dividends on common stocks are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the company's board of directors.
Preferred Stocks - Preferred stocks are also units of ownership in a company. Preferred stocks normally have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of the company. However, in all other respects, preferred stocks are subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks are generally not entitled to vote on corporate matters. Types of preferred stocks include adjustable-rate preferred stock, fixed dividend preferred stock, perpetual preferred stock, and sinking fund preferred stock.
Generally, the market values of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element vary inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk.
Rights and Warrants - A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.
An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.
Smaller Companies- The securities of small- and mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, public health, cyber, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small- and mid- capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable
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price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small- or mid-capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning small- and mid-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small- and mid-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs, and earnings.
Tracking Stocks- The Fund may invest in tracking stocks. A tracking stock is a separate class of common stock whose value is linked to a specific business unit or operating division within a larger company and which is designed to "track" the performance of such business unit or division. The tracking stock may pay dividends to shareholders independent of the parent company. The parent company, rather than the business unit or division, generally is the issuer of tracking stock. However, holders of the tracking stock may not have the same rights as holders of the company's common stock.
ETFs.ETFs are pooled investment vehicles whose ownership interests are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. ETFs may be structured investment companies, depositary receipts or other pooled investment vehicles. As shareholders of an ETF, the Fund will bear its pro rata portion of any fees and expenses of the ETFs. Although shares of ETFs are traded on an exchange, shares of certain ETFs may not be redeemable to the ETF. In addition, ETFs may trade at a price below their net asset value (also known as a discount).
The ETFs in which the Fund invests are subject to the risks applicable to the types of securities and investments used by the ETFs. ETFs may be actively managed or index-based. Actively managed ETFs are subject to management risk and may not achieve their objective if the ETF's manager's expectations regarding particular securities or markets are not met.
Unless permitted by the 1940 Act or an order or rule issued by the SEC, (see "Investment Companies" below for more information), the Fund's investments in unaffiliated ETFs that are structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are subject to certain percentage limitations of the 1940 Act regarding investments in other investment companies. As a general matter, these percentage limitations currently require the Fund to limit its investments in any one issue of ETFs to 5% of the Fund's total assets and 3% of the outstanding voting securities of the ETF issue. Moreover, the Fund's investments in all ETFs may not currently exceed 10% of the Fund's total assets under the 1940 Act, when aggregated with all other investments in investment companies. ETFs that are not structured as investment companies as defined in the 1940 Act are not subject to these percentage limitations.
SEC exemptive orders granted to various iShares funds (which are ETFs) and other ETFs and their investment advisers permit the Fund to invest beyond the 1940 Act limits, subject to certain terms and conditions, including a finding of the Board of Trustees that the advisory fees charged by the Adviser to the Fund are for services that are in addition to, and not duplicative of, the advisory services provided to those ETFs.
FIXED INCOME SECURITIES.The Fund may invest in fixed income securities. Even though interest-bearing securities are investments that promise a stable stream of income, the prices of such securities are affected by changes in interest rates. In general, fixed income security prices rise when interest rates fall and fall when interest rates rise. Securities with shorter maturities, while offering lower yields, generally provide greater price stability than longer term securities and are less affected by changes in interest rates. The values of fixed income securities also may be affected by changes in the credit rating or financial condition of the issuing entities. Once the rating of a portfolio security has been changed, the Fund will consider all circumstances deemed relevant in determining whether to continue to hold the security.
Fixed income investments bear certain risks, including credit risk, or the ability of an issuer to pay interest and principal as they become due. Generally, higher yielding bonds are subject to more credit risk than lower yielding bonds. Interest rate risk refers to the fluctuations in value of fixed income securities resulting from the inverse relationship between the market value of outstanding fixed income securities and changes in interest rates. An increase in interest rates will generally reduce the market value of fixed income investments and a decline in interest rates will tend to increase their value.
A number of factors, including changes in a central bank's monetary policies or general improvements in the economy, may cause interest rates to rise. Fixed income securities with longer durations are more sensitive to interest rate changes than securities with shorter durations, making them more volatile. This means their prices are more likely to experience a considerable reduction in response to a rise in interest rates.
Duration
Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a fixed income security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time.
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Creditor Liability and Participation on Creditors' Committees
Generally, when the Fund holds bonds or other similar fixed income securities of an issuer, the Fund becomes a creditor of the issuer. If the Fund is a creditor of an issuer it, may be subject to challenges related to the securities that it holds, either in connection with the bankruptcy of the issuer or in connection with another action brought by other creditors of the issuer, shareholders of the issuer or the issuer itself. The Fund may from time to time participate on committees formed by creditors to negotiate with the management of financially troubled issuers of securities held by the Fund. Such participation may subject the Fund to expenses such as legal fees and may make the Fund an "insider" of the issuer for purposes of the federal securities laws, and therefore may restrict the Fund's ability to trade in or acquire additional positions in a particular security when it might otherwise desire to do so. Participation by the Fund on such committees also may expose the Fund to potential liabilities under the federal bankruptcy laws or other laws governing the rights of creditors and debtors. The Fund will participate on such committees only when its Adviser believes that such participation is necessary or desirable to enforce the Fund's rights as a creditor or to protect the value of securities held by the Fund. Further, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser has the authority to represent the Trust, or the Fund, on creditors' committees or similar committees and generally with respect to challenges related to the securities held by the Fund relating to the bankruptcy of an issuer or in connection with another action brought by other creditors of the issuer, shareholders of the issuer or the issuer itself.
Variable and Floating Rate Securities
Variable and floating rate instruments involve certain obligations that may carry variable or floating rates of interest, and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period, and may have a set floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.
Asset-Backed Securities
The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities ("ABSs"), which are bonds backed by pools of loans or other receivables. ABSs are created from many types of assets, including auto loans, credit card receivables, home equity loans, and student loans. ABSs are issued through special purpose vehicles that are bankruptcy remote from the issuer of the collateral. The credit quality of an ABS transaction depends on the performance of the underlying assets. To protect ABS investors from the possibility that some borrowers could miss payments or even default on their loans, ABSs include various forms of credit enhancement. Some ABSs, particularly home equity loan transactions, are subject to interest-rate risk and prepayment risk. A change in interest rates can affect the pace of payments on the underlying loans, which in turn, affects total return on the securities. ABSs also carry credit or default risk. If many borrowers on the underlying loans default, losses could exceed the credit enhancement level and result in losses to investors in an ABS transaction. Finally, ABSs have structure risk due to a unique characteristic known as early amortization, or early payout, risk. Built into the structure of most ABSs are triggers for early payout, designed to protect investors from losses. These triggers are unique to each transaction and can include a big rise in defaults on the underlying loans, a sharp drop in the credit enhancement level, or even the bankruptcy of the originator. Once early amortization begins, all incoming loan payments (after expenses are paid) are used to pay investors as quickly as possible based upon a predetermined priority of payment. Consistent with the Fund's investment objectives and policies, the Adviser also may invest in other types of ABSs.
Bank Loans
Bank loans (also known as floating rate loans) are usually rated below investment grade. The market for floating rate loans may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. In addition, a significant portion of floating rate loans may be "covenant lite" loans that may contain fewer or less restrictive covenants on the borrower or may contain other borrower-friendly characteristics. The Fund's investment in loans may take the form of a participation or an assignment. Loan participations typically represent direct participation in a loan to a borrower, and generally are offered by financial institutions or lending syndicates. The Fund may participate in such syndications, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a part lender. When purchasing loan participations, the Fund assumes the credit risk associated with the borrower and may assume the credit risk associated with an interposed financial intermediary. If the lead lender in a typical lending syndicate becomes insolvent, enters Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") receivership or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy, the Fund may incur certain costs and delays in receiving payment or may suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. When the Fund is a purchaser of an assignment, it succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning bank or other financial intermediary and becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning bank or other financial intermediary. For example, if a loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.
Bank Obligations
Bank obligations may include certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances, and fixed time deposits. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return.
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Bankers' acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are "accepted" by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits. The Fund will not invest in fixed time deposits which (1) are not subject to prepayment or (2) provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits) if, in the aggregate, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in such deposits, repurchase agreements with remaining maturities of more than seven days and other illiquid assets. Subject to the Trust's limitation on concentration, as described in the "Investment Restrictions" section below, there is no limitation on the amount of the Fund's assets which may be invested in obligations of foreign banks which meet the conditions set forth herein.
Obligations of foreign banks involve somewhat different investment risks than those affecting obligations of U.S. banks, including the possibilities that their liquidity could be impaired because of future political and economic developments, that their obligations may be less marketable than comparable obligations of U.S. banks, that a foreign jurisdiction might impose withholding taxes on interest income payable on those obligations, that foreign deposits may be seized or nationalized, that foreign governmental restrictions such as exchange controls may be adopted which might adversely affect the payment of principal and interest on those obligations and that the selection of those obligations may be more difficult because there may be less publicly available information concerning foreign banks or the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements applicable to foreign banks may differ from those applicable to United States banks. Foreign banks are not generally subject to examination by any United States Government agency or instrumentality.
Below Investment-Grade Debt Securities
The Fund may invest in below investment-grade securities. Below investment-grade securities, also referred to as "high yield securities" or "junk bonds," are debt securities that are rated lower than the four highest rating categories by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization (for example, lower than Baa3 by Moody's Investors Service, Inc. or ("Moody's") lower than BBB- by Standard & Poor's ("S&P") or are determined to be of comparable quality by the Fund's Sub-Adviser. These securities are generally considered to be, on balance, predominantly speculative with respect to capacity to pay interest and repay principal in accordance with the terms of the obligation, and will generally involve more credit risk than securities in the investment-grade categories. Investment in these securities generally provides greater income and increased opportunity for capital appreciation than investments in higher quality securities, but they also typically entail greater price volatility and principal and income risk.
Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of investment-grade securities. Thus, reliance on credit ratings in making investment decisions entails greater risks for high yield securities than for investment-grade debt securities. The success of the Fund Sub-Adviser in managing the Fund's high yield securities is more dependent upon its own credit analysis than is the case with investment-grade securities.
Some high yield securities are issued by smaller, less-seasoned companies, while others are issued as part of a corporate restructuring, such as an acquisition, merger, or leveraged buyout. Companies that issue high yield securities are often highly leveraged and may not have available to them more traditional methods of financing. Therefore, the risk associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally is greater than is the case with investment-grade securities. Some high yield securities were once rated as investment-grade but have been downgraded to junk bond status because of financial difficulties experienced by their issuers.
The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual issuer developments to a greater extent than do investment-grade securities, which in general react to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. High yield securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than are investment-grade securities. A projection of an economic downturn or of a period of rising interest rates, for example, could cause a decline in junk bond prices because the advent of a recession could lessen the ability of a highly leveraged company to make principal and interest payments on its debt securities. If an issuer of high yield securities defaults, in addition to risking payment of all or a portion of interest and principal, the Fund investing in such securities may incur additional expenses to seek recovery.
The secondary market on which high yield securities are traded may be less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the ability of the Fund to sell a high yield security or the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield security, and could adversely affect the daily NAV of Fund shares. When secondary markets for high yield securities are less liquid than the market for investment-grade securities, it may be more difficult to value the securities because such valuation may require more research, and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation because there is less reliable, objective data available.
The Fund will not necessarily dispose of a security if a credit-rating agency downgrades the rating of the security below its rating at the time of purchase. However, its Sub-Adviser will monitor the investment to determine whether continued investment in the security is in the best interest of shareholders.
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Collateralized Bond Obligations, Collateralized Loan Obligations, and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations
The Fund may invest in each of collateralized bond obligations ("CBOs"), collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs"), other collateralized debt obligations ("CDOs") and other similarly structured securities. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is often backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment-grade fixed income securities. The collateral can be from many different types of fixed income securities such as high yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities and emerging market debt. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment-grade or equivalent unrated loans. Other CDOs are trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various parties. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.
For CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs, the cash flows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the "equity" tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Since they are partially protected from defaults, senior tranches from a CBO trust, CLO trust or trust of another CDO typically have higher ratings and lower yields than their underlying securities, and can be rated investment-grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CBO, CLO or other CDO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CBO, CLO or other CDO securities as a class.
The risks of an investment in a CBO, CLO or other CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the instrument in which the Fund invests. Normally, CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities, however, an active dealer market may exist for CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs allowing them to qualify for Rule 144A transactions. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed income securities discussed elsewhere in this SAI and the Fund Prospectus (e.g., fixed income risk and credit risk), CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs carry additional risks including, but are not limited to, (i) the possibility that distributions from collateral securities will not be adequate to make interest or other payments, (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default, (iii) the risk that the Fund may invest in CBOs, CLOs or other CDOs that are subordinate to other classes, and (iv) the possibility that the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.
Commercial Paper
The Fund may invest in commercial paper. Commercial paper is a short-term obligation with a maturity ranging from one to 270 days issued by banks, corporations and other borrowers. Such investments are unsecured and usually discounted. The Fund may invest in commercial paper rated A-1 or A-2 by S&P or Prime-1 or Prime-2 by Moody's.
Corporate Debt Securities
The Fund may invest in corporate debt securities representative of one or more high yield bond or credit derivative indices, which may change from time to time. Selection will generally be dependent on independent credit analysis or fundamental analysis performed by the Fund's Adviser or Sub-Adviser. The Fund may invest in all grades of corporate debt securities, including below investment-grade securities, as discussed below. See Appendix Afor a description of corporate bond ratings. The Fund also may invest in unrated securities.
Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or unsecured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade or below investment-grade and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.
Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but carries relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.
Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that the Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security is unable to pay interest or repay principal when it is due. Some corporate debt securities that are rated below investment-grade are generally considered speculative because they present a greater risk of loss, including default, than higher quality debt securities. The credit risk of a particular issuer's debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower-ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer
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might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.
Inflation-Indexed Bonds
The Fund may invest in inflation-indexed bonds, which are fixed income securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index ("CPI") accruals as part of a semiannual coupon.
Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury have maturities of five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if the Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and inflation over the first six months was 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole years' inflation equaling 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semi-annual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).
If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate. The Fund also may invest in other inflation related bonds which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.
The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds.
While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond's inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers ("CPI-U"), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.
Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
Structured Notes
A structured note is a derivative security for which the amount of principal repayment and/or interest payments is based on the movement of one or more "factors." These factors include, but are not limited to, currency exchange rates, interest rates (such as the prime lending rate or the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), referenced bonds and stock indices. Some of these factors may or may not correlate to the total rate of return on one or more underlying instruments referenced in such notes. Investments in structured notes involve risks including interest rate risk, credit risk and market risk. Depending on the factor(s) used and the use of multipliers or deflators, changes in interest rates and movement of such factor(s) may cause significant price fluctuations. Structured notes may be less liquid than other types of securities and more volatile than the reference factor underlying the note.
Unrated Debt Securities
The Fund may invest in unrated debt securities. Unrated debt, while not necessarily lower in quality than rated securities, may not have as broad a market. Because of the size and perceived demand for the issue, among other factors, certain issuers may decide not to pay the cost of getting a rating for their bonds. The creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the security, will be analyzed to determine whether to purchase unrated bonds.
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Zero Coupon Bonds
The Fund may invest in U.S. Treasury zero coupon bonds. These securities are U.S. Treasury bonds which have been stripped of their un-matured interest coupons, the coupons themselves, and receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations and coupons. Interest is not paid in cash during the term of these securities, but is accrued and paid at maturity. Such obligations have greater price volatility than coupon obligations and other normal interest-paying securities, and the value of zero coupon securities reacts more quickly to changes in interest rates than do coupon bonds. Because dividend income is accrued throughout the term of the zero coupon obligation, but is not actually received until maturity, the Fund may have to sell other securities to pay said accrued dividends prior to maturity of the zero coupon obligation. Unlike regular U.S. Treasury bonds, which pay semi-annual interest, U.S. Treasury zero coupon bonds do not generate semi-annual coupon payments. Instead, zero coupon bonds are purchased at a substantial discount from the maturity value of such securities, the discount reflecting the current value of the deferred interest; this discount is amortized as interest income over the life of the security, and is taxable even though there is no cash return until maturity. Zero coupon U.S. Treasury issues originally were created by government bond dealers who bought U.S. Treasury bonds and issued receipts representing an ownership interest in the interest coupons or in the principal portion of the bonds. Subsequently, the U.S. Treasury began directly issuing zero coupon bonds with the introduction of STRIPS. While zero coupon bonds eliminate the reinvestment risk of regular coupon issues, that is, the risk of subsequently investing the periodic interest payments at a lower rate than that of the security held, zero coupon bonds fluctuate much more sharply than regular coupon-bearing bonds. Thus, when interest rates rise, the value of zero coupon bonds will decrease to a greater extent than will the value of regular bonds having the same interest rate.
Collateral Risk
A loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value. In addition, the Fund's access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy or other insolvency laws. Further, loans held by the Fund may not be considered securities and, therefore, purchasers, such as the Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws.
Counterparty Risk
The Fund may invest in financial instruments involving counterparties for the purpose of attempting to gain exposure to a particular group of securities, index or asset class without actually purchasing those securities or investments, or to hedge a position. Such financial instruments may include, among others, total return, index, interest rate, and credit default swap agreements. The use of swap agreements and similar instruments exposes the Funds to risks that are different than those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. For example, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. If a counterparty defaults on its payment obligations to the Fund, this default will cause the value of your investment in the Fund to decrease. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements with a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund's exposure to counterparty credit risk. Similarly, if the credit quality of an issuer or guarantor of a debt instrument improves, this change may adversely affect the value of the Fund's investment.
Credit Risk
Credit risk is the risk that the Fund could lose money if an issuer or guarantor of a debt instrument becomes unwilling or unable to make timely principal and/or interest payments, or to otherwise meet its obligations. The Fund is also subject to the risk that its investment in a debt instrument could decline because of concerns about the issuer's credit quality or perceived financial condition. Fixed income securities are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which are sometimes reflected in credit ratings.
High Yield Securities Risk
Securities rated "BB" or below by S&P or "Ba" or below by Moody's are known as high yield securities and are commonly referred to as "junk bonds." Such securities entail greater price volatility and credit and interest rate risk than investment-grade securities. Analysis of the creditworthiness of high yield issuers is more complex than for higher-rated securities, making it more difficult for the Sub-Adviser to accurately predict risk. There is a greater risk with high yield fixed income securities that an issuer will not be able to make principal and interest payments when due. If the Fund pursues missed payments, there is a risk the Fund expenses could increase. In addition, lower-rated securities may not trade as often and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities, especially during periods of economic uncertainty or change. As a result of all of these factors, these securities are generally considered to be speculative.
Income Risk
The market value of fixed income investments changes in response to interest rate changes and other factors. The Fund's income could decline due to falling market interest rates. This is because, in a falling interest rate environment, the Fund generally will have to invest the proceeds from sales of Fund shares, as well as the proceeds from maturing portfolio securities in lower-yielding securities. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of outstanding fixed income securities generally rise. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market
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fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. During periods of falling interest rates, certain debt obligations with high interest rates may be prepaid (or "called") by the issuer prior to maturity.
Interest Rate Risk
The values of fixed rate debt securities usually rise and fall in response to changes in interest rates. Declining interest rates generally increase the value of existing debt instruments, and rising interest rates generally decrease the value of existing debt instruments. Changes in a debt instrument's value usually will not affect the amount of interest income paid to the Fund, but will affect the value of the Fund's shares. Interest rate risk is generally greater for investments with longer maturities. Certain securities pay interest at variable or floating rates. Variable rate securities reset at specified intervals, while floating rate securities reset whenever there is a change in a specified index rate. In most cases, these reset provisions reduce the effect of changes in market interest rates on the value of the security. However, some securities do not track the underlying index directly, but reset based on formulas that can produce an effect similar to leveraging; others may also provide for interest payments that vary inversely with market rates. The market prices of these securities may fluctuate significantly when interest rates change.
Some investments give the issuer the option to call or redeem an investment before its maturity date. If an issuer calls or redeems an investment during a time of declining interest rates, the Fund might have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a lower yield, and therefore it might not benefit from any increase in value as a result of declining interest rates.
Other Floating Rate Loan Risks
Floating rate loans generally are subject to restrictions on transfer, and the Fund may be unable to sell its bank loans at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or may be able to sell them only at prices that are less than their fair market value. The Fund may find it difficult to establish a fair value for loans it holds. Further, the trading market for floating rate loans could be impacted by regulatory action or reforms around the manner in which floating interest rates are determined. If a published rate is unavailable, the rate of interest on a floating rate loan could effectively become fixed, which would in turn adversely affect the value of the floating rate loan. In addition, floating rate loans generally are subject to extended settlement periods in excess of seven days, which may impair the Fund's ability to sell or realize the full value of its loans in the event of a need to liquidate such loans.
If the Fund acquires a participation in a loan, the Fund may not be able to control the exercise of remedies that the lender would have under the loan and likely would not have any rights against the borrower directly. A loan participation agreement involves the purchase of a share of a loan made by a bank to a company in return for a corresponding share of borrower's principal and interest payments. The principal credit risk associated with acquiring loan participation interests is the credit risk associated with the underlying corporate borrower. There is also a risk that there may not be a readily available market for loan participation interests and, in some cases, this could result in the Fund disposing of such securities at a substantial discount from face value or holding such securities until maturity.
Loans made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions may be especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. A loan may also be in the form of a bridge loan, which are designed to provide temporary or "bridge" financing to a borrower, pending the sale of identified assets or the arrangement of longer-term loans or the issuance and sale of debt obligations. A borrower's use of a bridge loan involves a risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower's perceived creditworthiness.
Floating rate loans, like other debt securities, may be paid off early if the issuer of a security can repay principal prior to the maturity date. If interest rates are falling, the Fund may have to reinvest the unanticipated proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund's income.
A loan may be a senior loan or a junior loan. Senior loans typically provide lenders with a first right to cash flows or proceeds from the sale of a borrower's collateral if the borrower becomes insolvent (subject to certain limitations of bankruptcy law). However, there can be no assurance that liquidation of such collateral would satisfy the borrower's obligation in the event of a default or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In addition, senior loans are subject to the risk that a court could subordinate such senior loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the borrower, or take other action detrimental to the holders of senior loans including, in certain circumstances, invalidating such senior loans or causing interest previously paid to be refunded to the borrower. Any such actions could negatively affect the Fund's performance. To the extent the Fund invests in junior loans, these loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than senior loans of the same borrower because of their lower place in the borrower's capital structure and possible unsecured status.
The loans in which the Fund will invest will generally be secured and senior to other indebtedness of the borrower. Each loan generally will be secured by collateral such as accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, real estate, intangible assets such as trademarks, copyrights and patents, and securities of subsidiaries or affiliates. Collateral also may include guarantees or other credit support by affiliates of the borrower. The value of the collateral generally will be determined by reference to financial statements of the borrower, by an independent appraisal, by obtaining the market value of such collateral, in the case of cash or securities if readily ascertainable, or by other customary valuation techniques considered appropriate by the Adviser or Sub-Adviser. The value of collateral may decline after the Fund's investment, and collateral may be difficult to sell in the event of default. Consequently, the
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Fund may not receive all the payments to which it is entitled. The loan agreement may or may not require the borrower to pledge additional collateral to secure the senior loan if the value of the initial collateral declines. In certain circumstances, the loan agreement may authorize the agent to liquidate the collateral and to distribute the liquidation proceeds pro rata among the lenders. By virtue of their senior position and collateral, senior loans typically provide lenders with the first right to cash flows or proceeds from the sale of a borrower's collateral if the borrower becomes insolvent (subject to the limitations of bankruptcy law, which may provide higher priority to certain claims such as employee salaries, employee pensions, and taxes). This means senior loans generally are repaid before unsecured bank loans, corporate bonds, subordinated debt, trade creditors, and preferred or common stockholders. To the extent that the Fund invests in unsecured loans, if the borrower defaults on such loan, there is no specific collateral on which the lender can foreclose. If the borrower defaults on a subordinated loan, the collateral may not be sufficient to cover both the senior and subordinated loans. In addition, if the loan is foreclosed, the Fund could become part owner of any collateral and could bear the costs and liabilities of owning and disposing of the collateral.
Senior loans generally are arranged through private negotiations between a borrower and several financial institutions represented by an agent who is usually one of the originating lenders. In larger transactions, it is common to have several agents; however, generally only one such agent has primary responsibility for ongoing administration of a senior loan. Agents typically are paid fees by the borrower for their services.
The agent is responsible primarily for negotiating the loan agreement which establishes the terms and conditions of the senior loan and the rights of the borrower and the lenders. The agent is paid a fee by the borrower for its services. The agent generally is required to administer and manage the senior loan on behalf of other lenders. The agent also is responsible for monitoring collateral and for exercising remedies available to the lenders such as foreclosure upon collateral. The agent may rely on independent appraisals of specific collateral. The agent need not, however, obtain an independent appraisal of assets pledged as collateral in all cases. The agent generally also is responsible for determining that the lenders have obtained a perfected security interest in the collateral securing a senior loan. The Fund normally relies on the agent to collect principal of and interest on a senior loan. The Fund also relies in part on the agent to monitor compliance by the borrower with the restrictive covenants in the loan agreement and to notify the Fund (or the lender from whom the Fund has purchased a participation) of any adverse change in the borrower's financial condition. Insolvency of the agent or other persons positioned between the Fund and the borrower could result in losses for the Fund.
Loan agreements may provide for the termination of the agent's agency status in the event that it fails to act as required under the relevant loan agreement, becomes insolvent, enters FDIC receivership or, if not FDIC insured, enters into bankruptcy. Should such an agent, lender or assignor, with respect to an assignment interpositioned between the Fund and the borrower, become insolvent or enter FDIC receivership or bankruptcy, any interest in the senior loan of such person and any loan payment held by such person for the benefit of the Fund should not be included in such person's or entity's bankruptcy estate. If, however, any such amount were included in such person's or entity's bankruptcy estate, the fund would incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment or could suffer a loss of principal or interest. In this event, the fund could experience a decrease in its NAV.
Most borrowers pay their debts from cash flow generated by their businesses. If a borrower's cash flow is insufficient to pay its debts, it may attempt to restructure its debts rather than sell collateral. Borrowers may try to restructure their debts by filing for protection under the federal bankruptcy laws or negotiating a work-out. If a borrower becomes involved in a bankruptcy proceeding, access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws. If a court decides that access to collateral is limited or void, the fund may not recover the full amount of principal and interest that is due.
A borrower must comply with certain restrictive covenants contained in the loan agreement. In addition to requiring the scheduled payment of principal and interest, these covenants may include restrictions on the payment of dividends and other distributions to the borrower's shareholders, provisions requiring compliance with specific financial ratios, and limits on total indebtedness. The agreement also may require the prepayment of the loans from excess cash flow. A breach of a covenant that is not waived by the agent (or lenders directly) is normally an event of default, which provides the agent and lenders the right to call for repayment of the outstanding loan.
In the process of buying, selling and holding senior loans, the fund may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions and prepayment penalty fees. Facility fees are paid to lenders when a senior loan is originated. Commitment fees are paid to lenders on an ongoing basis based on the unused portion of a senior loan commitment. Lenders may receive prepayment penalties when a borrower prepays a senior loan. Whether the fund receives a facility fee in the case of an assignment, or any fees in the case of a participation, depends on negotiations between the Fund and the lender selling such interests. When the fund buys an assignment, it may be required to pay a fee to the lender selling the assignment, or to forgo a portion of interest and fees payable to the Fund. Occasionally, the assignor pays a fee to the assignee. A person selling a participation to the fund may deduct a portion of the interest and any fees payable to the Fund as an administrative fee.
Notwithstanding its intention in certain situations not to receive material, non-public information with respect to its management of investments in loans, the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser may from time to time come into possession of material, non-public information about the issuers of loans that may be held in the Fund's portfolio. Possession of such information may in some instances occur despite the Adviser's or the Sub-Adviser's efforts to avoid such possession, but in other instances the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser may choose to receive such information (for example, in connection with participation in a creditors' committee with respect to a
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financially distressed issuer). The Adviser's or the Sub-Adviser's ability to trade in these loans for the account of the fund could potentially be limited by its possession of such information. Such limitations on the Adviser's or the Sub-Adviser's ability to trade could have an adverse effect on the fund by, for example, preventing the Fund from selling a loan that is experiencing a material decline in value. In some instances, these trading restrictions could continue in effect for a substantial period of time.
Although the overall size and number of participants in the market for floating rate loans (or bank loans) has grown over the past decade, floating rate loans continue to trade in an unregulated inter-dealer or inter-bank secondary market. Purchases and sales of floating rate loans are generally subject to contractual restrictions that must be satisfied before a floating rate loan can be bought or sold. These restrictions may impede the Fund's ability to buy or sell floating rate loans, negatively impact the transaction price, and impede the Fund's ability to timely vote or otherwise act with respect to floating rate loans. As a result, it may take longer than seven days for transactions in floating rate loans to settle, which make it more difficult for the Fund to raise cash to pay investors when they redeem their shares in the Fund. The Fund may be adversely affected by having to sell other investments at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, hold cash, temporarily borrow from banks or other lenders or take other actions to meet short-term liquidity needs in order to satisfy redemption requests from Fund shareholders. These actions may impact the Fund's performance (in the case of holding cash or selling securities) or increase the Fund's expenses (in the case of borrowing).
It is also unclear whether the U.S. federal securities laws, which afford certain protections against fraud and misrepresentation in connection with the offering or sale of a security, as well as against manipulation of trading markets for securities, would be available to the Fund's investments in a loan. This is because a loan may not be deemed to be a security in certain circumstances. In these instances, the Fund may need to rely on contractual provisions in the loan documents for some protections and also avail itself of common law fraud protections under applicable state law, which could increase the risk and expense to the Fund of investing in loans. In addition, holders of such loans may from time to time receive confidential information about the borrower. In certain circumstances, this confidential information may be considered material non-public information. Because U.S. laws and regulations generally prohibit trading in securities of issuers while in possession of material, non-public information, the Fund that receives confidential information about a borrower for loan investments might be unable to trade securities or other instruments issued by the borrower when it would otherwise be advantageous to do so and, as such, could incur a loss. For this reason, the Fund or its Manager may determine not to receive confidential information about a borrower for loan investments, which may disadvantage the Fund relative to other investors who do receive such information.
Some covenant lite loans may be in the market from time to time which tend to have fewer or no financial maintenance covenants and restrictions. A covenant lite loan typically contains fewer clauses which allow an investor to proactively enforce financial covenants or prevent undesired actions by the borrower/issuer.
Covenant lite loans also generally provide fewer investor protections if certain criteria are breached. The Fund may experience losses or delays in enforcing its rights on its holdings of covenant lite loans.
Prepayment/Extension Risk
Floating rate loans are also subject to prepayment risk (also called extension risk). Borrowers may pay off their loans sooner than expected particularly when interest rates are falling. The Fund investing in such securities will be forced to reinvest this money at lower yields, which can reduce the Fund's returns. Similarly, debt obligations with call features have the risk that an issuer will exercise the right to pay an obligation (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. Pre-payment and call risk typically occur when interest rates are declining. Conversely, when interest rates are rising, the duration of such securities tends to extend, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates.
FIXED-INCOME SECURITIES RATINGS.Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (together, rating agency) publish ratings based upon their assessment of the relative creditworthiness of rated fixed-income securities. Generally, a lower rating indicates higher credit risk, and higher yields are ordinarily available from fixed-income securities in the lower rating categories to compensate investors for the increased credit risk. Any use of credit ratings in evaluating fixed-income securities can involve certain risks. For example, ratings assigned by the rating agencies are based upon an analysis completed at the time of the rating of the obligor's ability to pay interest and repay principal, typically relying to a large extent on historical data. Rating agencies typically rely to a large extent on historical data which may not accurately represent present or future circumstances. Ratings do not purport to reflect to risk of fluctuations in market value of the fixed-income security and are not absolute standards of quality and only express the rating agency's current opinion of an obligor's overall financial capacity to pay its financial obligations. A credit rating is not a statement of fact or a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a fixed-income obligation. Also, credit quality can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and credit ratings may not reflect the issuer's current financial condition or events since the security was last rated. Rating agencies may have a financial interest in generating business, including the arranger or issuer of the security that normally pays for that rating, and a low rating might affect future business. While rating agencies have policies and procedures to address this potential conflict of interest, there is a risk that these policies will fail to prevent a conflict of interest from impacting the rating. Additionally, legislation has been enacted in an effort to reform rating agencies. The SEC has also adopted rules to require rating agencies to provide additional disclosure and reduce conflicts of interest, and further reform has been proposed. It is uncertain how such legislation or additional regulation might impact the ratings agencies business and the Adviser's investment process.
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Prepayment risk occurs when a fixed-income investment held by the Fund may be repaid in whole or in part prior to its maturity. The amount of prepayable obligations the Fund invests in from time to time may be affected by general business conditions, market interest rates, borrowers' financial conditions and competitive conditions among lenders. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers may repay investments more quickly than anticipated, reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the relevant investment. Moreover, when the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that the Fund purchases a relevant investment at a premium, prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If the Fund buys such investments at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of investments may occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk may effectively change an investment that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer-term investment. Since the value of longer-term investments generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short-term investments, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an investment with prepayment features may not increase as much as that of other fixed-income securities and, as noted above, changes in market rates of interest may accelerate or delay prepayments and thus affect maturities.
FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS.The Fund may invest directly and indirectly in foreign currencies. The Fund may conduct foreign currency transactions on a spot (i.e., cash) or forward basis i.e., by entering into forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies). Currency transactions made on a spot basis are for cash at the spot rate prevailing in the currency exchange market for buying or selling currency. Although foreign exchange dealers generally do not charge a fee for such conversions, they do realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer may offer to sell a foreign currency at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the counterparty desire to resell that currency to the dealer. When used for hedging purposes, forward currency contracts tend to limit any potential gain that may be realized if the value of the Fund's foreign holdings increases because of currency fluctuations.
Investments in foreign currencies are subject to numerous risks, not the least of which is the fluctuation of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to the U.S. dollar. Exchange rates fluctuate for a number of reasons.
Inflation. Exchange rates change to reflect changes in a currency's buying power. Different countries experience different inflation rates due to different monetary and fiscal policies, different product and labor market conditions, and a host of other factors.
Trade Deficits. Countries with trade deficits tend to experience a depreciating currency. Inflation may be the cause of a trade deficit, making a country's goods more expensive and less competitive and so reducing demand for its currency.
Interest Rates. High interest rates may raise currency values in the short term by making such currencies more attractive to investors. However, since high interest rates are often the result of high inflation, long-term results may be the opposite.
Budget Deficits and Low Savings Rates. Countries that run large budget deficits and save little of their national income tend to suffer a depreciating currency because they are forced to borrow abroad to finance their deficits. Payments of interest on this debt can inundate the currency markets with the currency of the debtor nation. Budget deficits also can indirectly contribute to currency depreciation if a government chooses inflationary measures to cope with its deficits and debts.
Political Factors. Political instability in a country can cause a currency to depreciate. Demand for a certain currency may fall if a country appears a less desirable place in which to invest and do business.
Government Control.Through their own buying and selling of currencies, the world's central banks sometimes manipulate exchange rate movements. In addition, governments occasionally issue statements to influence people's expectations about the direction of exchange rates, or they may instigate policies with an exchange rate target as the goal. The value of the Fund's investments is calculated in U.S. dollars each day that the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") is open for business. As a result, to the extent that the Fund's assets are invested in instruments denominated in foreign currencies and the currencies appreciate relative to the U.S. dollar, the Fund's NAV as expressed in U.S. dollars (and, therefore, the value of your investment) should increase. If the U.S. dollar appreciates relative to the other currencies, the opposite should occur. The currency-related gains and losses experienced by the Fund will be based on changes in the value of portfolio securities attributable to currency fluctuations only in relation to the original purchase price of such securities as stated in U.S. dollars. Gains or losses on shares of the Fund will be based on changes attributable to fluctuations in the NAV of such shares, expressed in U.S. dollars, in relation to the original U.S. dollar purchase price of the shares. The amount of appreciation or depreciation in the Fund's assets also will be affected by the net investment income generated by the money market instruments in which the Fund invests and by changes in the value of the securities that are unrelated to changes in currency exchange rates.
The Fund may incur currency exchange costs when it sells instruments denominated in one currency and buys instruments denominated in another.
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Currency-Related Derivatives and Other Financial Instruments
The Fund may use currency transactions in order to hedge the value of portfolio holdings denominated in particular currencies against fluctuations in relative value. Currency transactions include forward currency contracts, exchange-listed currency futures and options thereon, exchange-listed and over-the-counter ("OTC") options on currencies, and currency swaps. A forward currency contract involves a privately negotiated obligation to purchase or sell (with delivery generally required) a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large, commercial banks) and their customers. A forward foreign currency contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades. A currency swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows based on the notional difference among two or more currencies and operates similarly to an interest rate swap, which is described below. The Fund may enter into currency transactions with counterparties which have received (or the guarantors of the obligations of which have received) a short-term credit rating of A-1 or P-1 by S&P or Moody's, respectively, or that have an equivalent rating from a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization ("NRSRO") or (except for OTC currency options) are determined to be of equivalent credit quality by the Adviser.
The Fund's dealings in forward currency contracts and other currency transactions such as futures, options on futures, options on currencies and swaps will be limited to hedging involving either specific transactions ("Transaction Hedging") or portfolio positions ("Position Hedging"). Transaction Hedging is entering into a currency transaction with respect to specific assets or liabilities of the Fund or an underlying Fund, which will generally arise in connection with the purchase or sale of its portfolio securities or the receipt of income therefrom. The Fund may be able to protect itself against possible losses resulting from changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies during the period between the date the security is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received by entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars, of the amount of the foreign currency involved in the underlying security transactions.
Position Hedging is entering into a currency transaction with respect to portfolio security positions denominated or generally quoted in that currency. The Fund may enter into a forward foreign currency contract to sell, for a fixed amount of dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of its portfolio securities denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward foreign currency contract amount and the value of the portfolio securities involved may not have a perfect correlation since the future value of the securities hedged will change as a consequence of the market between the date the forward contract is entered into and the date it matures. The projection of short-term currency market movement is difficult, and the successful execution of this short-term hedging strategy is uncertain.
The Fund will not enter into a transaction to hedge currency exposure to an extent greater, after netting all transactions intended wholly or partially to offset other transactions, than the aggregate market value (at the time of entering into the transaction) of the securities held in its portfolio that are denominated or generally quoted in or currently convertible into such currency.
The Fund in which it invests may also cross-hedge currencies by entering into transactions to purchase or sell one or more currencies that are expected to decline in value relative to other currencies to which the Fund has or in which the Fund expects to have portfolio exposure.
Currency hedging involves some of the same risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments. Currency transactions can result in losses to the Fund if the currency being hedged fluctuates in value to a degree or in a direction that is not anticipated. If the Fund enters into a currency hedging transaction, the Fund will "cover" its position so as not to create a "senior security" as defined in Section 18 of the 1940 Act.
Currency transactions are subject to risks different from those of other portfolio transactions. Because currency control is of great importance to the issuing governments and influences economic planning and policy, purchase and sales of currency and related instruments can be negatively affected by government exchange controls, blockages, and manipulations or exchange restrictions imposed by governments. These actions can result in losses to the Fund if it is unable to deliver or receive currency or funds in settlement of obligations and could also cause hedges it has entered into to be rendered useless, resulting in full currency exposure as well as incurring transaction costs. Buyers and sellers of currency futures are subject to the same risks that apply to the use of futures generally. Furthermore, settlement of a currency futures contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation. Trading options on currency futures is relatively new, and the ability to establish and close out positions on such options is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market, which may not always be available. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate based on factors extrinsic to that country's economy. Although forward foreign currency contracts and currency futures tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, at the same time they tend to limit any potential gain which might result should the value of such currency increase.
The Fund is not required to enter into forward currency contracts for hedging purposes and it is possible that the Fund may not be able to hedge against a currency devaluation that is so generally anticipated that the Fund is unable to contract to sell the currency at a price above the devaluation level it anticipates. It also is possible that, under certain circumstances, the Fund may have to limit its currency transactions to qualify as a regulated investment company under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code").
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ILLIQUID INVESTMENTS. The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, as such term is defined by Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act. The Fund may not invest in illiquid investments if, as a result of such investment, more than 15% of the Fund's net assets would be invested in illiquid investments. Illiquid investments include securities subject to contractual or other restrictions on resale and other instruments that lack readily available markets. The inability of the Fund to dispose of illiquid investments readily or at a reasonable price could impair the Fund's ability to raise cash for redemptions or other purposes. The liquidity of securities purchased by the Fund that are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A, except for certain 144A bonds, will be monitored by the Fund on an ongoing basis. In the event that more than 15% of its net assets are invested in illiquid investments, the Fund, in accordance with Rule 22e-4(b)(1)(iv), will report the occurrence to both the Board and the SEC and seek to reduce its holdings of illiquid investments within a reasonable period of time.
INVESTMENT COMPANIES. The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including money market funds and ETFs, subject to applicable limitations under Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act. Pursuant to Section 12(d)(1), the Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the "acquired company") provided that the Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of the Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than treasury stock of the Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of the Fund. These limitations do not apply to money market funds subject to certain conditions.
If the Fund invests in and, thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, the Fund's shareholders will indirectly bear the Fund's proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by the Fund to the Fund's own investment adviser and the other expenses that the Fund bears directly in connection with the Fund's own operations.
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares of the Fund. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.
The Fund may rely on Section 12(d)(1)(F) and Rule 12d1-3 of the 1940 Act, which provide an exemption from Section 12(d)(1) that allows the Fund to invest all of its assets in other registered funds, including ETFs, if, among other conditions: (a) the Fund, together with its affiliates, acquires no more than three percent of the outstanding voting stock of any acquired fund, and (b) the sales load charged on the Fund's Shares is no greater than the limits set forth in Rule 2830 of the Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. ("FINRA"). Additionally, the Fund may rely on exemptive relief issued by the SEC to other registered funds, including ETFs, to invest in such other funds in excess of the limits of Section 12(d)(1) if the Fund complies with the terms and conditions of such exemptive relief.
In October 2020, the SEC adopted certain regulatory changes and took other actions related to the ability of an investment company to invest in the securities of another investment company. These changes include, among other things, the adoption of Rule 12d1-4, which permits such investments in excess of statutory limits, subject to certain conditions. This rule took effect on January 19, 2021.
MONEY MARKET INSTRUMENTS.The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in high-quality money market instruments or in money market mutual funds on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. The instruments in which the Fund or money market mutual fund may invest include: (i) short-term obligations issued by the U.S. Government; (ii) negotiable certificates of deposit ("CDs"), fixed time deposits and bankers' acceptances of U.S. and foreign banks and similar institutions; (iii) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase "Prime-1" by Moody's or "A-1+" or "A-1" by Standard & Poor's ("S&P") or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Fund; and (iv) repurchase agreements. CDs are short-term negotiable obligations of commercial banks. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Banker's acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
MORTGAGE-RELATED SECURITIES.The Fund may invest in mortgage-related and asset-backed securities. Mortgage-related securities are interests in pools of residential or commercial mortgage loans, including mortgage loans made by savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers, commercial banks and others. Pools of mortgage loans are assembled as securities for sale to investors by various governmental, government-related and private organizations. See "Mortgage Pass-Through Securities." The Fund also may invest in debt securities which are secured with collateral consisting of mortgage-related securities (see "Collateralized Mortgage Obligations").
The 2008 financial downturn, particularly the increase in delinquencies and defaults on residential mortgages, falling home prices, and unemployment, adversely affected the market for mortgage-related securities. In addition, various market and governmental actions may impair the ability to foreclose on or exercise other remedies against underlying mortgage holders, or may reduce the amount received upon foreclosure. These factors have caused certain mortgage-related securities to experience lower valuations and reduced liquidity. There is also no assurance that the U.S. government will take action to support the mortgage-related securities industry, as it
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has in the past, should the economy experience another downturn. Further, future government actions may significantly alter the manner in which the mortgage-related securities market functions. Each of these factors could ultimately increase the risk that the Fund could realize losses on mortgage-related securities.
Mortgage Pass-Through Securities
The Fund may invest in mortgage pass-through securities. Interests in pools of mortgage-related securities differ from other forms of debt securities, which normally provide for periodic payment of interest in fixed amounts with principal payments at maturity or specified call dates. Instead, these securities provide a monthly payment which consists of both interest and principal payments. In effect, these payments are a "pass-through" of the monthly payments made by the individual borrowers on their residential or commercial mortgage loans, net of any fees paid to the issuer or guarantor of such securities. Additional payments are caused by repayments of principal resulting from the sale of the underlying property, refinancing or foreclosure, net of fees or costs which may be incurred. Some mortgage-related securities (such as securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae")) are described as "modified pass-through." These securities entitle the holder to receive all interest and principal payments owed on the mortgage pool, net of certain fees, at the scheduled payment dates regardless of whether or not the mortgagor actually makes the payment.
The rate of pre-payments on underlying mortgages will affect the price and volatility of a mortgage-related security, and may have the effect of shortening or extending the effective duration of the security relative to what was anticipated at the time of purchase. To the extent that unanticipated rates of pre-payment on underlying mortgages increase the effective duration of a mortgage-related security, the volatility of such security can be expected to increase. The residential mortgage market in the United States recently has experienced difficulties that may adversely affect the performance and market value of certain of the Fund's mortgage-related investments. Delinquencies and losses on residential mortgage loans (especially subprime and second-lien mortgage loans) generally have increased recently and may continue to increase, and a decline in or flattening of housing values (as has recently been experienced and may continue to be experienced in many housing markets) may exacerbate such delinquencies and losses. Borrowers with adjustable rate mortgage loans are more sensitive to changes in interest rates, which affect their monthly mortgage payments, and may be unable to secure replacement mortgages at comparably low interest rates. Also, a number of residential mortgage loan originators have experienced serious financial difficulties or bankruptcy. Owing largely to the foregoing, reduced investor demand for mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities and increased investor yield requirements have caused limited liquidity in the secondary market for certain mortgage-related securities, which can adversely affect the market value of mortgage-related securities. It is possible that such limited liquidity in such secondary markets could continue or worsen.
Agency Mortgage-Related Securities
The Fund may invest in agency mortgage-related securities. The principal governmental guarantor of mortgage-related securities is Ginnie Mae. Ginnie Mae is a wholly owned United States government corporation within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee, with the full faith and credit of the United States government, the timely payment of principal and interest on securities issued by institutions approved by Ginnie Mae (such as savings and loan institutions, commercial banks and mortgage bankers) and backed by pools of mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (the "FHA"), or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs (the "VA").
Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government) include the Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae") and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac"). Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation. Fannie Mae purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae, but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. Freddie Mac was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation that issues Participation Certificates ("PCs"), which are pass-through securities, each representing an undivided interest in a pool of residential mortgages. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government.
On September 6, 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA") placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship. As the conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and of any stockholder, officer or director of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with respect to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the assets of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. FHFA selected a new chief executive officer and chairman of the board of directors for each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
In connection with the conservatorship, the U.S. Treasury entered into a Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement with each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac pursuant to which the U.S. Treasury will purchase a limited amount of each of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to maintain a positive net worth in each enterprise. The SPAs contain various covenants that severely limit each enterprise's operations. In exchange for entering into these agreements, the U.S. Treasury received $1 billion of each enterprise's senior preferred
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stock and warrants to purchase 79.9% of each enterprise's common stock. Please see "U.S. Government Securities" for additional information on these agreements.
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are continuing to operate as going concerns while in conservatorship and each remain liable for all of its obligations, including its guaranty obligations, associated with its mortgage-backed securities. The FHFA has indicated that the conservatorship of each enterprise will end when the director of FHFA determines that FHFA's plan to restore the enterprise to a safe and solvent condition has been completed.
Under the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (the "Reform Act"), which was included as part of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, FHFA, as conservator or receiver, has the power to repudiate any contract entered into by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac prior to FHFA's appointment as conservator or receiver, as applicable, if FHFA determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of Fannie Mae's or Freddie Mac's affairs. The Reform Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to repudiate any contract within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as conservator or receiver.
FHFA, in its capacity as conservator, has indicated that it has no intention to repudiate the guaranty obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac because FHFA views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. However, in the event that FHFA, as conservator or if it is later appointed as receiver for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, were to repudiate any such guaranty obligation, the conservatorship or receivership estate, as applicable, would be liable for actual direct compensatory damages in accordance with the provisions of the Reform Act. Any such liability could be satisfied only to the extent of Fannie Mae's or Freddie Mac's assets available therefor.
In the event of repudiation, the payments of interest to holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would be reduced if payments on the mortgage loans represented in the mortgage loan groups related to such mortgage-backed securities are not made by the borrowers or advanced by the servicer. Any actual direct compensatory damages for repudiating these guaranty obligations may not be sufficient to offset any shortfalls experienced by such mortgage-backed security holders.
Further, in its capacity as conservator or receiver, FHFA has the right to transfer or sell any asset or liability of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac without any approval, assignment or consent. Although FHFA has stated that it has no present intention to do so, if FHFA, as conservator or receiver, were to transfer any such guaranty obligation to another party, holders of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities would have to rely on that party for satisfaction of the guaranty obligation and would be exposed to the credit risk of that party.
In addition, certain rights provided to holders of mortgage-backed securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac under the operative documents related to such securities may not be enforced against FHFA, or enforcement of such rights may be delayed, during the conservatorship or any future receivership. The operative documents for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac mortgage-backed securities may provide (or with respect to securities issued prior to the date of the appointment of the conservator may have provided) that upon the occurrence of an event of default on the part of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, in its capacity as guarantor, which includes the appointment of a conservator or receiver, holders of such mortgage-backed securities have the right to replace Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac as trustee if the requisite percentage of mortgage-backed securities holders consent. The Reform Act prevents mortgage-backed security holders from enforcing such rights if the event of default arises solely because a conservator or receiver has been appointed. The Reform Act also provides that no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate or declare an event of default under certain contracts to which Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac is a party, or obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, or affect any contractual rights of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, without the approval of FHFA, as conservator or receiver, for a period of 45 or 90 days following the appointment of FHFA as conservator or receiver, respectively.
In addition, in a February 2011 report to Congress from the Treasury Department and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Obama administration provided a plan to reform America's housing finance market. The plan would reduce the role of and eventually eliminate Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Notably, the plan does not propose similar significant changes to Ginnie Mae, which guarantees payments on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans such as those issued by the Federal Housing Association or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. The report also identified three proposals for Congress and the administration to consider for the long-term structure of the housing finance markets after the elimination of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, including implementing (i) a privatized system of housing finance that limits government insurance to very limited groups of creditworthy low- and moderate-income borrowers, (ii) a privatized system with a government backstop mechanism that would allow the government to insure a larger share of the housing finance market during a future housing crisis, and (iii) a privatized system where the government would offer reinsurance to holders of certain highly-rated mortgage-related securities insured by private insurers and would pay out under the reinsurance arrangements only if the private mortgage insurers were insolvent.
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Collateralized Mortgage Obligations ("CMOs")
The Fund may invest in CMOs, which are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by mortgages and divided into classes. Similar to a bond, interest and prepaid principal is paid, in most cases, on a monthly basis. CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans or private mortgage bonds, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac, or Fannie Mae, and their income streams.
CMOs are structured into multiple classes, often referred to as "tranches," with each class bearing a different stated maturity and entitled to a different schedule for payments of principal and interest, including pre-payments. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the prepayment experience of the collateral. In the case of certain CMOs (known as "sequential pay" CMOs), payments of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including pre-payments, are applied to the classes of CMOs in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made to any class of sequential pay CMOs until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.
In a typical CMO transaction, a corporation ("issuer") issues multiple series (e.g., A, B, C, Z) of CMO bonds ("Bonds"). Proceeds of the Bond offering are used to purchase mortgages or mortgage pass-through certificates ("Collateral"). The Collateral is pledged to a third-party trustee as security for the Bonds. Principal and interest payments from the Collateral are used to pay principal on the Bonds in the order A, B, C, Z. The Series A, B, and C Bonds all bear current interest. Interest on the Series Z Bond is accrued and added to principal and a like amount is paid as principal on the Series A, B, or C Bond currently being paid off. When the Series A, B, and C Bonds are paid in full, interest and principal on the Series Z Bond begins to be paid currently. CMOs may be less liquid and may exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.
As CMOs have evolved, some classes of CMO bonds have become more common. For example, the Fund may invest in parallel-pay and planned amortization class ("PAC") CMOs and multi-class pass-through certificates. Parallel-pay CMOs and multi-class pass-through certificates are structured to provide payments of principal on each payment date to more than one class. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the stated maturity date or final distribution date of each class, which, as with other CMO and multi-class pass-through structures, must be retired by its stated maturity date or final distribution date but may be retired earlier. PACs generally require payments of a specified amount of principal on each payment date. PACs are parallel-pay CMOs with the required principal amount on such securities having the highest priority after interest has been paid to all classes. Any CMO or multi-class pass-through structure that includes PAC securities must also have support tranches-known as support bonds, companion bonds or non-PAC bonds which lend or absorb principal cash flows to allow the PAC securities to maintain their stated maturities and final distribution dates within a range of actual prepayment experience. These support tranches are subject to a higher level of maturity risk compared to other mortgage-related securities, and usually provide a higher yield to compensate investors. If principal cash flows are received in amounts outside a pre-determined range such that the support bonds cannot lend or absorb sufficient cash flows to the PAC securities as intended, the PAC securities are subject to heightened maturity risk. Consistent with the Fund's investment objectives and policies, its Adviser may invest in various tranches of CMO bonds, including support bonds.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities
The Fund may invest in commercial mortgage-backed securities, which include securities that reflect an interest in, and are secured by, mortgage loans on commercial real property. Many of the risks of investing in commercial mortgage-backed securities reflect the risks of investing in the real estate securing the underlying mortgage loans. These risks reflect the effects of local and other economic conditions on real estate markets, the ability of tenants to make loan payments, and the ability of a property to attract and retain tenants. Commercial mortgage-backed securities may be less liquid and exhibit greater price volatility than other types of mortgage- or asset-backed securities.
Other Mortgage-Related Securities
The Fund may invest in other mortgage-related securities, which include securities other than those described above that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property, including mortgage dollar rolls, CMO residuals or stripped mortgage-backed securities ("SMBS"). Other mortgage-related securities may be equity or debt securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, partnerships, trusts and special purpose entities of the foregoing.
CMO Residuals
The Fund may invest in CMO residuals, which are mortgage securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing.
The cash flow generated by the mortgage assets underlying a series of CMOs is applied first to make required payments of principal and interest on the CMOs and second to pay the related administrative expenses and any management fee of the issuer. The residual in a CMO structure generally represents the interest in any excess cash flow remaining after making the foregoing payments. Each
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payment of such excess cash flow to a holder of the related CMO residual represents income and/or a return of capital. The amount of residual cash flow resulting from a CMO will depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the mortgage assets, the coupon rate of each class of CMO, prevailing interest rates, the amount of administrative expenses and the pre-payment experience on the mortgage assets. In particular, the yield to maturity on CMO residuals is extremely sensitive to pre-payments on the related underlying mortgage assets, in the same manner as an interest-only ("IO") class of stripped mortgage-backed securities. See "Other Mortgage-Related Securities - Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities." In addition, if a series of a CMO includes a class that bears interest at an adjustable rate, the yield to maturity on the related CMO residual will also be extremely sensitive to changes in the level of the index upon which interest rate adjustments are based. As described below with respect to stripped mortgage-backed securities, in certain circumstances the Fund may fail to recoup fully its initial investment in a CMO residual.
CMO residuals are generally purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers. Transactions in CMO residuals are generally completed only after careful review of the characteristics of the securities in question. In addition, CMO residuals may, or pursuant to an exemption therefrom, may not have been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended ("Securities Act"). CMO residuals, whether or not registered under the Securities Act, may be subject to certain restrictions on transferability, and may be deemed "illiquid" and subject to the Fund's limitations on investment in illiquid securities.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage-Backed Securities ("ARMBSs")
The Fund may invest in ARMBSs, which have interest rates that reset at periodic intervals. Acquiring ARMBSs permits the Fund to participate in increases in prevailing current interest rates through periodic adjustments in the coupons of mortgages underlying the pool on which ARMBSs are based. Such ARMBSs generally have higher current yield and lower price fluctuations than is the case with more traditional fixed income debt securities of comparable rating and maturity. In addition, when prepayments of principal are made on the underlying mortgages during periods of rising interest rates, the Fund can reinvest the proceeds of such prepayments at rates higher than those at which they were previously invested. Mortgages underlying most ARMBSs, however, have limits on the allowable annual or lifetime increases that can be made in the interest rate that the mortgagor pays. Therefore, if current interest rates rise above such limits over the period of the limitation, the Fund, when holding an ARMBS, does not benefit from further increases in interest rates. Moreover, when interest rates are in excess of coupon rates (i.e., the rates being paid by mortgagors) of the mortgages, ARMBSs behave more like fixed income securities and less like adjustable rate securities and are subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, increases in the coupon rate of adjustable rate mortgages generally lag current market interest rates slightly, thereby creating the potential for capital depreciation on such securities.
Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities ("SMBSs")
The Fund may invest in SMBS, which are derivative multi-class mortgage securities. SMBSs may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing.
SMBSs are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the "IO" class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or "PO" class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including pre-payments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund yield to maturity from these securities. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated pre-payments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup some or all of its initial investment in these securities even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories.
NON-DIVERSIFICATION.The Fund is classified as a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act. A "non-diversified" classification means that the Fund is not limited by the 1940 Act with regard to the percentage of its assets that may be invested in the securities of a single issuer. This means that the Fund may invest a greater portion of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or a small number of issuers than if it was a diversified fund. The securities of a particular issuer may constitute a greater portion of the Fund's portfolio. This may have an adverse effect on the Fund's performance or subject the Fund's Shares to greater price volatility than more diversified investment companies. Moreover, in pursuing its objective, the Fund may hold the securities of a single issuer in an amount exceeding 10% of the value of the outstanding securities of the issuer, subject to restrictions imposed by the Code.
Although the Fund is non-diversified for purposes of the 1940 Act, the Fund intends to maintain the required level of diversification and otherwise conduct its operations so as to qualify as a RIC for purposes of the Code, and to relieve the Fund of any liability for federal income tax to the extent that its earnings are distributed to shareholders. Compliance with the diversification requirements of the Code may limit the investment flexibility of the Fund and may make it less likely that the Fund will meet its investment objectives. See "Federal Income Taxes" in this SAI for further discussion.
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NON-U.S. SECURITIES. The Fund may invest in non-U.S. securities. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present in investments in U.S. securities. For example, non-U.S. securities may be subject to currency risks or to political, social, or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than about a U.S. issuer, and a foreign issuer may or may not be subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those in the U.S. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. Other risks of investing in such securities include political, social, or economic instability in the country involved, the difficulty of predicting international trade patterns and the possibility of imposition of exchange controls. The prices of such securities may be more volatile than those of domestic securities. With respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of expropriation of assets or nationalization, imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments, difficulty in obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities or diplomatic developments which could affect investment in these countries. Losses and other expenses may be incurred in converting between various currencies in connection with purchases and sales of foreign securities. Because foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund's portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Non-U.S. stock markets may not be as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the U.S. While the volume of shares traded on non-U.S. stock markets generally has been growing, such markets usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets. Therefore, the Fund's investment in non-U.S. equity securities may be less liquid and subject to more rapid and erratic price movements than comparable securities listed for trading on U.S. exchanges. Non-U.S. equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable U.S. securities and such levels may not be sustainable. There may be less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers, banks and listed companies abroad than in the U.S. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in U.S. markets. Such differences may include delays beyond periods customary in the U.S. and practices, such as delivery of securities prior to receipt of payment, that increase the likelihood of a failed settlement, which can result in losses to the Fund. The value of non-U.S. investments and the investment income derived from them may also be affected unfavorably by changes in currency exchange control regulations. Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than for securities traded in the U.S. This may cause the Fund to incur higher portfolio transaction costs than domestic equity funds. Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing a security, even one denominated in U.S. dollars. Dividend and interest payments may be repatriated based on the exchange rate at the time of disbursement, and restrictions on capital flows may be imposed.
Investing in emerging markets can have more risk than investing in developed foreign markets. The risks of investing in these markets may be exacerbated relative to investments in foreign markets. Governments of developing and emerging market countries may be more unstable as compared to more developed countries. Developing and emerging market countries may have less developed securities markets or exchanges, and legal and accounting systems. It may be more difficult to sell securities at acceptable prices and security prices may be more volatile than in countries with more mature markets. Currency values may fluctuate more in developing or emerging markets. Developing or emerging market countries may be more likely to impose government restrictions, including confiscatory taxation, expropriation or nationalization of a company's assets, and restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies. In addition, emerging markets may impose restrictions on the Fund's ability to repatriate investment income or capital and thus, may adversely affect the operations of the Fund. Certain emerging markets may impose constraints on currency exchange and some currencies in emerging markets may have been devalued significantly against the U.S. dollar. For these and other reasons, the prices of securities in emerging markets can fluctuate more significantly than the prices of securities of companies in developed countries. The less developed the country, the greater effect these risks may have on the Fund.
OTHER SHORT-TERM INSTRUMENTS.In addition to repurchase agreements, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments, including money market instruments, on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. Money market instruments are generally short-term investments that may include but are not limited to: (i) shares of money market funds; (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (iii) negotiable certificates of deposit ("CDs"), bankers' acceptances, fixed time deposits and other obligations of U.S. and foreign banks (including foreign branches) and similar institutions; (iv) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that satisfy the rating requirements set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act; and (v) short-term U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches) that, in the opinion of the Adviser, are of comparable quality to obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. Any of these instruments may be purchased on a current or a forward-settled basis. Money market instruments also include shares of money market funds. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers' acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
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REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS.The Fund may invest in the securities of real estate investment trusts ("REITs") to the extent allowed by law. Risks associated with investments in securities of REITs include decline in the value of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, variations in rental income, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants, and increases in interest rates. In addition, equity REITs may be affected by changes in the values of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, may not be diversified and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are also subject to heavy cash-flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for the favorable United States federal income tax treatment generally available to REITs under the Code, and failing to maintain an exemption from the 1940 Act. If an issuer of debt securities collateralized by real estate defaults, it is conceivable that the REITs could end up holding the underlying real estate.
REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties that are deemed to present acceptable credit risks. A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which the Fund purchases securities or other obligations from a bank or securities dealer (or its affiliate) and simultaneously commits to resell them to a counterparty at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased obligations. The Fund maintains custody of the underlying obligations prior to their repurchase, either through its regular custodian or through a special "tri-party" custodian or sub-custodian that maintains separate accounts for both the Fund and its counterparty. Thus, the obligation of the counterparty to pay the repurchase price on the date agreed to or upon demand is, in effect, secured by such obligations.
Repurchase agreements carry certain risks not associated with direct investments in securities, including a possible decline in the market value of the underlying obligations. If their value becomes less than the repurchase price, plus any agreed-upon additional amount, the counterparty must provide additional collateral so that at all times the collateral is at least equal to the repurchase price plus any agreed- upon additional amount. The difference between the total amount to be received upon repurchase of the obligations and the price that was paid by the Fund upon acquisition is accrued as interest and included in its net investment income. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government securities (such as commercial paper and corporate bonds) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty's insolvency. If the seller or guarantor becomes insolvent, the Fund may suffer delays, costs and possible losses in connection with the disposition of collateral.
REVERSE REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS. The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by the Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to the Fund's limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust's custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked-to-market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement.
Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by the Fund might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund's obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund's use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.
SECURITIES LENDING. The Fund may lend portfolio securities to certain creditworthy borrowers, including the Fund's securities lending agent. Loans of portfolio securities provide the Fund with the opportunity to earn additional income on the Fund's portfolio securities. All securities loans will be made pursuant to agreements requiring the loans to be continuously secured by collateral in cash, or money market instruments, or money market funds at least equal at all times to the market value of the loaned securities. The borrower pays to the Fund an amount equal to any dividends or interest received on loaned securities. The Fund retains all or a portion of the interest received on investment of cash collateral or receives a fee from the borrower. Lending portfolio securities involves risks of delay in recovery of the loaned securities or in some cases loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. Furthermore, because of the risks of delay in recovery, the Fund may lose the opportunity to sell the securities at a desirable price. The Fund will generally not have the right to vote securities while they are being loaned.
SHORT SALES.The Fund may engage regularly in short sales transactions in which the Fund sells a security it does not own. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow or otherwise obtain the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividends or interest, which accrue during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. The Fund may also use repurchase agreements to satisfy delivery obligations in short sales transactions. The proceeds of the short sale will be retained by the broker, to the extent necessary to meet the margin requirements, until the short position is closed out.
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Until the Fund closes its short position or replaces the borrowed security, the Fund will (a) maintain a segregated account containing cash or liquid securities at such a level that (i) the amount deposited in the account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short and (ii) the amount deposited in the segregated account plus the amount deposited with the broker as collateral will not be less than the market value of the security at the time the security was sold short or (b) otherwise cover the Fund's short position. The Fund may use up to 100% of its portfolio to engage in short sales transactions and collateralize its open short positions.
U.S. GOVERNMENT SECURITIES. The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities to the extent consistent with its investment objective and strategies. Not all U.S. government obligations carry the same credit support. Although many U.S. government securities in which the fund may invest, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac may be chartered or sponsored by Acts of Congress, their securities are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Some, such as those of Ginnie Mae, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; and others are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase the agency's obligations. Still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality or sponsored enterprise. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by the fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government would provide financial support to its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law.
As agency of the U.S. government has placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship, a statutory process with the objective of returning the entities to normal business operations. It is unclear what effect this conservatorship will have on the securities issued or guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. As a result, these securities are subject to more credit risk than U.S. government securities that are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States (e.g., U.S. Treasury bonds).
To the extent the Fund invests in debt instruments or securities of non-U.S. government entities that are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, there is a possibility that such guarantee may be discontinued or modified at a later date.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008‑2009 financial downturn and is expected to grow even greater as a result of efforts to support the U.S. economy during the COVID-19 pandemic beginning in 2020. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt ceiling and growth in public spending. On August 2, 2019, following passage by Congress, the then-President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, which suspends the statutory debt limit through July 31, 2021. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected. Increased government spending in response to COVID-19 can cause the national debt to rise higher, which could heighten these associated risks.
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS.The Trust's Board of Trustees (the "Board") may, in the future, authorize the Fund to invest in securities contracts and investments other than those listed in this SAI and in the Fund's Prospectus, provided they are consistent with the Fund's investment objective and do not violate any investment restrictions or policies.
INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS
The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Fund. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund's outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a "majority of outstanding shares" means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund's outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. Under these restrictions:
1.The Fund may not make loans, except that the Fund may: (i) lend portfolio securities; (ii) enter into repurchase agreements; (iii) purchase all or a portion of an issue of debt securities, bank loan or participation interests, bank certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances, debentures or other securities, whether or not the purchase is made upon the original issuance of the securities; and (iv) participate in an interfund lending program with other registered investment companies;
2.The Fund may not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and as interpreted or modified by regulation from time to time;
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3.The Fund may not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, and as interpreted or modified by regulation from time to time;
4.The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate, except that the Fund may: (i) invest in securities of issuers that invest in real estate or interests therein; (ii) invest in mortgage-related securities and other securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein; and (iii) hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;
5.The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting securities issued by others, except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act, in the disposition of restricted securities or in connection with its investments in other investment companies;
6.The Fund may not purchase or sell commodities, unless acquired as a result of owning securities or other instruments, but it may purchase, sell or enter into financial options and futures, forward and spot currency contracts, swap transactions and other financial contracts or derivative instruments and may invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities; and
7.The Fund may not purchase any security if, as a result of that purchase, more than 25% of the Fund net assets would be invested in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry or group of industries. This limit does not apply to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, the Fund observes the following non- fundamental restrictions, which may be changed without a shareholder vote.
1.Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in senior secured floating rate loans and other adjustable rate securities. Other adjustable rate securities will typically include collateralized loan obligations, asset-backed securities, and commercial mortgage backed securities (collectively, "Adjustable Rate Securities").
With respect to interpretations of the SEC or its staff described in Fundamental restriction number 2 and number 3 above, the SEC and its staff have identified various securities trading practices and derivative instruments used by open-end funds that give rise to potential senior security issues under Section 18(f) of the 1940 Act, which prohibits open-end funds from issuing senior securities. Under the 1940 Act, an open-end fund may borrow from a bank, provided that immediately after any such borrowing there is an asset coverage of at least 300 percent for all borrowings; or from a bank or other persons for temporary purposes only, provided that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. The regulation of the U.S. and non-U.S. derivatives markets has undergone substantial change in recent years and such change may continue. In particular, new Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act (the "Derivatives Rule"), adopted by the SEC on October 28, 2020, replaces the asset segregation regime of Investment Company Act Release No. 10666 (Release 10666) with a new framework for the use of derivatives by registered funds. On August 19, 2022, the SEC will rescind Release 10666 and withdraw letters and similar guidance addressing the Fund's use of derivatives and require funds to satisfy the requirements of the Derivatives Rule. Unless the Fund elects to comply early with the Derivatives Rule, the Fund may continue to engage in certain asset segregation practices in accordance with Release 10666 and related staff letters and guidance until August 19, 2022.
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
The Trust's Board of Trustees has adopted a policy regarding the disclosure of information about the Fund's security holdings. As exchange-traded funds, information about the Fund's portfolio holdings is made available on a daily basis in accordance with the provisions of an Order of the SEC applicable to the Fund, regulations of the Exchange and other applicable SEC regulations, orders and no-action relief. Such information typically reflects all or a portion of the Fund's anticipated portfolio holdings as of the next Business Day. A "Business Day" is any day on which the Exchange is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the Exchange observes the following holidays: New Year's Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents' Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day (observed), Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. This information is used in connection with the creation and redemption process and is disseminated on a daily basis through the Exchange, the National Securities Clearing Corporation ("NSCC") and/or third-party service providers.
The Fund will disclose on its website at the start of each Business Day the identities and quantities of the securities and other assets held by the Fund that will form the basis of the Fund's calculation of its NAV on that Business Day. The portfolio holdings so disclosed will be based on information as of the close of business on the prior Business Day and/or trades that have been completed prior to the opening of business on that Business Day and that are expected to settle on that Business Day.
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The Fund may disclose its complete portfolio holdings or a portion of its portfolio holdings online at www.PacerETFs.com. The Fund will disclose its complete portfolio holdings schedule in public filings with the SEC on a quarterly basis, based on the Fund's fiscal year, within sixty (60) days of the end of the quarter, and will provide that information to shareholders, as required by federal securities laws and regulations thereunder.
The Trust's portfolio holdings policy provides that neither the Fund nor its Adviser, distributor or any agent, or any employee thereof ("Fund Representative") will disclose the Fund's portfolio holdings information to any person other than in accordance with the policy. For purposes of the policy, "portfolio holdings information" means the Fund's actual portfolio holdings, as well as non-public information about its trading strategies or pending transactions including the portfolio holdings, trading strategies or pending transactions of any commingled fund portfolio which contains identical holdings as the Fund. Under the policy, neither the Fund nor any Fund Representative may solicit or accept any compensation or other consideration in connection with the disclosure of portfolio holdings information. The Fund Representative may provide portfolio holdings information to third parties if such information has been included in the Fund's public filings with the SEC or is disclosed on the Fund's publicly accessible website. Information posted on the Fund's website may be separately provided to any person commencing the day after it is first published on the Fund's website.
Under the policy, each business day the Fund's portfolio holdings information will be provided to the distributor or other agent for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation ("NSCC") and/or other fee based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee based subscription services, including Authorized Participants (defined below), and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading Shares of Fund in the secondary market. The distributor may also make available portfolio holdings information to other institutional market participants and entities that provide information services. This information typically reflects the Fund's anticipated holdings on the following business day. "Authorized Participants" are generally large institutional investors that have been authorized by the distributor to purchase and redeem large blocks of Shares (known as Creation Units) pursuant to legal requirements, including the exemptive order granted by the SEC, to which the Fund offers and redeems Shares.
Other than portfolio holdings information made available in connection with the creation/redemption process, as discussed above, portfolio holdings information that is not filed with the SEC or posted on the publicly available website may be provided to third parties only in limited circumstances. Third-party recipients will be required to keep all portfolio holdings information confidential and prohibited from trading on the information they receive. Disclosure to such third parties must be approved in advance by the Trust's President or one of the principal officers of the Adviser. Disclosure to providers of auditing, custody, proxy voting and other similar services for the Fund, as well as rating and ranking organizations, will generally be permitted; however, information may be disclosed to other parties (including, without limitation, individuals, institutional investors, and Authorized Participants that sell Shares of the Fund) only upon approval by the Trust's President or one of the principal officers of the Adviser, who must first determine that the Fund has a legitimate business purpose for doing so. In general, each recipient of non-public portfolio holding information must sign a confidentiality and non-trading agreement, although this requirement will not apply when the recipient is otherwise subject to a duty of confidentiality as determined by the Trust's President or one of the principal officers of the Adviser.
CONTINUOUS OFFERING
The method by which Creation Unit Aggregations of Shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Unit Aggregations of Shares are issued and sold on an ongoing basis, at any point a "distribution," as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.
For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Unit Aggregations after placing an order with the Trust's Distributor, breaks them down into constituent Shares, and sells such Shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.
Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not "underwriters" but are effecting transactions in Shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of Shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. Firms that incur a prospectus delivery obligation with respect to Shares of the Fund are reminded that, pursuant to Rule 153 under the Securities Act, a prospectus delivery obligation under Section 5(b)(2) of the Securities Act owed to an exchange member in connection with the sale on the Listing Exchange is satisfied by the fact that the prospectus is available at the Listing Exchange upon request. The prospectus delivery mechanism provided in Rule 153 is only available with respect to transactions on an exchange.
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MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
Board Responsibilities.The management and affairs of the Trust and its series are overseen by the Board. The Board elects the officers of the Trust who are responsible for administering the day-to-day operations of the Trust and the Fund. The Board has approved contracts, as described below, under which certain companies provide essential services to the Trust.
Like most ETFs, the day-to-day business of the Trust, including the management of risk, is performed by third party service providers, such as the Adviser, the Distributor and the Administrator. The Trustees (as defined below) are responsible for overseeing the Trust's service providers and, thus, have oversight responsibility with respect to risk management performed by those service providers. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Fund. The Fund and its service providers employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify various of those possible events or circumstances, lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust's business (e.g., the Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund's portfolio investments) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that business. The Board has emphasized to the Fund's service providers the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management.
The Board's role in risk oversight begins before the inception of the Fund, at which time certain of the Fund's service providers present the Board with information concerning the investment objectives, strategies and risks of the Fund as well as proposed investment limitations for the Fund. Additionally, the Adviser provides the Board with an overview of, among other things, its investment philosophy, brokerage practices and compliance infrastructure. Thereafter, the Board continues its oversight function as various personnel, including the Trust's Chief Compliance Officer, and other service providers such as the Fund's independent accountants, make periodic reports to the Audit Committee or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management. The Board and the Audit Committee oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Fund may be exposed.
The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided to the Fund by the Adviser and receives information about those services at its regular meetings. In addition, on an annual basis (following the initial two-year period), in connection with its consideration of whether to renew the Investment Advisory Agreements with the Adviser, the Board meets with the Adviser to review such services. Among other things, the Board regularly considers the Adviser's adherence to the Fund's investment restrictions and compliance with various Fund policies and procedures and with applicable securities regulations. The Board also reviews information about the Fund's performance and the Fund's investments, including, for example, portfolio holdings schedules.
The Trust's Chief Compliance Officer reports regularly to the Board to review and discuss compliance issues and Fund and Adviser risk assessments. At least annually, the Trust's Chief Compliance Officer, provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust's policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser. The report addresses the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; any material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and any material compliance matters since the date of the last report.
The Board receives reports from the Fund's service providers regarding operational risks and risks related to the valuation and liquidity of portfolio securities. Annually, the independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Fund's financial statements, focusing on major areas of risk encountered by the Fund and noting any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the Fund's internal controls. Additionally, in connection with its oversight function, the Board oversees Fund management's implementation of disclosure controls and procedures, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Trust in its periodic reports with the SEC are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the required time periods. The Board also oversees the Trust's internal controls over financial reporting, which comprise policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of the Trust's financial reporting and the preparation of the Trust's financial statements.
From their review of these reports and discussions with the Adviser, the Chief Compliance Officer, the independent registered public accounting firm and other service providers, the Board and the Audit Committee learn in detail about the material risks of the Fund, thereby facilitating a dialogue about how management and service providers identify and mitigate those risks.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified and/or quantified, that it may not be practical or cost- effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund's goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Trustees as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. Most of the Fund's investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and the methods by which one or
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more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Fund's and each other's in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board's ability to monitor and manage risk, as a practical matter, is subject to limitations.
Members of the Board and Officers of the Trust. There are four members of the Board (each, a "Trustee"), three of whom are not interested persons of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act ("Independent Trustees"). Joe M. Thomson serves as Chairman of the Board, and Deborah G. Wolk serves as the Trust's Lead Independent Trustee. The Board of Trustees is comprised of a super-majority (75 percent) of Independent Trustees. There is an Audit Committee of the Board that is chaired by an Independent Trustee and comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Audit Committee chair presides at the Committee meetings, participates in formulating agendas for Committee meetings, and coordinates with management to serve as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management on matters within the scope of responsibilities of the Committee as set forth in its Board-approved charter. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics and circumstances of the Trust. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the number of Independent Trustees that constitute the Board, the amount of assets under management in the Trust, and the number of funds overseen by the Board. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from Fund management.
The Board of Trustees has two standing committees: the Audit Committee and Nominating Committee. Each Committee is chaired by an Independent Trustee and composed of Independent Trustees.
The Audit Committee is comprised of all of the Independent Trustees. The function of the Audit Committee is to review the scope and results of the annual audit of the Fund and any matters bearing on the audit or the Fund's financial statements and to ensure the integrity of the Fund's financial reporting. The Audit Committee also recommends to the Board of Trustees the annual selection of the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund and it reviews and pre-approves audit and certain non-audit services to be provided by the independent registered public accounting firm.
The Nominating Committee, comprised of all the Independent Trustees, is responsible for seeking and reviewing candidates for consideration as nominees for Trustees. The Committee meets on an as needed basis. The Nominating Committee will accept and review shareholder nominations for Trustees, which may be submitted to the Trust by sending the nomination to the Trust's Secretary, c/o Pacer Advisors, Inc., 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355.
Additionally, the Trust has a Fair Value Pricing Committee, appointed by the Board, comprised of certain officers of the Trust and employees of the Adviser. The Fair Value Pricing Committee is responsible for valuing securities held by the Fund for which current and reliable market quotations are not readily available.
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Additional information about each Trustee of the Trust is set forth below. The address of each Trustee of the Trust is c/o Pacer Advisors, Inc., 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355.



Name and Year of Birth
Position(s)
Held with the
Trust
Term of Office
and Length of
Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of
Portfolios in Fund
Complex Overseen
By Trustee
Other
Directorships held
by Trustee During
Past Five Years
Interested Trustee
Joe M. Thomson
Born: 1944
Trustee, Chairman, President, and Principal
Executive Officer
Indefinite Term; since 2014
Founder/President at Pacer Advisors, Inc. (since 2005) 48
Director, First Cornerstone Bank (2000-2016)
Independent Trustees
Deborah G. Wolk
Born: 1950
Lead Independent Trustee
Indefinite Term; since 2015
Self-employed providing accounting services and computer modeling (since 1997)
48 None
Jonathan H. Newman, Sr.
Born: 1962
Trustee
Indefinite Term; since 2015
CEO and Chairman, Newman Wine & Spirits (since 2007)
48 None
Colin C. Lake
Born: 1971
Trustee Indefinite Term; since 2021 Founder/President, Developing the Next Leaders, Inc. (consulting) (since 2016) 48 None
Individual Trustee Qualifications
The Trust has concluded that the Trustees should serve on the Board because of their ability to review and understand information about the Fund provided to them by management, to identify and request other information they may deem relevant to the performance of their duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of the Fund, and to exercise their business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of the Fund's shareholders. The Trust has concluded that the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on their own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Thomson should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained as Founder and President of Pacer Advisors, Inc., Pacer Financial, Inc., and in his past roles with various registered broker-dealers and investment management firms. In addition, he holds the Certified Financial Planner®(CFP®), Chartered Life Underwriter®(CLU®), Chartered Financial Consultant®(ChFC®), and Chartered Mutual Fund Counselor (CMFC®) designations, the FINRA General Principal's license, and the Pennsylvania Life & Annuity Insurance license.
The Trust has concluded that Ms. Wolk should serve as Trustee because of the experience she has gained during the past nineteen years providing accounting services and computer modeling expertise to small business clients, as well as her prior positions in the corporate finance field. In addition, she holds the Chartered Financial Consultant®(ChFC®) designation. The Trust believes that Ms. Wolk's extensive experience in accounting and finance provides an appropriate background in areas applicable to investment company oversight.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Newman should serve as Trustee because of his experience as a successful entrepreneur and as a lawyer. The Trust believes that Mr. Newman's business acumen and legal expertise provide an appropriate background in areas applicable to investment company oversight.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Lake should serve as Trustee because of his extensive experience in the financial services industry. The Trust believes that Mr. Lake's business acumen and understanding of financial issues provide an appropriate background in areas applicable to investment company oversight.
In its periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the Board, the Board considers the complementary individual skills and experience of the individual Trustees primarily in the broader context of the Board's overall composition so that the Board, as a body, possesses the appropriate (and appropriately diverse) skills and experience to oversee the business of the Fund.
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Principal Officers of the Trust
The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise its daily business. The address of each officer of the Trust, unless otherwise indicated below, is c/o Pacer Advisors, Inc., 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355.
Name and Year of Birth Position(s) Held with
Fund
Term of Office
and Length of
Time Served
Principal Occupation(s) During
Past Five Years
Joe M. Thomson
Born: 1944
Trustee, Chairman, President, and Principal Executive Officer
Indefinite Term; since 2014
Founder/President, Pacer Advisors, Inc. (since 2005); President and Chief Compliance Officer, Pacer Financial, Inc. (since 2004)
Sean E. O'Hara
Born: 1962
Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer
Indefinite Term; since 2014
Director, Index Design Group (since 2015); Director, Pacer Financial, Inc. (since 2007); Director, Pacer Advisors, Inc. (since 2007)
Bruce Kavanaugh
Born: 1964
Secretary and Portfolio Manager
Indefinite Term; since 2016
Vice President, Pacer Advisors, Inc. (since 2005); Vice President, Pacer Financial, Inc. (since 2004)
Justin Dausch
Gateway Corporate Center, Suite 216
223 Wilmington West Chester Pike
Chadds Ford, PA 19317
Born: 1990
Chief Compliance Officer and AML Officer
Indefinite Term; since 2021 Director, Vigilant, since 2017; Compliance Associate, HSBC (investment banking company), 2015-2017
Fund Shares Owned by Board Members.The Fund is required to show the dollar amount ranges of each Trustee's "beneficial ownership" of Shares of the Fund and each other series of the Trust as of the end of the most recently completed calendar year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. "Beneficial ownership" is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the Exchange Act. Because the Fund is new, the Trustees and officers did not own any Shares of the Fund as of the date of this SAI.
Board Compensation.Independent Trustees are paid by the Adviser from the unified management fee paid to the Adviser and not by the Fund. The Independent Trustees each receive a per meeting trustee fee of $1,500, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with attendance at Board meetings. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan. No officer, director or employee of the Adviser, including Mr. Thomson, receives any compensation from the Fund for acting as a Trustee or officer of the Trust. The following table shows the compensation estimated to be earned by each Trustee for the Fund's fiscal year ending April 30, 2022. Trustee compensation does not include reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at meetings.
Name Aggregate Compensation
From The Fund
Total Compensation From Fund
Complex Paid to Trustees
Interested Trustees
Joe M. Thomson $0 $0
Independent Trustees
Deborah G. Wolk $0 $4,500
Jonathan H. Newman, Sr. $0 $4,500
Colin C. Lake $0 $4,500
Control Persons and Principal Holders of Securities. A principal shareholder is any person who owns of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Shares of the Fund. A control person is a shareholder that owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of the Fund or acknowledges the existence of control. Shareholders owning voting securities in excess of 25% may determine the outcome of any matter affecting and voted on by shareholders of the Fund. As of October 19, 2021, there were no shares of the Fund outstanding.
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INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER
Pacer Advisors, Inc. serves as investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to an investment advisory agreement between the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Adviser (the "Investment Advisory Agreement"). The Adviser is a Pennsylvania corporation located at 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355. The Adviser is majority owned by Joe M. Thomson.
Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser provides investment advice to the Fund and oversees the day-to-day operations of the Fund, subject to the direction and control of the Board and the officers of the Trust. The Adviser also arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and all other non-distribution-related services necessary for the Fund to operate. The Fund pays the Adviser a 0.60% management fee equal to a percentage of the Fund's average daily net asset.
Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except for: the fees paid to the Adviser pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b-1) fees and expenses, if any.
The Adviser, from its own resources, including profits from advisory fees received from the Fund, provided such fees are legitimate and not excessive, may make payments to broker-dealers and other financial institutions for their expenses in connection with the distribution of Fund Shares, and otherwise currently pays all distribution costs for Fund Shares.
The Investment Advisory Agreement, with respect to the Fund, continues in effect for two years from its effective date, and thereafter is subject to annual approval by (i) the Board of Trustees of the Trust or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, provided that in either event such continuance also is approved by a vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, by a vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. If the shareholders of the Fund fail to approve the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Adviser may continue to serve in the manner and to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and rules and regulations thereunder.
The Investment Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund is terminable without any penalty, by vote of the Board of Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, or by the Adviser, in each case on not less than thirty (30) days' nor more than sixty (60) days' prior written notice to the other party; provided that a shorter notice period shall be permitted for the Fund in the event Shares are no longer listed on a national securities exchange. The Investment Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically and immediately in the event of its "assignment" (as defined in the 1940 Act).
Management fees paid by the Fund/Predecessor Fund to the Fund's investment adviser or previous investment adviser, as applicable, for the fiscal year/period noted below were as follows:
Name of Fund 2021 2020 2019
Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF Predecessor Fund $201,085
$176,091(1)
$123,096(2)
(1)The total management fees earned by the Predecessor Fund's investment adviser during this period was $234,768 subject to fee waivers of $58,677.
(2)The total management fees earned by the Predecessor Fund's investment adviser during this period was $277,982 subject to fee waivers of $154,886.
Sub-Adviser
The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Adviser have retained Pacific Asset Management LLC (the "Sub-Adviser" or "Pacific Asset Management"), located at 840 Newport Drive, 7thFloor, Newport Beach, California 92660, to serve as sub-adviser for the Fund. As of June 30, 2021, the Sub-Adviser had approximately $16.7 billion in assets under management. The Sub-Adviser's fixed income investment professionals were initially established in 2007, as a business division of Pacific Life Fund Advisors LLC, under the dealing name (a "d/b/a") Pacific Asset Management. On December 31, 2019, Pacific Life Fund Advisors LLC's business division, Pacific Asset Management then serving as the Fund's sub-adviser, was reorganized into Pacific Asset Management LLC, as part of an internal corporate restructuring initiative. Consequently, Pacific Life Fund Advisors LLC transferred its duties and obligations under the Predecessor Fund's Subadvisory Agreement to Pacific Asset Management LLC as of the same date.
Pursuant to a Sub-Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser (the "Sub-Advisory Agreement"), the Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities on behalf of the Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For the services it provides to the Fund, the Sub-Adviser is compensated by the Adviser from the management fees paid by the Fund to the Adviser. The Sub-Advisory Agreement was approved by the Trustees (including all the Independent Trustees) and the Adviser, as sole shareholder of the Fund, in compliance with the 1940 Act. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Sub-Advisory Agreement is renewable from year to year with respect to the Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not "interested persons" of the Trust; and (2) by
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the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment, and is terminable at any time without penalty by the Board or, with respect to the Fund, by a majority of the outstanding Shares of the Fund, on not less than 30 days' nor more than 60 days' written notice to the Sub-Adviser, or by the Sub-Adviser on 60 days' written notice to the Adviser and the Trust. The Sub-Advisory Agreement provides that the Sub-Adviser shall not be protected against any liability to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on its part in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard of its obligations or duties thereunder. The Fund is new and the Adviser has not paid management fees to the Sub-Adviser as of the date of this SAI.
Portfolio Managers.Bob Boyd, Portfolio Manager and Managing Director of the Sub-Adviser, and Ying Qiu, CFA, Portfolio Manager and Managing Director of the Sub-Adviser, are the primary persons responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. Mr. Boyd has served as the Sub-Adviser's portfolio manager for the Fund since the Predecessor Fund's inception in February 2015. Ms. Qiu has served as the Sub-Adviser's portfolio manager for the Fund since October 2021.
In addition to the Fund, the Portfolio Managers each manage the following other accounts (collectively, the "Other Accounts") as of September 30, 2021:
Type of Accounts Total Number
of Accounts
Total Assets
of Accounts (millions)
Total Number of Accounts with Performance Based Fees Total Assets of Accounts with Performance Based Fees (millions)
Bob Boyd
Registered Investment Companies 2 $1,506.7 0 $0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 5 $1,834.7 5 $1,834.7
Other Accounts 2 $967.1 0 $0
Ying Qiu
Registered Investment Companies 6 $4,095.4 0 $0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 1 $30.1 1 $30.1
Other Accounts 10 $2,251.2 0 $0
Portfolio Managers Fund Ownership.The Fund is required to show the dollar range of each portfolio manager's "beneficial ownership" of Shares as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. "Beneficial ownership" is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act. As of the date of this SAI, the Portfolio Managers did not own any Shares of the Fund.
Portfolio Managers Compensation.The portfolio managers are compensated by the Sub-Adviser. Each portfolio manager's compensation consists of a fixed annual base salary and a share of the firm's profits. Compensation of the portfolio managers is not tied directly to the Fund's performance or assets under management.
Description of Material Conflicts of Interest.A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio managers' management of the Fund and Other Accounts, which, in theory, may allow them to allocate investment opportunities in a way that favors Other Accounts over the Fund. This conflict of interest may be exacerbated to the extent that the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser or a portfolio manager receives, or expects to receive, greater compensation from their management of the Other Accounts (some of which may receive a base and incentive fee) than from the Fund. Notwithstanding this theoretical conflict of interest, it is the Adviser's and the Sub-Adviser's policy to manage each account based on its investment objectives and related restrictions, and each of the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to allocate investment opportunities on a fair and equitable basis over time and in a manner consistent with each account's investment objectives and related restrictions.
Codes of Ethics.The Trust, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, and the Distributor (as defined under "The Distributor") have each adopted a code of ethics, including an insider trading policy, pursuant to Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act and Rule 204A-1 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as applicable. These codes of ethics are designed to prevent affiliated persons of the Trust, the Adviser and the Distributor from engaging in deceptive, manipulative or fraudulent activities in connection with securities held or to be acquired by the Fund (which may also be held by persons subject to the codes of ethics).
There can be no assurance that the codes of ethics will be effective in preventing such activities. Each code of ethics may be examined at the office of the SEC in Washington, D.C. or on the Internet at the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.
Proxy Voting Policy.The Fund has delegated proxy voting responsibilities to the Sub-Adviser, subject to the Board's oversight. In delegating proxy responsibilities, the Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with the Fund's and its shareholders' best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Sub-Adviser has adopted proxy voting policies and guidelines for this purpose ("Proxy Voting Policies") and has engaged a third party proxy solicitation firm to assist with voting
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proxies in a timely manner. The Trust's chief compliance officer is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of the Proxy Voting Policies.
Under the Proxy Voting Policies, in the absence of specific voting guidelines from the client, the Sub-Adviser will vote proxies in the best interest of each particular client. The Sub-Adviser will vote such proxies in accordance with its proxy policies and procedures, which are attached as Appendix B. They are designed to vote in a manner consistent with the Adviser's investment decision making. The Sub-Adviser's policy is to vote all proxies from a specific issuer the same way for each client, absent qualifying restrictions from a client. Clients are permitted to place reasonable restrictions on our voting authority in the same manner that they may place such restrictions on the actual selection of account securities. Clients may direct the vote in a particular solicitation.
The Sub-Adviser will generally vote in favor of routine corporate housekeeping proposals such as the election of directors and selection of auditors absent conflicts of interest raised by an auditor's non-audit services. The Sub-Adviser will generally vote against proposals that cause board members to become entrenched or cause unequal voting rights. In reviewing proposals, the Adviser will further consider the opinion of management, the effect on management, the effect on shareholder value and the issuer's business practices.
When available, information on how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12 month period ended June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling 1-800-617-0004 and (2) on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
THE ADMINISTRATOR AND TRANSFER AGENT
Pursuant to a fund administration servicing agreement and a fund accounting servicing agreement between the Trust and U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC ("Fund Services"), Fund Services provides the Trust with administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) and accounting services, including portfolio accounting services, tax accounting services and furnishing financial reports. In this capacity, Fund Services does not have any responsibility or authority for the management of the Fund, the determination of investment policy, or for any matter pertaining to the distribution of Fund Shares. As compensation for the administration, accounting and management services, the Adviser pays Fund Services a fee based on the Fund's average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee.
Fund Services also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses for the services mentioned above, including pricing expenses. The table below shows fees earned by Fund Services for services provided to the Fund/Predecessor Fund for the end of the fiscal year/periods noted below.
2021 2020 2019
$76,346 $99,836 $105,811
THE CUSTODIAN
Pursuant to a Custody Agreement, U.S. Bank National Association, 1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212, serves as the custodian of the Fund's assets. The custodian holds and administers the assets in the Fund's portfolio. Pursuant to the Custody Agreement, the custodian receives an annual fee from the Adviser based on the Trust's total average daily net assets, subject to a minimum annual fee and certain settlement charges. The custodian also is entitled to certain out-of-pocket expenses.
SECURITIES LENDING ACTIVITIES
U.S. Bank (the "Securities Lending Agent") serves as securities lending agent to the Fund. The Securities Lending Agent is responsible for the implementation and administration of the Fund's securities lending program pursuant to an agreement between the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Securities Lending Agent (the "Securities Lending Agreement"). The Securities Lending Agent acts as agent to the Fund to lend available securities with any person on the Securities Lending Agent's list of approved borrowers and (i) determines whether a loan shall be made and negotiates and establishes the terms and conditions of the loan with the borrower; (ii) ensures that all substitute interest, dividends, and other distributions paid with respect to loan securities is credited to the Fund's relevant account on the date such amounts are delivered by the borrower to the Securities Lending Agent; (iii) receives and holds, on the Fund's behalf, collateral from borrowers to secure obligations of borrowers with respect to any loan of available securities; (iv) marks loaned securities and collateral to their market value each business day based upon the market value of the loaned securities and collateral at the close of business employing the most recently available pricing information and receives and delivers collateral to maintain the value of the collateral at no less than 100% of the market value of the loaned securities; (v) at the termination of a loan, returns the collateral to the borrower upon the return of the loaned securities to the Securities Lending Agent; (vi) invests cash collateral in accordance with the Securities Lending Agreement; and (viii) maintains such records as are reasonably necessary to account for loans that are made and the income derived therefrom and makes available to the Fund a monthly statement describing the loans outstanding, including an accounting of all securities lending transactions.
As of the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021, the Predecessor Fund did not engage in securities lending.
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THE DISTRIBUTOR
The Trust and Pacer Financial, Inc. (the "Distributor"), an affiliate of the Adviser, are parties to a distribution agreement ("Distribution Agreement"), whereby the Distributor acts as principal underwriter for the Trust and distributes the Shares of the Fund. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only in Creation Units. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit and does not maintain an active market in Shares. The principal business address of the Distributor is 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355.
Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor, as agent for the Trust, will solicit orders for the purchase of the Shares, provided that any subscriptions and orders will not be binding on the Trust until accepted by the Trust. The Distributor will deliver Prospectuses and, upon request, SAIs to persons purchasing Creation Units and will maintain records of orders placed with it. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") and a member of FINRA.
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers ("Soliciting Dealers") who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as discussed in "Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units" below) or DTC participants (as defined below).
The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable thereafter. The continuance of the Distribution Agreement must be specifically approved at least annually (i) by the vote of the Trustees or by a vote of the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees who are not "interested persons" of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operations of the Distribution Agreement or any related agreement, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Distribution Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust on sixty (60) days' written notice when authorized either by majority vote of its outstanding voting Shares or by a vote of a majority of its Board (including a majority of the Independent Trustees), or by the Distributor on sixty (60) days' written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Distribution Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Distributor, or reckless disregard by it of its obligations thereunder, the Distributor shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Intermediary Compensation.The Adviser or its affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of the Fund's assets (i.e., without additional cost to the Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries ("Intermediaries") for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing and educational training or support. These arrangements are not financed by the Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of the Fund's Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of Fund Shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Fund Shares.
Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to the Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). The Adviser periodically assesses the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend the Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professionals if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.
Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Adviser or its affiliates to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares of the Fund.
Distribution and Service Plan.The Trust has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the "Plan") in accordance with the provisions of Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, which regulates circumstances under which an investment company may directly or indirectly bear expenses relating to the distribution of its Shares. No payments pursuant to the Plan are expected to be made during the twelve (12) month period from the date of this SAI. Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Fund under the Plan may only be imposed after approval by the Board.
Continuance of the Plan must be approved annually by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or in any agreements related to the Plan ("Qualified Trustees"). The Plan requires that quarterly written reports of amounts spent under the Plan and the purposes of such expenditures be furnished to and reviewed by the Trustees. The Plan may not be amended to increase
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materially the amount that may be spent thereunder without approval by a majority of the outstanding Shares of the Fund. All material amendments of the Plan will require approval by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and of the Qualified Trustees.
The Plan provides that the Fund pays the Distributor an annual fee of up to a maximum of 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. Under the Plan, the Distributor may make payments pursuant to written agreements to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations and insurance companies including, without limit, investment counselors, broker-dealers and the Distributor's affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, "Agents") as compensation for services and reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Plan is characterized as a compensation plan since the distribution fee will be paid to the Distributor without regard to the distribution expenses incurred by the Distributor or the amount of payments made to other financial institutions and intermediaries. The Trust intends to operate the Plan in accordance with its terms and with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA") rules concerning sales charges.
Under the Plan, subject to the limitations of applicable law and regulations, the Fund is authorized to compensate the Distributor up to the maximum amount to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or for providing or arranging for others to provide shareholder services and for the maintenance of shareholder accounts. Such activities may include, but are not limited to: (i) delivering copies of the Fund's then current reports, prospectuses, notices, and similar materials, to prospective purchasers of Creation Units; (ii) marketing and promotional services, including advertising; (iii) paying the costs of and compensating others, including APs with whom the Distributor has entered into written Authorized Participant Agreements, for performing shareholder servicing on behalf of the Fund; (iv) compensating certain APs for providing assistance in distributing the Creation Units of the Fund, including the travel and communication expenses and salaries and/or commissions of sales personnel in connection with the distribution of the Creation Units of the Fund; (v) payments to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies and investment counselors, broker-dealers, mutual fund supermarkets and the affiliates and subsidiaries of the Trust's service providers as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance; (vi) facilitating communications with beneficial owners of Shares, including the cost of providing (or paying others to provide) services to beneficial owners of Shares, including, but not limited to, assistance in answering inquiries related to Shareholder accounts; and (vii) such other services and obligations as are set forth in the Distribution Agreement.
LEGAL COUNSEL
Practus, LLP, 11300 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Suite 310, Leawood, Kansas 66211, serves as legal counsel for the Trust. Duane Morris LLP, 30 South 17th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, serves as legal counsel for the Independent Trustees.
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Sanville & Company, 1514 Old York Road, Abington, PA 19001, serves as the independent registered public accounting firm for the Fund.
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
The policy of the Trust regarding purchases and sales of securities for the Fund is that primary consideration will be given to obtaining the most favorable prices and efficient executions of transactions. Consistent with this policy, when securities transactions are effected on a stock exchange, the Trust's policy is to pay commissions which are considered fair and reasonable without necessarily determining that the lowest possible commissions are paid in all circumstances. The Trust believes that a requirement always to seek the lowest possible commission cost could impede effective portfolio management and preclude the Fund from obtaining a high quality of brokerage and research services. In seeking to determine the reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid in any transaction, the Sub-Adviser will rely upon its experience and knowledge regarding commissions generally charged by various brokers and on its judgment in evaluating the brokerage services received from the broker effecting the transaction. Such determinations are necessarily subjective and imprecise, as in most cases, an exact dollar value for those services is not ascertainable. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of Fund Shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.
The Sub-Adviser owes a fiduciary duty to its clients to seek to provide best execution on trades effected. In selecting a broker/dealer for each specific transaction, the Sub-Adviser chooses the broker/dealer deemed most capable of providing the services necessary to obtain the most favorable execution. "Best execution" is generally understood to mean the most favorable cost or net proceeds reasonably obtainable under the circumstances. The full range of brokerage services applicable to a particular transaction may be considered when making this judgment, which may include, but is not limited to: liquidity, price, commission, timing, aggregated trades, capable floor brokers or traders, competent block trading coverage, ability to position, capital strength and stability, reliable and accurate communications and settlement processing, use of automation, knowledge of other buyers or sellers, arbitrage skills, administrative ability, underwriting and provision of information on a particular security or market in which the transaction is to occur. The specific criteria will vary depending upon the nature of the transaction, the market in which it is executed, and the extent to which
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it is possible to select from among multiple broker/dealers. The Sub-Adviser will also use electronic crossing networks ("ECNs") when appropriate.
Subject to the foregoing policies, brokers or dealers selected to execute the Fund's portfolio transactions may include the Fund's Authorized Participants (as discussed in "Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units" below) or their affiliates. An Authorized Participant or its affiliates may be selected to execute the Fund's portfolio transactions in conjunction with an all-cash creation unit order or an order including "cash-in-lieu" (as described below under "Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units"), so long as such selection is in keeping with the foregoing policies. As described below under "Purchase and Redemption of Shares in Creation Units-Creation Transaction Fee" and "-Redemption Transaction Fee", the Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Sub-Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate the changes to the Fund's portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order, even if the decision to not charge a variable fee could be viewed as benefiting the Authorized Participant or its affiliate selected to executed the Fund's portfolio transactions in connection with such orders.
The Sub-Adviser may use the Fund's assets for, or participate in, third party soft dollar arrangements, in addition to receiving proprietary research from various full service brokers, the cost of which is bundled with the cost of the broker's execution services. The Sub-Adviser does not "pay up" for the value of any such proprietary research. Section 28(e) of the Exchange Act permits the Sub-Adviser, under certain circumstances, to cause the Fund to pay a broker or dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for effecting the transaction in recognition of the value of brokerage and research services provided by the broker or dealer. The Sub-Adviser may receive a variety of research services and information on many topics, which it can use in connection with its management responsibilities with respect to the various accounts over which it exercises investment discretion or otherwise provides investment advice. The research services may include qualifying order management systems, portfolio attribution and monitoring services and computer software and access charges which are directly related to investment research. Accordingly, the Fund may pay a broker commission higher than the lowest available commission in recognition of the broker's provision of such services to the Sub-Adviser, but only if the Sub-Adviser determines the total commission (including the soft dollar benefit) is comparable to the best commission rate that could be expected to be received from other brokers. The amount of soft dollar benefits received depends on the amount of brokerage transactions effected with the brokers. A conflict of interest exists because there is an incentive to: 1) cause clients to pay a higher commission than the firm might otherwise be able to negotiate; 2) cause clients to engage in more securities transactions than would otherwise be optimal; and 3) only recommend brokers that provide soft dollar benefits.
The Sub-Adviser faces a potential conflict of interest when it uses client trades to obtain brokerage or research services. This conflict exists because the Sub-Adviser is able to use the brokerage or research services to manage client accounts without paying cash for such services, which reduces the Sub-Adviser's expenses to the extent that the Sub-Adviser would have purchased such products had they not been provided by brokers. Section 28(e) permits the Sub-Adviser to use brokerage or research services for the benefit of any account it manages. Certain accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser may generate soft dollars used to purchase brokerage or research services that ultimately benefit other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser, effectively cross subsidizing the other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser that benefit directly from the product. The Sub-Adviser may not necessarily use all of the brokerage or research services in connection with managing the Fund whose trades generated the soft dollars used to purchase such products.
The Sub-Adviser is responsible, subject to oversight by the Board, for placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities. If purchases or sales of portfolio securities of the Fund and one or more other investment companies or clients supervised by the Sub-Adviser are considered at or about the same time, transactions in such securities are allocated among the several investment companies and clients in a manner deemed equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to all by the Sub-Adviser. In some cases, this procedure could have a detrimental effect on the price or volume of the security so far as the Fund is concerned. However, in other cases, it is possible that the ability to participate in volume transactions and to negotiate lower brokerage commissions will be beneficial to the Fund. The primary consideration is prompt execution of orders at the most favorable net price.
The Fund may deal with affiliates in principal transactions to the extent permitted by exemptive order or applicable rule or regulation.
Brokerage with Fund Affiliates.The Fund may execute brokerage or other agency transactions through registered broker-dealer affiliates of the Fund, the Adviser, or the Distributor for a commission in conformity with the 1940 Act, the Exchange Act and rules promulgated by the SEC. These rules require that commissions paid to the affiliate by the Fund for exchange transactions not exceed "usual and customary" brokerage commissions. The rules define "usual and customary" commissions to include amounts which are "reasonable and fair compared to the commission, fee or other remuneration received or to be received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable period of time." The Trustees, including those who are not "interested persons" of the Fund, have adopted procedures for evaluating the reasonableness of commissions paid to affiliates and review these procedures periodically. The Fund is new and have not paid any commissions to affiliated brokers.
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Securities of "Regular Broker-Dealers."The Fund is required to identify any securities of its "regular brokers and dealers" (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) which it may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. "Regular brokers and dealers" of the Trust are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Trust's portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Trust; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of the Trust's Shares. The Predecessor Fund did not hold any securities of its regular broker dealers as of June 30, 2021.
Brokerage Commissions. For the fiscal period ended June 30, 2020 and fiscal year ended June 30, 2021, the Predecessor Fund paid $0 and $0, respectively, in brokerage commissions.
Directed Brokerage. The Predecessor Fund did not pay any commissions on brokerage transactions directed to brokers pursuant to an agreement or understanding whereby the broker provides research or other brokerage services to the Adviser as of June 30, 2021.
Portfolio Turnover.Portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year. High turnover rates are likely to result in comparatively greater brokerage expenses. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by the Adviser based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid by the other institutional investors for comparable services.
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021, the portfolio turnover rate for the Predecessor Fund was 35% of the average value of its portfolio. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, the portfolio turnover rate for the Predecessor Fund was 48% of the average value of its portfolio.
High portfolio turnover levels - those in excess of 100% - can lead to additional transaction costs and possible tax consequences.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE TRUST
The Declaration of Trust authorizes the issuance of an unlimited number of funds and Shares of the Fund. Each Share of the Fund represents an equal proportionate interest in any given Fund with any given Share. Shares are entitled upon liquidation to a pro rata share in the net assets of the Fund. Shareholders have no preemptive rights. The Declaration of Trust provides that the Trustees may create additional series or classes of shares. All consideration received by the Trust for shares of any additional funds and all assets in which such consideration is invested would belong to the Fund and would be subject to the liabilities related thereto. Share certificates representing shares will not be issued. The Fund's Shares, when issued, are fully paid and non-assessable.
Each Share has one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required, consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shares of all funds of the Trust vote together as a single class, except that if the matter being voted on affects only a particular fund it will be voted on only by the Fund and if a matter affects a particular fund differently from other funds, the Fund will vote separately on such matter. As a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust is not required, and does not intend, to hold annual meetings of shareholders. Approval of shareholders will be sought, however, for certain changes in the operation of the Trust and for the election of Trustees under certain circumstances. Upon the written request of shareholders owning at least 10% of the Trust's shares, the Trust will call for a meeting of shareholders to consider the removal of one or more Trustees and other certain matters. In the event that such a meeting is requested, the Trust will provide appropriate assistance and information to the shareholders requesting the meeting.
Under the Declaration of Trust, the Trustees have the power to liquidate the Fund without shareholder approval. While the Trustees have no present intention of exercising this power, they may do so if the Fund fails to reach a viable size within a reasonable amount of time or for such other reasons as may be determined by the Board.
As described further in the Declaration of Trust, shareholders of the Trust or any Fund may not bring a derivative action to enforce the right of the Trust or an affected Fund, unless several conditions are met, including, among others, shareholders owning Shares representing no less than a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Trust or the Fund, as applicable, must join in bringing the derivative action, provided, however, the foregoing may not apply to the extent a claim arises under federal securities laws.
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Role of the Depositary Trust Company ("DTC").DTC acts as Securities Depository for the Shares of the Trust. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of DTC or its nominee and deposited with, or on behalf of, DTC.
DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants ("DTC Participants") and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities' certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of which (and/or their representatives) own DTC. More specifically, DTC is a subsidiary of the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation, which is owned by its member firms, including international broker dealers, correspondent and clearing banks, mutual fund companies and investment banks. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly ("Indirect Participants").
Beneficial ownership of Shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in Shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as "Beneficial Owners") is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of Shares. No Beneficial Owner shall have the right to receive a certificate representing such Shares.
Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and DTC, DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the Shares of the Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding Shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form and number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
Share distributions shall be made to DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all Shares of the Trust. DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall immediately credit DTC Participants' accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their beneficial interests in Shares of the Fund as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of Shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a "street name," and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.
The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such Shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between DTC and the DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants. DTC may decide to discontinue its service with respect to Shares of the Trust at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.
LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES' LIABILITY
The Declaration of Trust provides that a Trustee shall be liable only for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee, and shall not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law. The Declaration of Trust also provides that the Trust shall indemnify each person who is, or has been, a Trustee, officer, employee or agent of the Trust, any person who is serving or has served at the Trust's request as a Trustee, officer, trustee, employee or agent of another organization in which the Trust has any interest as a shareholder, creditor or otherwise to the fullest extent provided by law and in the manner provided in the By-laws. However, nothing in the Declaration of Trust shall protect or indemnify a Trustee against any liability for his or her willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee. Nothing contained in this section attempts to disclaim a Trustee's individual liability in any manner inconsistent with the federal securities laws.
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PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS
The Trust issues and sells Shares of the Fund only: (i) in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load (but subject to transaction fees, if applicable), at its NAV per share next determined after receipt of an order, on any Business Day, in proper form pursuant to the terms of the Authorized Participant Agreement ("Participant Agreement"); or (ii) pursuant to the Dividend Reinvestment Service (defined below). The NAV of the Fund's Shares is calculated each Business Day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange, generally 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time on each day that the New York Stock Exchange is open. The Fund will not issue fractional Creation Units. A "Business Day" is any day on which both the New York Stock Exchange and Trust are open for business.
Fund Deposits.The consideration for purchase of a Creation Unit of the Fund generally consists of the in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (the "Deposit Securities") per each Creation Unit and the Cash Component (defined below), computed as described below. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a "cash in lieu" amount ("Deposit Cash") to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. When accepting purchases of Creation Units for all or a portion of Deposit Cash, the Fund may incur additional costs associated with the acquisition of Deposit Securities that would otherwise be provided by an in-kind purchaser.
Together, the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component constitute the "Fund Deposit," which represents the minimum initial and subsequent investment amount for a Creation Unit of the Fund. The "Cash Component" is an amount equal to the difference between the NAV of the Shares (per Creation Unit) and the market value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. If the Cash Component is a positive number (i.e., the net asset value per Creation Unit exceeds the market value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such positive amount. If the Cash Component is a negative number (i.e., the net asset value per Creation Unit is less than the market value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable), the Cash Component shall be such negative amount and the creator will be entitled to receive cash in an amount equal to the Cash Component. The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the market value of the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable. Computation of the Cash Component excludes any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses payable upon transfer of beneficial ownership of the Deposit Securities, if applicable, which shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant (as defined below).
The Fund, through NSCC, will make available on each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the list of the names and the required number of Shares of each Deposit Security or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, to be included in the current Fund Deposits (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund. Such Fund Deposits are subject to any applicable adjustments as described below, to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced composition of the Deposit Securities or the required amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, is made available.
The identity and number of Shares of the Deposit Securities or the amount of Deposit Cash, as applicable, required for the Fund Deposit for a Creation Unit changes as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time by the Adviser with a view to the investment objective of the Fund. The composition of the Deposit Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities of the Fund's portfolio. However, there will be no intraday changes to Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash except to correct errors in the published list.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (that is a "cash in lieu" amount) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security which may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or that may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC, the Clearing Process (discussed below), the Federal Reserve System for U.S. Treasury Securities (discussed below) or for other similar reasons. The Trust also reserves the right to permit or require a "cash in lieu" amount where the delivery of Deposit Securities by the Authorized Participant (as described below) would be restricted under the securities laws or where delivery of Deposit Securities to the Authorized Participant would result in the disposition of Deposit Securities by the Authorized Participant becoming restricted under the securities laws, and in certain other situations. The adjustments described above will reflect changes, known to the Adviser on the date of announcement to be in effect by the time of delivery of the Fund Deposit, resulting from certain corporate actions.
On a given Business Day, the Trust may require all Authorized Participants purchasing Creation Units on that day to deposit an amount of cash (that is a "cash in lieu" amount) to replace any Deposit Security that may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process (discussed below). The Trust also reserves the right to permit a "cash in lieu" to replace any Deposit Security which may not be available in sufficient quantity or which may not be eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting ("custom orders"). The Trust may in its discretion require an Authorized Participant to purchase Creation Units of the Fund in cash, rather than in-kind. On a given Business Day, the Trust may announce before the open of trading that all purchases of Creation Units of the Fund on that day will be made entirely in
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cash or, upon receiving a purchase order for Creation Units of the Fund from an Authorized Participant, the Trust may determine to require that purchase to be made entirely in cash.
Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units.To be eligible to place orders with the Distributor to purchase a Creation Unit of the Fund, an entity must be (i) a "Participating Party", i.e., a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC (the "Clearing Process"), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a DTC Participant (see "BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM"). In addition, each Participating Party or DTC Participant (each, an "Authorized Participant") must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Transfer Agent and the Trust, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Each Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of a Participant Agreement, on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including that it will pay to the Trust, an amount of cash sufficient to pay the Cash Component together with the creation transaction fee (described below) and any other applicable fees and taxes.
All orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund must be placed for one or more Creation Units and in the manner and by the time set forth in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form. The date on which an order to purchase Creation Units (or an order to redeem Creation Units, as set forth below) of such Fund is received and accepted is referred to as the "Order Placement Date."
The order cut-off time for orders to purchase Creation Units for the Fund is expected to be 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time, which time may be modified by the Fund from time-to-time by amendment to the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form.
An Authorized Participant may require an investor to make certain representations or enter into agreements with respect to the order, (e.g., to provide for payments of cash, when required). Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed a Participant Agreement and that, therefore, orders to purchase Shares directly from the Fund in Creation Units have to be placed by the investor's broker through an Authorized Participant that has executed a Participant Agreement. In such cases there may be additional charges to such investor. At any given time, there may be only a limited number of broker-dealers that have executed a Participant Agreement and only a small number of such Authorized Participants may have international capabilities.
On days when the Exchange closes earlier than normal, the Fund may require orders to create Creation Units to be placed earlier in the day. In addition, if a market or markets on which the Fund's investments are primarily traded is closed, the Fund will also generally not accept orders on such day(s). Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor pursuant to procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement and in accordance with the applicable order form. On behalf of the Fund, the Distributor will notify the Custodian of such order. The Custodian will then provide such information to the appropriate local sub-custodian(s). Those placing orders through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor by the cut-off time on such Business Day, as designated in the Participant Agreement. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure may impede the ability to reach the Distributor or an Authorized Participant.
Fund Deposits must be delivered by an Authorized Participant through the Federal Reserve System (for cash) or through DTC (for corporate securities), through a sub-custody agent (for foreign securities) and/or through such other arrangements allowed by the Trust or its agents. With respect to foreign Deposit Securities, the Custodian shall cause the sub-custodian of the Fund to maintain an account into which the Authorized Participant shall deliver, on behalf of itself or the party on whose behalf it is acting, such Deposit Securities (or Deposit Cash for all or a part of such securities, as permitted or required), with any appropriate adjustments as advised by the Trust. Foreign Deposit Securities must be delivered to an account maintained at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Fund Deposit transfer must be ordered by the Authorized Participant in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of the requisite number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, to the account of the Fund or its agents by no later than 12:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive all of the Deposit Securities, or the required Deposit Cash in lieu thereof, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. The "Settlement Date" for the Fund is generally the next Business Day after the Order Placement Date. All questions as to the number of Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash to be delivered, as applicable, and the validity, form and eligibility (including time of receipt) for the deposit of any tendered securities or cash, as applicable, will be determined by the Trust, whose determination shall be final and binding. The amount of cash represented by the Cash Component must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than the Settlement Date. If the Cash Component and the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, are not received by the Custodian in a timely manner by the Settlement Date, the creation order may be cancelled. Upon written notice to the Distributor, such canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day using the Fund Deposit as newly constituted to reflect the then current NAV of the Fund.
The order shall be deemed to be received on the Order Placement Date provided that the order is placed in proper form prior to the applicable cut-off time and the Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component in the appropriate amount are deposited by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time (as set forth on the applicable order form), with the Custodian on the Settlement Date. If the order is not placed in
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proper form as required, or Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the Cash Component in the appropriate amount are not received by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time (as set forth on the applicable order form) on the Settlement Date, then the order may be deemed to be rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting there from. A creation request is considered to be in "proper form" if all procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement, order form and this SAI are properly followed.
Issuance of a Creation Unit.Except as provided in this SAI, Creation Units will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Trust of the Deposit Securities or payment of Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the payment of the Cash Component have been completed. When the sub-custodian has confirmed to the Custodian that the required Deposit Securities (or the cash value thereof) have been delivered to the account of the relevant sub-custodian or sub-custodians, the Distributor and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Trust will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Units. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the next Business Day following the day on which the purchase order is deemed received by the Distributor. The Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting from unsettled orders.
Creation Units may be issued in advance of receipt by the Trust of all or a portion of the applicable Deposit Securities as described below. In these circumstances, the initial deposit will have a value greater than the net asset value of the Shares on the date the order is placed in proper form since, in addition to available Deposit Securities, cash must be deposited in an amount equal to the sum of (i) the Cash Component, plus (ii) an additional amount of cash equal to a percentage of the market value as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the undelivered Deposit Securities (the "Additional Cash Deposit"), which shall be maintained in a separate non-interest bearing collateral account. The Authorized Participant must deposit with the Custodian the Additional Cash Deposit, as applicable, by 12:00 p.m. Eastern Time (or such other time as specified by the Trust) on the Settlement Date. If the Fund or its agents do not receive the Additional Cash Deposit in the appropriate amount, by such time, then the order may be deemed rejected and the Authorized Participant shall be liable to the Fund for losses, if any, resulting therefrom. An additional amount of cash shall be required to be deposited with the Trust, pending delivery of the missing Deposit Securities to the extent necessary to maintain the Additional Cash Deposit with the Trust in an amount at least equal to the applicable percentage, as set forth in the Participant Agreement, of the daily marked to market value of the missing Deposit Securities. The Participant Agreement will permit the Trust to buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time. Authorized Participants will be liable to the Trust for the costs incurred by the Trust in connection with any such purchases. These costs will be deemed to include the amount by which the actual purchase price of the Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such Deposit Securities on the day the purchase order was deemed received by the Distributor plus the brokerage and related transaction costs associated with such purchases. The Trust will return any unused portion of the Additional Cash Deposit once all of the missing Deposit Securities have been properly received by the Custodian or purchased by the Trust and deposited into the Trust. In addition, a transaction fee, as described below under "Creation Transaction Fee" may be charged. The delivery of Creation Units so created generally will occur no later than the Settlement Date.
Acceptance of Orders of Creation Units.The Trust reserves the absolute right to reject an order for Creation Units transmitted to it by the Distributor with respect to the Fund including, without limitation, if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the Deposit Securities or Deposit Cash, as applicable, delivered by the Participant are not as disseminated through the facilities of the NSCC for that date by the Custodian; (c) the investor(s), upon obtaining the Shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding Shares of the Fund; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Fund Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust or the rights of beneficial owners; (g) the acceptance or receipt of the order for a Creation Unit would, in the opinion of counsel to the Trust, be unlawful; or (h) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Custodian, the Transfer Agent and/or the Adviser make it for all practical purposes not feasible to process orders for Creation Units.
Examples of such circumstances include acts of God or public service or utility problems such as fires, floods, extreme weather conditions and power outages resulting in telephone, telecopy and computer failures; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other information systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, the Custodian, a sub- custodian, the Transfer Agent, DTC, NSCC, Federal Reserve System, or any other participant in the creation process, and other extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify a prospective creator of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of the creator of a Creation Unit of its rejection of the order of such person. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall either of them incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification. The Trust, the Transfer Agent, the Custodian and the Distributor shall not be liable for the rejection of any purchase order for Creation Units.
All questions as to the number of Shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust, and the Trust's determination shall be final and binding.
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Creation Transaction Fee.A fixed purchase (i.e., creation) transaction fee, payable to the Fund's custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the purchase of Creation Units ("Creation Order Costs"). The standard fixed creation transaction fee for the Fund, regardless of the number of Creation Units created in the transaction, are set forth in the table below. The Fund may adjust the standard fixed creation transaction fee from time to time. The fixed creation fee may be waived on certain orders if the Fund's custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Creation Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
Name of Fund Fixed Creation
Transaction Fee
Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
$250
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash purchases, non-standard orders, or partial cash purchases of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with buying the securities with cash. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for creation orders that facilitate changes to the Fund's portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order. Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Risks of Purchasing Creation Units.There are certain legal risks unique to investors purchasing Creation Units directly from the Fund. Because Shares may be issued on an ongoing basis, a "distribution" of Shares could be occurring at any time. Certain activities that a shareholder performs as a dealer could, depending on the circumstances, result in the shareholder being deemed a participant in the distribution in a manner that could render the shareholder a statutory underwriter and subject to the prospectus delivery and liability provisions of the Securities Act. For example, a shareholder could be deemed a statutory underwriter if it purchases Creation Units from the Fund, breaks them down into the constituent Shares, and sells those Shares directly to customers, or if a shareholder chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary-market demand for Shares. Whether a person is an underwriter depends upon all of the facts and circumstances pertaining to that person's activities, and the examples mentioned here should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could cause you to be deemed an underwriter.
Dealers who are not "underwriters" but are participating in a distribution (as opposed to engaging in ordinary secondary-market transactions), and thus dealing with Shares as part of an "unsold allotment" within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act.
Redemption.Shares may be redeemed only in Creation Units at their net asset value next determined after receipt of a redemption request in proper form by the Fund through the Transfer Agent and only on a Business Day. Redemption requests must be placed by or through an Authorized Participant. EXCEPT UPON LIQUIDATION OF THE FUND, THE TRUST WILL NOT REDEEM SHARES IN AMOUNTS LESS THAN CREATION UNITS. Investors must accumulate enough Shares in the secondary market to constitute a Creation Unit to have such Shares redeemed by the Trust. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be sufficient liquidity in the public trading market at any time to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. Investors should expect to incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a sufficient number of Shares to constitute a redeemable Creation Unit.
With respect to the Fund, the Custodian, through the NSCC, makes available prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time) on each Business Day, the list of the names and Share quantities of the Fund's portfolio securities that will be applicable (subject to possible amendment or correction) to redemption requests received in proper form (as defined below) on that day ("Fund Securities"). Fund Securities received on redemption may not be identical to Deposit Securities.
Redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit are paid either in-kind or in cash, or combination thereof, as determined by the Trust. With respect to in-kind redemptions of the Fund, redemption proceeds for a Creation Unit will consist of Fund Securities -- as announced by the Custodian on the Business Day of the request for redemption received in proper form plus cash in an amount equal to the difference between the net asset value of the Shares being redeemed, as next determined after a receipt of a request in proper form, and the value of the Fund Securities (the "Cash Redemption Amount"), less a fixed redemption transaction fee as set forth below. In the event that the Fund Securities have a value greater than the net asset value of the Shares, a compensating cash payment equal to the differential is required to be made by or through an Authorized Participant by the redeeming shareholder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the Trust's discretion, an Authorized Participant may receive the corresponding cash value of the securities in lieu of the in-kind securities value representing one or more Fund Securities.
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Redemption Transaction Fee.A fixed redemption transaction fee, payable to the Fund's custodian, may be imposed for the transfer and other transaction costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units ("Redemption Order Costs"). The standard fixed redemption transaction fee for the Fund, regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed in the transaction are set forth in the table below. The Fund may adjust the redemption transaction fee from time to time. The fixed redemption fee may be waived on certain orders if the Fund's custodian has determined to waive some or all of the Redemption Order Costs associated with the order or another party, such as the Adviser, has agreed to pay such fee.
Name of Fund Fixed Redemption
Transaction Fee
Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
$250
In addition, a variable fee, payable to the Fund, of up to a maximum of 2% of the value of the Creation Units subject to the transaction may be imposed for cash redemptions, non-standard orders, or partial cash redemptions (when cash redemptions are available) of Creation Units. The variable charge is primarily designed to cover additional costs (e.g., brokerage, taxes) involved with selling portfolio securities to satisfy a cash redemption. The Fund may determine to not charge a variable fee on certain orders when the Adviser has determined that doing so is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, e.g., for redemption orders that facilitate changes to the Fund's portfolio in a more tax efficient manner than could be achieved without such order.
Investors who use the services of a broker or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. Investors are responsible for the fixed costs of transferring the Fund Securities from the Fund to their account or on their order.
Procedures for Redemption of Creation Units.Orders to redeem Creation Units of the Fund must be submitted in proper form to the Transfer Agent prior to 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time.
A redemption request is considered to be in "proper form" if (i) an Authorized Participant has transferred or caused to be transferred to the Trust's Transfer Agent the Creation Unit(s) being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be effective by the time as set forth in the Participant Agreement and (ii) a request in form satisfactory to the Trust is received by the Transfer Agent from the Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another redeeming investor within the time periods specified in the Participant Agreement. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor's Shares through DTC's facilities by the times and pursuant to the other terms and conditions set forth in the Participant Agreement, the redemption request shall be rejected.
The Authorized Participant must transmit the request for redemption, in the form required by the Trust, to the Transfer Agent in accordance with procedures set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement, and that, therefore, requests to redeem Creation Units may have to be placed by the investor's broker through an Authorized Participant who has executed an Authorized Participant Agreement. Investors making a redemption request should be aware that such request must be in the form specified by such Authorized Participant. Investors making a request to redeem Creation Units should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the request by an Authorized Participant and transfer of the Shares to the Trust's Transfer Agent; such investors should allow for the additional time that may be required to effect redemptions through their banks, brokers or other financial intermediaries if such intermediaries are not Authorized Participants.
In connection with taking delivery of Shares of Fund Securities upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker- dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Fund Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Fund Securities will be delivered. Deliveries of redemption proceeds generally will be made within one business day of the trade date.
Additional Redemption Procedures.In connection with taking delivery of Shares of Fund Securities upon redemption of Creation Units, a redeeming shareholder or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Shareholder must maintain appropriate custody arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction in which any of the Fund Securities are customarily traded, to which account such Fund Securities will be delivered. Deliveries of redemption proceeds generally will be made within three business days of the trade date. The Trust may, in its discretion, exercise its option to redeem such Shares in cash, and the redeeming Shareholders will be required to receive its redemption proceeds in cash.
In addition, an investor may request a redemption in cash that the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit. In either case, the investor will receive a cash payment equal to the NAV of its Shares based on the NAV of Shares of the Fund next determined after the redemption request is received in proper form (minus a redemption transaction fee and additional charge for requested cash redemptions specified above, to offset the Trust's brokerage and other transaction costs associated with the disposition of Fund Securities). The Fund may also, in its sole discretion, upon request of a shareholder, provide such redeemer a portfolio of securities that differs from the exact composition of the Fund Securities but does not differ in net asset value.
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Redemptions of Shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Trust could not lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or could not do so without first registering the Fund Securities under such laws. An Authorized Participant or an investor for which it is acting subject to a legal restriction with respect to a particular security included in the Fund Securities applicable to the redemption of Creation Units may be paid an equivalent amount of cash. The Authorized Participant may request the redeeming investor of the Shares to complete an order form or to enter into agreements with respect to such matters as compensating cash payment. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a "qualified institutional buyer," ("QIB") as such term is defined under Rule 144A under the Securities Act, will not be able to receive Fund Securities that are restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A. An Authorized Participant may be required by the Trust to provide a written confirmation with respect to QIB status to receive Fund Securities.
Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on other exchanges on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their Shares of the Fund, or to purchase or sell Shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.
The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (1) for any period during which the Exchange is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (2) for any period during which trading on the Exchange is suspended or restricted; (3) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares of the Fund or determination of the NAV of the Shares is not reasonably practicable; or (4) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC.
Required Early Acceptance of Orders.Notwithstanding the foregoing, as described in the Participant Agreement and/or applicable order form, the Fund may require orders to be placed or notification of orders to be received prior to the trade date, as described in the Participant Agreement or the applicable order form, to receive the trade date's net asset value. Orders to purchase Shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) that the equity markets in the relevant foreign market are closed will not be accepted. Authorized Participants may be notified that the cut-off time for an order may be earlier on a particular business day, as described in the Participant Agreement and the order form.
DETERMINATION OF NAV
Net asset value per Share for the Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of the Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities) by the total number of Shares outstanding, rounded to the nearest cent. Expenses and fees, including the management fees, are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining net asset value. The net asset value of the Fund is calculated by the Custodian and determined at the close of the regular trading session on the New York Stock Exchange (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time) on each day that such exchange is open, provided that fixed-income assets may be valued as of the announced closing time for trading in fixed-income instruments on any day that the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association ("SIFMA") announces an early closing time.
In calculating the Fund's net asset value per Share, the Fund's investments are generally valued using market valuations. A market valuation generally means a valuation (i) obtained from an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer), (ii) based on a price quotation or other equivalent indication of value supplied by an exchange, a pricing service, or a major market maker (or dealer) or (iii) based on amortized cost. In the case of shares of other funds that are not traded on an exchange, a market valuation means such fund's published net asset value per share. A price obtained from a pricing service based on such pricing service's valuation matrix may be considered a market valuation. Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
The following information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled "Dividends, Distributions and Taxes."
General Policies.The Fund intends to declare and distribute all of its net investment income, if any, to shareholders as dividends monthly. Distributions of net realized securities gains, if any, generally are declared and paid once a year, but the Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis to comply with the distribution requirements of the Code, in all events in a manner consistent with the provisions of the 1940 Act.
Dividends and other distributions on Shares are distributed, as described below, on a pro rata basis to Beneficial Owners of such Shares. Dividend payments are made through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners then of record with proceeds received from the Trust.
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The Trust makes additional distributions to the extent necessary (i) to distribute the entire annual taxable income of the Fund, plus any net capital gains and (ii) to avoid imposition of the excise tax imposed by Section 4982 of the Code. Management of the Fund reserves the right to declare special dividends if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a RIC or to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.
Dividend Reinvestment Service.The Trust will not make the DTC book-entry dividend reinvestment service available for use by Beneficial Owners for reinvestment of their cash proceeds, but certain individual broker-dealers may make available the DTC book- entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by Beneficial Owners of the Fund through DTC Participants for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Investors should contact their brokers to ascertain the availability and description of these services. Beneficial Owners should be aware that each broker may require investors to adhere to specific procedures and timetables to participate in the dividend reinvestment service and investors should ascertain from their brokers such necessary details. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole Shares issued by the Trust of the Fund at NAV per Share. Distributions reinvested in additional Shares of the Fund will nevertheless be taxable to Beneficial Owners acquiring such additional Shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash.
FEDERAL INCOME TAXES
The following discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of investing in the Fund is based on the Code, U.S. Treasury regulations, and other applicable authority, all as in effect as of the date of the filing of this SAI. These authorities are subject to change by legislative or administrative action, possibly with retroactive effect. Tax reform legislation commonly known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "TCJA") was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Tax Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. The application of certain provisions of the TCJA is uncertain, and the changes in the act may have indirect effects on the Fund, its investments and its shareholders that cannot be predicted. The following discussion is only a summary of some of the important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in the Fund. There may be other tax considerations applicable to particular shareholders. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors regarding their particular situation and the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
Qualification as a Regulated Investment Company (RIC).The Fund intends to elect to be treated and qualify each year as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. To qualify for the special tax treatment accorded RICs and their shareholders, the Fund must, among other things:
(a)derive at least 90% of its gross income each year from (i) dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies, and (ii) net income derived from interests in "qualified publicly traded partnerships" (as defined below);
(b)diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of its taxable year, (i) at least 50% of the market value of the Fund's total assets consists of cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs and other securities, with investments in such other securities limited with respect to any one issuer to an amount not greater than 5% of the value of the Fund's total assets and not greater than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of the Fund's total assets is invested in (1) the securities (other than those of the U.S. government or other RICs) of any one issuer or two or more issuers that are controlled by the Fund and that are engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses or (2) the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships; and
(c)distribute with respect to each taxable year an amount at least equal to the sum of 90% of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code without regard to the deduction for dividends paid - generally taxable ordinary income and the excess, if any, of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses) and 90% of its net tax-exempt interest income.
In general, for purposes of the 90% of gross income requirement described in (a) above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership that would be qualifying income if realized directly by the Fund. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a "qualified publicly traded partnership" (generally, a partnership (i) interests in which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof, and (ii) that derives less than 90% of its income from the qualifying income described in (a)(i) of the prior paragraph) will be treated as qualifying income. In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a RIC with respect to items attributable to an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership.
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The U.S. Treasury Department has authority to issue regulations that would exclude foreign currency gains from the 90% test described in (a) above if such gains are not directly related to the Fund's business of investing in stock or securities. Accordingly, regulations may be issued in the future that could treat some or all of the Fund's non-U.S. currency gains as non-qualifying income, thereby potentially jeopardizing the Fund's status as a RIC for all years to which the regulations are applicable.
Taxation of the Fund.If the Fund qualifies for treatment as RICs, the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on income and gains that are distributed in a timely manner to their shareholders in the form of dividends.
If, for any taxable year, the Fund was to fail to qualify as a RIC or was to fail to meet the distribution requirement, they would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. In addition, the Fund's distributions, to the extent derived from the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits, including any distributions of net long-term capital gains, would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary dividend income for federal income tax purposes. However, such dividends would be eligible, subject to any generally applicable limitations, (i) to be treated as qualified dividend income in the case of shareholders taxed as individuals and (ii) for the dividends-received deduction in the case of corporate shareholders. Moreover, the Fund would be required to pay out its earnings and profits accumulated in that year to qualify for treatment as a RIC in a subsequent year. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may be able to cure a failure to qualify as a RIC, but to do so that Fund may incur significant Fund-level taxes and may be forced to dispose of certain assets. If the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for a period greater than two taxable years, the Fund would generally be required to recognize any net built-in gains with respect to certain of its assets upon a disposition of such assets within ten years of qualifying as a RIC in a subsequent year.
The Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of their investment company taxable income and net capital gains. Investment company taxable income that is retained by the Fund will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates. If the Fund retains any net capital gain, that gain will be subject to tax at corporate rates, but the Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to its shareholders who (i) will be required to include in income for federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their Shares of such undistributed amount, (ii) will be deemed to have paid their proportionate Shares of the tax paid by the Fund on such undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities, if any, and (iii) will be entitled to claim refunds on a properly filed U.S. tax return to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. For federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of Shares owned by a shareholder of the Fund will be increased by an amount equal to the difference between the amount of undistributed capital gains included in the shareholder's gross income and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder.
If the Fund fails to distribute in a calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of 98% of its ordinary income for such year and 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 of such year, plus any retained amount from the prior year, the Fund will be subject to a non-deductible 4% excise tax on the undistributed amount. For these purposes, the Fund will be treated as having distributed any amount on which it has been subject to corporate income tax for the taxable year ending within the calendar year. The Fund intends to declare and pay dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the 4% excise tax, although there can be no assurance that they will be able to do so. The Fund may in certain circumstances be required to liquidate Fund investments to make sufficient distributions to avoid federal excise tax liability at a time when the investment adviser might not otherwise have chosen to do so, and liquidation of investments in such circumstances may affect the ability of the Fund to satisfy the requirement for qualification as a RIC.
The Fund may elect to treat part or all of any "qualified late year loss" as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund's taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. A "qualified late year loss" generally includes net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year, and certain other late-year losses.
The treatment of capital loss carryovers for the Fund is similar to the rules that apply to capital loss carryovers of individuals, which provide that such losses are carried over indefinitely. If the Fund has a "net capital loss" (that is, capital losses in excess of capital gains) the excess of the Fund's net short-term capital losses over its net long-term capital gains is treated as a short-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund's next taxable year, and the excess (if any) of the Fund's net long-term capital losses over its net short-term capital gains is treated as a long-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund's next taxable year. The carryover of capital losses may be limited under the general loss limitation rules if the Fund experiences an ownership change as defined in the Code.
At June 30, 2021, the Predecessor Fund had $315,620 short-term capital loss carryforwards and $402,062 in long-term capital loss carryforwards which do not expire.
Fund Distributions.Distributions are taxable whether shareholders receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares. Moreover, distributions of the Fund's Shares are generally subject to federal income tax as described herein to the extent they do not exceed the Fund's realized income and gains, even though such distributions may economically represent a return of a particular shareholder's investment. Investors may therefore wish to avoid purchasing Shares at a time when the Fund's NAV reflects gains that
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are either unrealized, or realized but not distributed. Realized gains must generally be distributed even when the Fund's NAV also reflects unrealized losses.
Dividends and other distributions are generally treated under the Code as received by the shareholders at the time the dividend or distribution is made. However, if any dividend or distribution is declared by the Fund in October, November or December of any calendar year and payable to its shareholders of record on a specified date in such a month but is actually paid during the following January, such dividend or distribution will be deemed to have been received by each shareholder on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.
Distributions by the Fund of investment income is generally taxable as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated those gains, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Fund Shares. Sales of assets held by the Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by the Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions from the Fund's net capital gain (the excess of the Fund's net long-term capital gain over its net short-term capital loss) that are properly reported by the Fund as capital gain dividends ("Capital Gain Dividends") will be taxable as long-term capital gains. For individuals, long-term capital gains are currently subject to a reduced maximum tax rate of 20%. Distributions of gains from the sale of investments that the Fund owned for one year or less will be taxable as ordinary income.
Distributions of investment income reported by the Fund as derived from "qualified dividend income" will be taxed in the hands of non- corporate shareholders at the rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met at both the shareholder and Fund level. If the aggregate qualified dividends received by the Fund during any taxable year are 95% or more of its gross income (excluding net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss), then 100% of the Fund's dividends (other than Capital Gain Dividends) will be eligible to be reported as qualified dividend income.
A dividend will not be treated as qualified dividend income (at either the Fund or shareholder level) (1) if the dividend is received with respect to any share of stock held for fewer than 61 days during the 121-day period beginning on the date that is 60 days before the date on which such share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (or, in the case of certain preferred stock, 91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before the ex-dividend date), (2) to the extent that the recipient is under an obligation (whether pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property, (3) if the recipient elects to have the dividend income treated as investment income for purposes of the limitation on deductibility of investment interest, or (4) if the dividend is received from a foreign corporation that is (a) not eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty with the United States (with the exception of dividends paid on stock of such a foreign corporation that is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States) or (b) treated as a passive foreign investment company. In addition, distributions that the Fund receives from an ETF or an underlying fund taxable as a RIC will be treated as qualified dividend income only to the extent so reported by such ETF or underlying fund.
Dividends of net investment income received by corporate shareholders of the Fund will qualify for the 70% dividends-received deduction generally available to corporations to the extent of the amount of qualifying dividends received by the Fund from domestic corporations for the taxable year. A dividend received by the Fund will not be treated as a qualifying dividend (1) if the stock on which the dividend is paid is considered to be "debt-financed" (generally, acquired with borrowed funds), (2) if it has been received with respect to any share of stock that the Fund has held for less than 46 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date that is 45 days before the date on which the share becomes ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (91 days during the 181-day period beginning 90 days before the ex-dividend date in the case of certain preferred stock) or (3) to the extent that the Fund is under an obligation (pursuant to a short sale or otherwise) to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. Moreover, the dividends- received deduction may be disallowed or reduced (1) if the corporate shareholder fails to satisfy the foregoing requirements with respect to its Shares of the Fund or (2) by application of the Code.
To the extent that the Fund makes a distribution of income received by the Fund in lieu of dividends (a "substitute payment") with respect to securities on loan pursuant to a securities lending transaction, such income will not constitute qualified dividend income to individual shareholders and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders.
Dividends and distributions from the Fund will generally be taken into account in determining a shareholder's "net investment income" for purposes of the Medicare contribution tax applicable to certain individuals, estates and trusts.
If the Fund makes distributions to a shareholder in excess of the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of that shareholder's tax basis in its Shares, and thereafter as capital gain, assuming the shareholder holds his or her Shares as capital assets. A return of capital is not taxable, but reduces a shareholder's tax basis in its Shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its Shares.
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The Fund will inform you of the amount of your ordinary income dividends, qualified dividend income, and capital gain distributions shortly after the close of each calendar year.
Sale or Exchange of Shares.A sale or exchange of Shares in the Fund may give rise to a gain or loss. For tax purposes, an exchange of Shares of the Fund for shares of a different fund is the same as a sale. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of Shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term, rather than short-term, to the extent of any long-term capital gain distributions received (or deemed received) by the shareholder with respect to the Shares. All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of Shares will be disallowed if other substantially identical Shares of the Fund are purchased within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly purchased Shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.
Real Estate Investment Trusts.The Fund may invest in REITs. Investments in REIT equity securities may require the Fund to accrue and distribute income not yet received. To generate sufficient cash to make the requisite distributions, the Fund may be required to sell securities in its portfolio (including when it is not advantageous to do so) that it otherwise would have continued to hold. The Fund's investments in REIT equity securities may at other times result in such Fund's receipt of cash in excess of the REIT's earnings; if the Fund distributes these amounts, these distributions could constitute a return of capital to Fund shareholders for federal income tax purposes. Dividends paid by a REIT, other than capital gain distributions, will be taxable as ordinary income up to the amount of the REIT's current and accumulated earnings and profits. Capital gain dividends paid by a REIT to the Fund will be treated as long-term capital gains by such Fund and, in turn, may be distributed by such Fund to its shareholders as a capital gain distribution. Dividends received by the Fund from a REIT generally will not constitute qualified dividend income or qualify for the dividends received deduction.
If a REIT is operated in a manner such that it fails to qualify as a REIT, an investment in the REIT would become subject to double taxation, meaning the taxable income of the REIT would be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for dividends paid to shareholders and the dividends would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income (or possibly as qualified dividend income) to the extent of the REIT's current and accumulated earnings and profits.
The Tax Act treats "qualified REIT dividends" (i.e., ordinary REIT dividends other than capital gain dividends and portions of REIT dividends designated as qualified dividend income eligible for capital gain tax rates) as eligible for a 20% deduction by non-corporate taxpayers. This deduction, if allowed in full, equates to a maximum effective tax rate of 29.6% (37% top rate applied to income after 20% deduction). The Tax Act does not contain a provision permitting a RIC, such as the Fund, to pass the special character of this income through to its shareholders. Currently, direct investors in REITs will enjoy the lower rate, but investors in RICs that invest in such REITs will not. It is uncertain whether future technical corrections or administrative guidance will address this issue to enable the Fund to pass through the special character of "qualified REIT dividends" to shareholders.
REITs in which the Fund invests often do not provide complete and final tax information to the Fund until after the time that the Fund issues a tax reporting statement. As a result, the Fund may at times find it necessary to reclassify the amount and character of its distributions to you after it issues your tax reporting statement. When such reclassification is necessary, the Fund (or your broker) will send you a corrected, final Form 1099-DIV to reflect the reclassified information. If you receive a corrected Form 1099-DIV, use the information on this corrected form, and not the information on the previously issued tax reporting statement, in completing your tax returns.
Tax Treatment of Complex Securities.The Fund may invest in complex securities and these investments may be subject to numerous special and complex tax rules. These rules could affect the Fund's ability to qualify as a RIC, affect whether gains and losses recognized by the Fund are treated as ordinary income or capital gain, accelerate the recognition of income to the Fund and/or defer the Fund's ability to recognize losses, and, in limited cases, subject the Fund to U.S. federal income tax on income from certain of their foreign securities. In turn, these rules may affect the amount, timing or character of the income distributed to you by the Fund.
Some debt obligations that are acquired by the Fund may be treated as having original issue discount ("OID"). Generally, the Fund will be required to include OID in taxable income over the term of the debt security, even though payment of the OID is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. If the Fund holds such debt instruments, it may be required to pay out as distributions each year an amount that is greater than the total amount of cash interest the Fund actually received. Such distributions may be made from the cash assets of the Fund or by liquidation of portfolio securities, if necessary.
The Fund is required for federal income tax purposes to mark to market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses on certain futures contracts as of the end of the year as well as those actually realized during the year. Gain or loss from futures contracts on broad-based indexes required to be marked to market will be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders. The Fund may be required to defer the recognition of losses on futures contracts to the extent of any unrecognized gains on offsetting positions held by
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the Fund. These provisions may also require the Fund to mark-to-market certain types of positions in its portfolios (i.e., treat them as if they were closed out), which may cause the Fund to recognize income without receiving cash with which to make distributions in amounts necessary to satisfy the distribution requirement and for avoiding the excise tax discussed above. Accordingly, in order to avoid certain income and excise taxes, the Fund may be required to liquidate its investments at a time when the investment adviser might not otherwise have chosen to do so.
Backup Withholding.The Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder holds Fund Shares) generally is required to withhold and to remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Tax-Exempt Shareholders.Under current law, income of a RIC that would be treated as unrelated business taxable income ("UBTI") if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity generally will not be attributed as UBTI to a tax-exempt entity that is a shareholder in the RIC. Notwithstanding this "blocking" effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in the Fund if Shares in the Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code Section 514(b).
Non-U.S. Shareholders.In general, dividends other than Capital Gain Dividends paid by the Fund to a shareholder that is not a "U.S. person" within the meaning of the Code (a "foreign person") are subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) even if they are funded by income or gains (such as portfolio interest, short-term capital gains, or foreign- source dividend and interest income) that, if paid to a foreign person directly, would not be subject to withholding.
A beneficial holder of Shares who is a non-U.S. person is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a U.S. income tax deduction for losses) realized on a sale of Shares of the Fund or on Capital Gain Dividends unless (i) such gain or dividend is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business carried on by such holder within the United States or (ii) in the case of an individual holder, the holder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale or the receipt of the Capital Gain Dividend and certain other conditions are met. The Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an "interest-related dividend" or a "short-term capital gain dividend," which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met. Short-term capital gain dividends received by a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the taxable year are not exempt from this 30% withholding tax.
A U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate will be imposed on dividends effective July 1, 2014 (and proceeds of sales in respect of Fund Shares (including certain capital gain dividends) received by Fund shareholders beginning after December 31, 2018) for shareholders who own their Shares through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries if certain disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership are not satisfied. The Fund will not pay any additional amounts in respect to any amounts withheld.
For a non-U.S. person to qualify for an exemption from backup withholding, the foreign investor must comply with special certification and filing requirements. Foreign investors in the Fund should consult their tax advisors in this regard. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder's U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the appropriate information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS").
A beneficial holder of Shares who is a non-U.S. person may be subject to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the federal income tax consequences referred to above. If a shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any effectively connected income or gain will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States.
An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger's aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger's basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing "wash sales," or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will be treated as short-term capital gains or losses. Persons purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisors with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction.
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Section 351.The Trust on behalf of the Fund has the right to reject an order for a purchase of Shares of the Trust if the purchaser (or any group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the Shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding Shares of a given Fund and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, that Fund would have a basis in the securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination.
Foreign Investments.Income received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries and U.S. possessions (including, for example, dividends or interest on stock or securities of non-U.S. issuers) may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries and U.S. possessions that would reduce the yield on the Fund's stock or securities. Tax treaties between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes in some cases. Foreign countries generally do not impose taxes on capital gains with respect to investments by foreign investors.
If as of the end of the Fund's taxable year more than 50% of the value of the Fund's assets consist of the securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may elect to permit shareholders who are U.S. citizens, resident aliens, or U.S. corporations to claim a foreign tax credit or deduction (but not both) on their income tax returns for their pro rata portions of qualified taxes paid by the Fund during that taxable year to foreign countries in respect of foreign securities the Fund has held for at least the minimum period specified in the Code. In such a case, the Fund will treat those taxes as dividends paid to its shareholders who must include in gross income from foreign sources their pro rata shares of such taxes and must treat the amount so included as if the shareholder had paid the foreign tax directly. The shareholder may then either deduct the taxes deemed paid by him or her in computing his or her taxable income or, alternatively, use the foregoing information in calculating any foreign tax credit they may be entitled to use against the shareholders' federal income tax. If the Fund makes the election, the Fund (or its administrative agent) will report annually to its shareholders the respective amounts per share of the Fund's income from sources within, and taxes paid to, foreign countries and U.S. possessions. A shareholder's ability to claim a foreign tax credit or deduction in respect of foreign taxes paid by the Fund may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code, which may result in the shareholder not getting a full credit or deduction for the amount of such taxes. Shareholders who do not itemize on their federal income tax returns may claim a credit, but not a deduction, for such foreign taxes.
If the Fund owns shares in certain foreign investment entities, referred to as "passive foreign investment companies" or "PFICs," the Fund will generally be subject to one of the following special tax regimes: (i) the Fund may be liable for U.S. federal income tax, and an additional interest charge, on a portion of any "excess distribution" from such foreign entity or any gain from the disposition of such shares, even if the entire distribution or gain is paid out by the Fund as a dividend to its shareholders; (ii) if the Fund were able and elected to treat a PFIC as a "qualified electing fund" or "QEF," the Fund would be required each year to include in income, and distribute to shareholders in accordance with the distribution requirements set forth above, the Fund's pro rata share of the ordinary earnings and net capital gains of the PFIC, whether or not such earnings or gains are distributed to the Fund; or (iii) the Fund may be entitled to mark- to-market annually shares of the PFIC, and in such event would be required to distribute to shareholders any such mark-to-market gains in accordance with the distribution requirements set forth above. In such instances, the Fund intends to make the appropriate tax elections, if possible, and take any additional steps that are necessary to mitigate the effect of these rules.
Certain Reporting Regulations.Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer's treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.
Cost Basis.Legislation passed by Congress now requires the reporting of adjusted cost basis information for covered securities, which generally include Shares of a RIC acquired to the IRS and to taxpayers. Shareholders should contact their financial intermediaries with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for their accounts.
General Considerations.The federal income tax discussion set forth above is for general information only. Shares of the Fund held in a tax-qualified retirement account will generally not be subject to federal taxation on income and capital gains distributions from the Fund until a shareholder begins receiving payments from their retirement account. Because each shareholder's tax situation is different, prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the specific federal income tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of Shares of the Fund, as well as the effect of state, local and foreign tax law and any proposed tax law changes.
State Taxes.Depending upon state and local law, distributions by the Fund to its shareholders and the ownership of Shares may be subject to state and local taxes. Rules of state and local taxation of dividend and capital gains distributions from RICs often differ from the rules for federal income taxation described above. It is expected that the Fund will not be liable for any corporate tax in Delaware if it qualifies as a RIC for federal income tax purposes.
A-54

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
The Annual Reportfor the Pacific Global Senior Loan ETF, a series of Pacific Global ETF Trust, for the fiscal period ended June 30, 2021 is a separate document, and the financial statements and accompanying notes appearing therein are incorporated by reference into this SAI. You may request a copy of the Predecessor Fund's Annual Report at no charge by calling 1-800-617-0004 or through the Fund's website at www.PacerETFs.com.
A-55

APPENDIX A
RATINGS DEFINITIONS
S & P Global Ratings Issue Credit Rating Definitions
An S&P Global Ratings issue credit rating is a forward-looking opinion about the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific financial obligation, a specific class of financial obligations, or a specific financial program (including ratings on medium-term note programs and commercial paper programs). It takes into consideration the creditworthiness of guarantors, insurers, or other forms of credit enhancement on the obligation and takes into account the currency in which the obligation is denominated. The opinion reflects S&P Global Ratings' view of the obligor's capacity and willingness to meet its financial commitments as they come due, and this opinion may assess terms, such as collateral security and subordination, which could affect ultimate payment in the event of default.
Issue credit ratings can be either long-term or short-term. Short-term ratings are generally assigned to those obligations considered short-term in the relevant market. Short-term ratings are also used to indicate the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to put features on long-term obligations. Medium-term notes are assigned long-term ratings.
Short-Term Issue Credit Ratings
A-1
A short-term obligation rated 'A-1' is rated in the highest category by S&P Global Ratings. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitments on these obligations is extremely strong.
A-2
A short-term obligation rated 'A-2' is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation is satisfactory.
A-3
A short-term obligation rated 'A-3' exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to weaken an obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitments on the obligation.
B
A short-term obligation rated 'B' is regarded as vulnerable and has significant speculative characteristics. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties that could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments.
C
A short-term obligation rated 'C' is currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitments on the obligation.
D
A short-term obligation rated 'D' is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the 'D' rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P Global Ratings believes that such payments will be made within any stated grace period. However, any stated grace period longer than five business days will be treated as five business days. The 'D' rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. An obligation's rating is lowered to 'D' if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
A-1

SPUR (S&P Underlying Rating)
A SPUR is an opinion about the stand-alone capacity of an obligor to pay debt service on a credit-enhanced debt issue, without giving effect to the enhancement that applies to it. These ratings are published only at the request of the debt issuer or obligor with the designation SPUR to distinguish them from the credit-enhanced rating that applies to the debt issue. S&P Global Ratings maintains surveillance of an issue with a published SPUR.
Dual Ratings
Dual ratings may be assigned to debt issues that have a put option or demand feature. The first component of the rating addresses the likelihood of repayment of principal and interest as due, and the second component of the rating addresses only the demand feature. The first component of the rating can relate to either a short-term or long-term transaction and accordingly use either short-term or long-term rating symbols. The second component of the rating relates to the put option and is assigned a short-term rating symbol (for example, 'AAA/A-1+' or 'A-1+/A-1'). With U.S. municipal short-term demand debt, the U.S. municipal short-term note rating symbols are used for the first component of the rating (for example, 'SP-1+/A-1+').
The analyses, including ratings, of S&P Global Ratings and its affiliates (together, S&P Global Ratings) are statements of opinion as of the date they are expressed and not statements of fact or recommendations to purchase, hold, or sell any securities or make any investment decisions. S&P Global Ratings assumes no obligation to update any information following publication. Users of ratings or other analyses should not rely on them in making any investment decision. S&P Global Ratings' opinions and analyses do not address the suitability of any security. S&P Global Ratings does not act as a fiduciary or an investment advisor except where registered as such. While S&P Global Ratings has obtained information from sources it believes to be reliable, it does not perform an audit and undertakes no duty of due diligence or independent verification of any information it receives. Ratings and other opinions may be changed, suspended, or withdrawn at any time.
Active Qualifiers
S&P Global Ratings uses the following qualifiers that limit the scope of a rating. The structure of the transaction can require the use of a qualifier such as a 'p' qualifier, which indicates the rating addresses the principal portion of the obligation only. A qualifier appears as a suffix and is part of the rating.
1. Federal deposit insurance limit: 'L' qualifier
Ratings qualified with 'L' apply only to amounts invested up to federal deposit insurance limits.
2. Principal: 'p' qualifier
This suffix is used for issues in which the credit factors, the terms, or both that determine the likelihood of receipt of payment of principal are different from the credit factors, terms, or both that determine the likelihood of receipt of interest on the obligation. The 'p' suffix indicates that the rating addresses the principal portion of the obligation only and that the interest is not rated.
3. Preliminary ratings: 'prelim' qualifier
Preliminary ratings, with the 'prelim' suffix, may be assigned to obligors or obligations, including financial programs, in the circumstances described below. Assignment of a final rating is conditional on the receipt by S&P Global Ratings of appropriate documentation. S&P Global Ratings reserves the right not to issue a final rating. Moreover, if a final rating is issued, it may differ from the preliminary rating.
a.Preliminary ratings may be assigned to obligations, most commonly structured and project finance issues, pending receipt of final documentation and legal opinions.
b.Preliminary ratings may be assigned to obligations that will likely be issued upon the obligor's emergence from bankruptcy or similar reorganization, based on late-stage reorganization plans, documentation, and discussions with the obligor. Preliminary ratings may also be assigned to the obligors. These ratings consider the anticipated general credit quality of the reorganized or post-bankruptcy issuer as well as attributes of the anticipated obligation(s).
A-2

c.Preliminary ratings may be assigned to entities that are being formed or that are in the process of being independently established when, in S&P Global Ratings' opinion, documentation is close to final. Preliminary ratings may also be assigned to the obligations of these entities.
d.Preliminary ratings may be assigned when a previously unrated entity is undergoing a well-formulated restructuring, recapitalization, significant financing, or other transformative event, generally at the point that investor or lender commitments are invited. The preliminary rating may be assigned to the entity and to its proposed obligation(s). These preliminary ratings consider the anticipated general credit quality of the obligor, as well as attributes of the anticipated obligation(s), assuming successful completion of the transformative event. Should the transformative event not occur, S&P Global Ratings would likely withdraw these preliminary ratings.
e.A preliminary recovery rating may be assigned to an obligation that has a preliminary issue credit rating.
4. Termination structures: 't' qualifier
This symbol indicates termination structures that are designed to honor their contracts to full maturity or, should certain events occur, to terminate and cash settle all their contracts before their final maturity date.
5. Counterparty instrument rating: 'cir' qualifier
This symbol indicates a counterparty instrument rating (CIR), which is a forward-looking opinion about the creditworthiness of an issuer in a securitization structure with respect to a specific financial obligation to a counterparty (including interest rate swaps, currency swaps, and liquidity facilities). The CIR is determined on an ultimate payment basis; these opinions do not take into account timeliness of payment.
Inactive Qualifiers
Inactive qualifiers are no longer applied or outstanding.
1. Contingent upon final documentation: '*' inactive qualifier
This symbol indicated that the rating was contingent upon S&P Global Ratings' receipt of an executed copy of the escrow agreement or closing documentation confirming investments and cash flows. Discontinued use in August 1998.
2. Termination of obligation to tender: 'c' inactive qualifier
This qualifier was used to provide additional information to investors that the bank may terminate its obligation to purchase tendered bonds if the long-term credit rating of the issuer was lowered to below an investment-grade level and/or the issuer's bonds were deemed taxable. Discontinued use in January 2001.
3. U.S. direct government securities: 'G' inactive qualifier
The letter 'G' followed the rating symbol when the Fund's portfolio consisted primarily of direct U.S. government securities.
4. Public information ratings: 'pi' qualifier
This qualifier was used to indicate ratings that were based on an analysis of an issuer's published financial information, as well as additional information in the public domain. Such ratings did not, however, reflect in-depth meetings with an issuer's management and therefore could have been based on less comprehensive information than ratings without a 'pi' suffix. Discontinued use as of December 2014 and as of August 2015 for Lloyd's Syndicate Assessments.
5. Provisional ratings: 'pr' inactive qualifier
The letters 'pr' indicate that the rating was provisional. A provisional rating assumed the successful completion of a project financed by the debt being rated and indicates that payment of debt service requirements was largely or entirely dependent upon the successful, timely completion of the project. This rating, however, while addressing credit quality subsequent to completion of the project, made no comment on the likelihood of or the risk of default upon failure of such completion.
A-3

6. Quantitative analysis of public information: 'q' inactive qualifier
A 'q' subscript indicates that the rating is based solely on quantitative analysis of publicly available information. Discontinued use in April 2001.
7. Extraordinary risks: 'r' inactive qualifier
The 'r' modifier was assigned to securities containing extraordinary risks, particularly market risks, that are not covered in the credit rating. The absence of an 'r' modifier should not be taken as an indication that an obligation would not exhibit extraordinary noncredit-related risks. S&P Global Ratings discontinued the use of the 'r' modifier for most obligations in June 2000 and for the balance of obligations (mainly structured finance transactions) in November 2002.
Active Identifiers
1. Unsolicited: 'unsolicited' and 'u' identifier
The 'u' identifier and 'unsolicited' designation are assigned to credit ratings initiated by parties other than the issuer or its agents, including those initiated by S&P Global Ratings.
2. Structured finance: 'sf' identifier
The 'sf' identifier shall be assigned to ratings on "structured finance instruments" when required to comply with applicable law or regulatory requirement or when S&P Global Ratings believes it appropriate. The addition of the 'sf' identifier to a rating does not change that rating's definition or our opinion about the issue's creditworthiness. For detailed information on the instruments assigned the 'sf' identifier, please see "VII. APPENDIX: Types of Instruments Carrying The 'sf' Identifier"
Local Currency and Foreign Currency Ratings
S&P Global Ratings' issuer credit ratings make a distinction between foreign currency ratings and local currency ratings. An issuer's foreign currency rating will differ from its local currency rating when the obligor has a different capacity to meet its obligations denominated in its local currency, vs. obligations denominated in a foreign currency.

Moody's Credit Rating Definitions
Purpose
Since John Moody devised the first bond ratings more than a century ago, Moody's rating systems have evolved in response to the increasing depth and breadth of the global capital markets. Much of the innovation in Moody's rating system is a response to market needs for clarity around the components of credit risk or to demand for finer distinctions in rating classifications.
Rating Symbols
Gradations of creditworthiness are indicated by rating symbols, with each symbol representing a group in which the credit characteristics are broadly the same. There are nine symbols as shown below, from that used to designate least credit risk to that denoting greatest credit risk:
Aaa Aa A Baa Ba B Caa Ca C
Moody's appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa.
Absence of a Rating
Where no rating has been assigned or where a rating has been withdrawn, it may be for reasons unrelated to the creditworthiness of the issue.
Should no rating be assigned, the reason may be one of the following:
1. An application was not received or accepted.
2. The issue or issuer belongs to a group of securities or entities that are not rated as a matter of policy.
A-4

3. There is a lack of essential data pertaining to the issue or issuer.
4. The issue was privately placed, in which case the rating is not published in Moody's publications.
Withdrawal may occur if new and material circumstances arise, the effects of which preclude satisfactory analysis; if there is no longer available reasonable up-to-date data to permit a judgment to be formed; if a bond is called for redemption; or for other reasons.
Changes in Rating
The credit quality of most issuers and their obligations is not fixed and steady over a period of time, but tends to undergo change. For this reason changes in ratings occur so as to reflect variations in the intrinsic relative position of issuers and their obligations.
A change in rating may thus occur at any time in the case of an individual issue. Such rating change should serve notice that Moody's observes some alteration in creditworthiness, or that the previous rating did not fully reflect the quality of the bond as now seen. While because of their very nature, changes are to be expected more frequently among bonds of lower ratings than among bonds of higher ratings. Nevertheless, the user of bond ratings should keep close and constant check on all ratings - both high and low - to be able to note promptly any signs of change in status that may occur.
Limitations to Uses of Ratings*
Obligations carrying the same rating are not claimed to be of absolutely equal credit quality. In a broad sense, they are alike in position, but since there are a limited number of rating classes used in grading thousands of bonds, the symbols cannot reflect the same shadings of risk which actually exist.
As ratings are designed exclusively for the purpose of grading obligations according to their credit quality, they should not be used alone as a basis for investment operations. For example, they have no value in forecasting the direction of future trends of market price. Market price movements in bonds are influenced not only by the credit quality of individual issues but also by changes in money rates and general economic trends, as well as by the length of maturity, etc. During its life even the highest rated bond may have wide price movements, while its high rating status remains unchanged.
The matter of market price has no bearing whatsoever on the determination of ratings, which are not to be construed as recommendations with respect to "attractiveness". The attractiveness of a given bond may depend on its yield, its maturity date or other factors for which the investor may search, as well as on its credit quality, the only characteristic to which the rating refers.
Since ratings involve judgements about the future, on the one hand, and since they are used by investors as a means of protection, on the other, the effort is made when assigning ratings to look at "worst" possibilities in the "visible" future, rather than solely at the past record and the status of the present. Therefore, investors using the rating should not expect to find in them a reflection of statistical factors alone, since they are an appraisal of long-term risks, including the recognition of many non-statistical factors.
Though ratings may be used by the banking authorities to classify bonds in their bank examination procedure, Moody's ratings are not made with these bank regulations in mind. Moody's Investors Service's own judgement as to the desirability or non-desirability of a bond for bank investment purposes is not indicated by Moody's ratings.
Moody's ratings represent the opinion of Moody's Investors Service as to the relative creditworthiness of securities. As such, they should be used in conjunction with the descriptions and statistics appearing in Moody's publications. Reference should be made to these statements for information regarding the issuer. Moody's ratings are not commercial credit ratings. In no case is default or receivership to be imputed unless expressly stated.
*As set forth more fully on the copyright, credit ratings are, and must be construed solely as, statements of opinion and not statements of fact or recommendations to purchase, sell or hold any securities. Each rating or other opinion must be weighed solely as one factor in any investment decision made by or on behalf of any user of the information, and each such user must accordingly make its own study and evaluation of each security and of each issuer and guarantor of, and each provider of credit support for, each security that it may consider purchasing, selling or holding.
A-5

Short-Term Obligation Ratings
Ratings assigned on Moody's global long-term and short-term rating scales are forward-looking opinions of the relative credit risks of financial obligations issues by non-financial corporates, financial institutions, structured finance vehicles, project finance vehicles, and public sector entities. Long-term ratings are assigned to issuers or obligations with an original maturity of one year or more and reflect both on the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default. Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations with an original maturity of thirteen months or less and reflect the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default.
Moody's employs the following designations to indicate the relative repayment ability of rated issuers:
P-1
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-1 have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-2
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-2 have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-3
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-3 have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
NP
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.
The following table indicates the long-term ratings consistent with different short-term ratings when such long-term ratings exist.
SHORT-TERM VS. LONG-TERM RATINGS

Fitch's National Credit Ratings
National scale ratings are an opinion of creditworthiness relative to the universe of issuers and issues within a single country. They are most commonly used in emerging market countries with sub- or low investment grade sovereign ratings on the international scale.
As creditworthiness can be expressed across the full range of the scale, a national scale can enable greater rating differentiation within a market than the international scale, particularity in highly speculative grade countries where ratings tend to cluster around the often low sovereign rating due to higher risks associated with a more volatile operating environment.
A-6

A "+" or "-" may be appended to a National Rating to denote relative status within a major rating category. Such suffixes are not added to the 'AAA(xxx)' National Rating category, to categories below 'CCC(xxx)', or to Short-Term National Ratings other than 'F1(xxx)'.
National scale ratings are assigned on the basis that the "best credits or issuers" in the country are rated 'AAA' on the national scale. National Ratings are then assessed using the full range of the national scale based on a comparative analysis of issuers rated under the same national scale to establish a relative ranking of credit worthiness.
At any given point in time, there is a certain relationship between National and International Ratings but there is not a precise translation between the scales. Fitch monitors the ratings relationship of issuers rated on both the international and national scales to ensure the consistency of rating relativities across scales. In other words, if issuer "X" is rated higher than issuer "Y" on one scale, issuer "X" cannot be rated lower than issuer "Y" on the other scale.
National Ratings for local issuers exclude the effects of sovereign and transfer risk and exclude the possibility that investors may be unable to repatriate any due interest and principal repayments. Comparisons between different national scales or between an individual national scale and the international rating scale are therefore inappropriate and potentially misleading.
In certain countries, regulators have established credit rating scales to be used within their domestic markets using specific nomenclature. In these countries, the agency's National Rating definitions may be substituted by the regulatory scales. For instance Fitch's National Short Term Ratings of 'F1+(xxx)', 'F1(xxx)', 'F2(xxx)' and 'F3(xxx)' may be substituted by the regulatory scales, e.g. 'A1+', 'A1', 'A2' and 'A3'. The below definitions thus serve as a template, but users should consult the individual scales for each country listed on Fitch's regional websites to determine if any additional or alternative category definitions apply.
Fitch maintains internal mapping tables that document the current relationship between the National and International Local Currency Ratings in each jurisdiction where we maintain a National Rating scale in order to serve as a tool for analysts. Where our National rating coverage exceeds a minimum threshold and there is external demand, these mappings will be published on this site. Presently, publicly available mappings can be accessed here. Fitch currently publishes the mapping tables for Brazil and South Africa.
Limitations of the National Rating Scale
Specific limitations relevant to National Rating scale include:
National scale ratings are only available in selected countries.
National scale ratings are only directly comparable with other national ratings in the same country. There is a certain correlation between national and global ratings but there is not a precise translation between the scales. The implied vulnerability to default of a given national scale rating will vary over time.
The value of default studies for National Ratings is limited. Due to the relative nature of national scales, a given national scale rating is not intended to represent a fixed amount of default risk over time. As a result, a default study using only National Ratings may not give an accurate picture of the historical relationship between ratings and default risk. Users should exercise caution in making inferences relating to the relative vulnerability to default of national scale ratings using the historical default experience with International Ratings and mapping tables to link the National and International ratings. As with ratings on any scale, the future will not necessarily follow the past.
National Short-Term Credit Ratings
F1(xxx)Indicates the strongest capacity for timely payment of financial commitments relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country. Under the agency's National Rating scale, this rating is assigned to the lowest default risk relative to others in the same country. Where the liquidity profile is particularly strong, a "+" is added to the assigned rating.
F2(xxx)Indicates a good capacity for timely payment of financial commitments relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country. However, the margin of safety is not as great as in the case of the higher ratings.
A-7

F3(xxx)Indicates an adequate capacity for timely payment of financial commitments relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
B(xxx)Indicates an uncertain capacity for timely payment of financial commitments relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
C(xxx)Indicates a highly uncertain capacity for timely payment of financial commitments relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
RD(xxx): Restricted default
Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Applicable to entity ratings only.
D(xxx)Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a short-term obligation.
Notes to Long-Term and Short-Term National Ratings:
The ISO international country code is placed in parentheses immediately following the rating letters to indicate the identity of the National market within which the rating applies. For illustrative purposes, (xxx) has been used.
"+" or "-" may be appended to a National Rating to denote relative status within a major rating category. Such suffixes are not added to the 'AAA(xxx)' Long-Term National Rating category, to categories below 'CCC(xxx)', or to Short-Term National Ratings other than 'F1(xxx).'
LONG-TERM RATINGS
S & P Global Ratings Long-Term Issue Credit Ratings
Issue credit ratings are based, in varying degrees, on S & P Global Ratings analysis of the following considerations:
Likelihood of payment-the capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation;
Nature of and provisions of the obligation and the promise we impute; and
Protection afforded by, and relative position of, the obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws affecting creditors' rights.
An issue rating is an assessment of default risk, but may incorporate an assessment of relative seniority or ultimate recovery in the event of default. Junior obligations are typically rated lower than senior obligations, to reflect the lower priority in bankruptcy, as noted above. (Such differentiation may apply when an entity has both senior and subordinated obligations, secured and unsecured obligations, or operating company and holding company obligations.)
Long-Term Issuer Credit Ratings
AAA
An obligation rated 'AAA' has the highest rating assigned by S & P Global Ratings. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.
AA
An obligation rated 'AA' differs from the highest-rated obligations only to a small degree. The obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.
A-8

A
An obligation rated 'A' is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor's capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.
BBB
An obligation rated 'BBB' exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
BB; B; CCC; CC; and C
Obligations rated 'BB', 'B', 'CCC', 'CC', and 'C' are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. 'BB' indicates the least degree of speculation and 'C' the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.
BB
An obligation rated 'BB' is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor's inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B
An obligation rated 'B' is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated 'BB', but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor's capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CCC
An obligation rated 'CCC' is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
CC
An obligation rated 'CC' is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment. The 'CC' rating is used when a default has not yet occurred, but S & P Global Ratings expects default to be a virtual certainty, regardless of the anticipated time to default.
C
An obligation rated 'C' is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, and the obligation is expected to have lower relative seniority or lower ultimate recovery compared with obligations that are rated higher.
D
An obligation rated 'D' is in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the 'D' rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P Global Ratings believes that such payments will be made within five business days in the absence of a stated grace period or within the earlier of the stated grace period or 30 calendar days. The 'D' rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions. An obligation's rating is lowered to 'D' if it is subject to a distressed exchange offer.
Plus (+) or minus (-)
The ratings from 'AA' to 'CCC' may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
A-9

See active and inactive qualifiers following S & P Global Ratings Short-Term Issue Credit Ratings beginning on pages A-2 and A-3.
Moody's Long-Term Obligation Ratings
Long-Term Obligation Ratings
Long-term ratings are assigned to issuers or obligations with an original maturity of one year or more and reflect both on the likelihood of a default or impairment on contractual financial obligations and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default or impairment. Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations with an original maturity of thirteen months or less and reflect both on the likelihood of a default or impairment on contractual financial obligations and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default or impairment.
Moody's Long-Term Rating Definitions:
Aaa
Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk.
Aa
Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
A
Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
Baa
Obligations rated Baa are judged to be medium-grade and subject to moderate credit risk and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Ba
Obligations rated Ba are judged to be speculative and are subject to substantial credit risk.
B
Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Caa
Obligations rated Caa are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
Ca
Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
C
Obligations rated C are the lowest rated and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
Note: Moody's appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category. Additionally, a "(hyb)" indicator is appended to all ratings of hybrid securities issued by banks, insurers, finance companies, and securities firms.*
* By their terms, hybrid securities allow for the omission of scheduled dividends, interest, or principal payments, which can potentially result in impairment if such an omission occurs. Hybrid securities may also be subject to contractually allowable write-downs of principal that could result in impairment. Together with the hybrid indicator, the long-term obligation rating assigned to a hybrid security is an expression of the relative credit risk associated with that security.
A-10

Fitch's National Long-Term Credit Ratings
AAA(xxx)'AAA' National Ratings denote the highest rating assigned by the agency in its National Rating scale for that country. This rating is assigned to issuers or obligations with the lowest expectation of default risk relative to all other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
AA(xxx)'AA' National Ratings denote expectations of very low default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union. The default risk inherent differs only slightly from that of the country's highest rated issuers or obligations.
A(xxx)'A' National Ratings denote expectations of low default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
BBB(xxx)'BBB' National Ratings denote a moderate default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
BB(xxx)'BB' National Ratings denote an elevated default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
B(xxx)'B' National Ratings denote a significantly elevated default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
CCC(xxx) 'CCC' National Ratings denote very high default risk relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
CC(xxx) 'CC' National Ratings denote default risk is among the highest relative to other issuers or obligations in the same country or monetary union.
C(xxx) A default or default-like process has begun, or the issuer is in standstill, or for a closed funding vehicle, payment capacity is irrevocably impaired. Conditions that are indicative of a 'C' category rating for an issuer include:
a. the issuer has entered into a grace or cure period following non-payment of a material financial obligation;
b. the issuer has entered into a temporary negotiated waiver or standstill agreement following a payment default on a material financial obligation;
c. the formal announcement by the issuer or their agent of a distressed debt exchange; and
d. a closed financing vehicle where payment capacity is irrevocably impaired such that it is not expected to pay interest and/or principal in full during the life of the transaction, but where no payment default is imminent
RD(xxx): Restricted default.
'RD' ratings indicated that an issuer that in Fitch Ratings' opinion has experienced an uncured payment default on a bond, loan or other material financial obligation but which has not entered into bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation or other formal winding-up procedure, and which has not otherwise ceased business. This would include:
a. the selective payment default on a specific class or currency of debt;
b. the uncured expiry of any applicable grace period, cure period or default forbearance period following a payment default on a bank loan, capital markets security or other material financial obligation;
c. the extension of multiple waivers or forbearance periods upon a payment default on one or more material financial obligations either in series or in parallel; or
d. execution of a distressed debt exchange on one or more material financial obligations.
D(xxx)'D' National Ratings denote an issuer or instrument that is currently in default.
Notes to Long-Term and Short-Term National Ratings:
The ISO International Country Code is placed in parentheses immediately following the rating letters to indicate the identity of the National market within which the rating applies. For illustrative purposes, (xxx) has been used.
A-11

"+" or "-" may be appended to a National Rating to denote relative status within a major rating category. Such suffixes are not added to the 'AAA(xxx)' Long-Term National Rating category, to categories below 'CCC(xxx)', or to Short-Term National Ratings other than 'F1(xxx).'
MUNICIPAL NOTE RATINGS
S & P Global Ratings Municipal Short-Term Note Ratings Definitions
An S & P Global Ratings U.S. municipal note rating reflects S & P Global Ratings' opinion about the liquidity factors and market access risks unique to the notes. Notes due in three years or less will likely receive a note rating. Notes with an original maturity of more than three years will most likely receive a long-term debt rating. In determining which type of rating, if any, to assign, S & P Global Ratings analysis will review the following considerations:
Amortization schedule-the larger the final maturity relative to other maturities, the more likely it will be treated as a note; and
Source of payment-the more dependent the issue is on the market for its refinancing, the more likely it will be treated as a note.
Note rating symbols are as follows:
SP-1
Strong capacity to pay principal and interest. An issue determined to possess a very strong capacity to pay debt service is given a plus (+) designation.
SP-2
Satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the term of the notes.
SP-3
Speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.
D
'D' is assigned upon failure to pay the note when due, completion of a distressed exchange offer, or the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions
See active and inactive qualifiers following S & P Global Ratings Short-Term Issue Credit Ratings beginning on page A-2.
Moody's US Municipal Short-Term Debt And Demand Obligation Ratings
Short-Term Obligation Ratings
We use the global short-term Prime rating scale for commercial paper issued by US Municipalities and nonprofits. These commercial paper programs may be backed by external letters of credit or liquidity facilities, or by an issuer's self-liquidity.
For other short-term municipal obligations we use one of two other short-term rating scales, the Municipal Investment Grade (MIG) and Variable Municipal Investment Grade (VMIG) scales discussed below.
We use the MIG scale for US municipal cash flow notes, bond anticipation notes and certain other short-term obligations, which typically mature in three years or less. Under certain circumstances, we use the MIG scale for bond anticipation notes with maturities of up to five years.
MIG 1
This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by established cash flows, highly reliable liquidity support, or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.
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MIG 2
This designation denotes strong credit quality. Margins of protection are ample, although not as large as in the preceding group.
MIG 3
This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash-flow protection may be narrow, and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well-established.
SG
This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Debt instruments in this category may lack sufficient margins of protection.
Standard Linkage Between the Long-Term and MIG Short-Term Rating Scale
The following table indicates the municipal long-term ratings consistent with different MIG short-term ratings.
Demand Obligation Ratings
In the case of variable rate demand obligations (VRDOs), a two-component rating is assigned. The components are a long-term rating and a short-term demand obligation rating. The long-term rating addresses the issuer's ability to meet scheduled principal and interest payments. The short-term demand obligation rating addresses the ability of the issuer or the liquidity provider to make payments associated with the purchase-price-upon-demand feature ("demand feature") of the VRDO. The short-term demand obligation rating uses the VMIG scale. VMIG ratings with liquidity support use as an input the short-term Counterparty Risk Assessment of the support provider, or the long-term rating of the underlying obligor in the absence of third party liquidity support. Transitions of VMIG ratings of demand obligations with conditional liquidity support differ from transitions on the Prime scale to reflect the risk that external liquidity support will terminate if the issuer's long-term rating drops below investment grade. Please see our methodology that discusses demand obligations with conditional liquidity support.
We typically assign the VMIG short-term demand obligation rating if the frequency of the demand feature is less than every three years. If the frequency of the demand feature is less than three years but the purchase price is payable only with remarketing proceeds, the short-term demand obligation rating is "NR".
VMIG 1
This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by the superior short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
A-13

VMIG 2
This designation denotes strong credit quality. Good protection is afforded by the strong short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
VMIG 3
This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Adequate protection is afforded by the satisfactory short-term credit strength of the liquidity provider and structural and legal protections that ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
SG
This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Demand features rated in this category may be supported by a liquidity provider that does not have an investment grade short-term rating or may lack the structural and/or legal protections necessary to ensure the timely payment of purchase price upon demand.
* For VRDBs supported with conditional liquidity support, short-term ratings transition down at higher long-term ratings to reflect the risk of termination of liquidity support as a result of a downgrade below investment grade.
VMIG ratings of VRDBs with unconditional liquidity support reflect the short-term debt rating (or counterparty assessment) of the liquidity support provider with VMIG 1 corresponding to P-1, VMIG 2 to P-2, VMIG 3 to P-3 and SG to not prime.

US MUNICIPAL SHORT-TERM VS. LONG-TERM RATINGS

*For SBPA-backed VRDBs, The rating transitions are higher to allow for distance to downgrade to below investment grade due to the presence of automatic termination events in the SBPAs.

Reviewed October 21, 2020
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APPENDIX B
The Sub-Adviser has adopted the following guidelines with respect to the Sub-Adviser's proxy voting responsibilities for the Fund.

Summary
Investment advisers are required to implement policies and procedures reasonably designed to ensure that proxies are voted in the best interest of clients, in accordance with fiduciary duties and SEC Rule 206(4)-6 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. In addition to SEC requirements governing advisers, PAM's proxy voting policies reflect the fiduciary standards and responsibilities for ERISA accounts set out in applicable Department of Labor guidance.

PAM's authority to vote proxies for clients is established by the Investment Management Agreement "IMA" or comparable documents. PAM manages fixed income strategies; therefore the volume of proxies is relatively low.

Policy
PAM generally follows the voting guidelines included in this Policy; however each vote is ultimately cast on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the contractual obligations under the IMA or comparable document, and all other relevant facts and circumstances at the time of the vote to ensure that proxies are voted in the best interest of clients.

Conflicts of Interest
PAM takes reasonable measures to identify the existence of any material conflicts of interest related to voting proxies. A potential conflict of interest may exist when PAM votes a proxy for an issuer with whom:
PAM maintains a material business relationship
PAM Senior Management or Portfolio Manager(s) maintain a personal relationship

Conflicts based on material business relationships or dealings with affiliates of PAM will only be considered to the extent that PAM has actual knowledge of such material business relationships. PAM employees are periodically, and no less than annually, reminded of their obligation to be aware of the potential for conflicts of interest with respect to voting proxies both as a result of business or personal relationships and to bring potential and actual conflicts of interest to the attention of the PAM CCO. Additionally, officers of PAM, including the Portfolio Managers and Senior Managing Directors, are required to complete an annual conflicts of interest statement to self-report certain activities, relationships and personal interests that may create, or appear to create and actual or potential conflict of interest. PAM will not vote proxies relating to such issuers identified as being involved in a potential conflict of interest until it has been determined that the conflict of interest is not material or a method for resolving the conflict of interest has been agreed upon and implemented. When a material conflict of interest exists, PAM will choose among the following options to eliminate such conflict:

Vote in accordance with the Voting Guidelines, if the voting scenario is covered in the Voting Guidelines (outlined below) and involves little or no discretion;
If possible, erect information barriers around the person or persons making voting decisions sufficient to insulate the decision from the conflict;
If practical, notify affected clients of the conflict of interest and seek a waiver of the conflict for the proxy to be voted;
If agreed upon in writing with the client, forward the proxies to the affected client or their designee and allow the client or their designee to vote the proxies.

The resolution of all potential and actual material conflicts of interest issues is documented in order to demonstrate that PAM acted in the best interest of its clients.

Abstaining from Proxy Voting
In certain circumstances, PAM may choose to abstain from voting a proxy. In instances when PAM deems abstention to be in the best interest of its Client(s), PAM will formally indicate its abstention on the proxy to ensure the vote is properly recorded. Considerations that may cause PAM to abstain from voting include but are not limited to:
When the cost of voting the proxy outweighs the benefits or is otherwise impractical;
International constraints for timing and meeting deadlines;
Restrictions on foreign securities including share blocking (restrictions on the sale of securities for a period of time in proximity to the shareholder meeting); and
Any instance where the Firm feels there is insufficient information to determine the most reasonable course of action on behalf of a Client; and
When a Client provides specific instruction to abstain from a vote as outlined in the Client Instruction section below.

B-1

Any proxies that PAM chooses not to vote will be documented along with the rationale prior to the date of the shareholder's meeting for that particular proxy.

Client Instruction
Under certain circumstances a client may delegate proxy voting authority to PAM and provide PAM with specific voting instructions. The IMA must reflect the terms and conditions of the arrangement. As agreed to in the IMA, PAM will vote in accordance with the Client's specific instructions which may or may not align with this policy. Clients should be aware that providing specific instructions to PAM may result in voting that may be contrary to how PAM would have voted using the Voting Guidelines or their own analysis.

Differences in Proxy Vote Determinations
PAM may determine that specific circumstances require that proxies be voted differently among accounts due to the accounts' Investments Guidelines or other distinguishing factors. PAM may from time to time reach contrasting but equally valid views on how best to maximize economic value in respect to a particular investment. This may result in situations in which a client is invested in portfolios with dissimilar proxy outcomes. In those situations, the other portfolios may be invested in strategies having distinctive investment objectives, investment styles or investment professionals. However, PAM generally votes consistently on the same matter when securities of an issuer are held by multiple Client Accounts. Any differences among proxies for other portfolios will be reviewed, approved and documented by senior management and PAM CCO prior to the vote being cast.

Client Disclosure and Availability of Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures
PAM provides a copy of its proxy voting policy and procedures to clients upon request. Clients can obtain information on how proxies were voted for their account upon request. Compliance provides proxy filing information to the advisors of 40 Act Accounts as requested for the purpose of filing proxy information annually with the SEC.

Voting Guidelines
Proxy proposals generally fall into one of the following categories: Reports and approval of accounts; Financial opeerations; Board elections; Remuneration; Engagement; and other relevant issues *e.g. shareholder and business proposals). In all cases, PAM will vote the proxies in a manner that is consistent with the best interest of its Clients as follows:

Reports and approval of accounts(e.g., approval of financial statements, allocation of income, appointment of auditors, etc.): PAM generally votes with the recommendations of a company's Board of Directors following our own review to include ensuring proposals are reflective of, among others, ethical, reasonable, equitable and financially sound corporate standards.
Financial operations(e.g., mergers and acquisitions, corporate restructuring, etc.): PAM generally votes with the recommendations of a company's Board of Directors following our own review to include ensuring proposals are reflective of, among others, ethical, reasonable, equitable and financially sound corporate standards.

Board elections: Board nominations are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PAM is supportive of NASDAQ's Diversity requirements1. In the event any underlying issuer does not have at least two diverse2board members, we expect to vote against resolutions or proposals to re-elect or appoint a new, non-diverse board candidate3. Where an issuer has two or more diverse board members, PAM may vote in-line with the recommendations of a company's Board of Directors following our own review to include ensuring proposals are reflective of, among others, ethical, reasonable, equitable and financially sound corporate standards.

Remuneration and compensation practices: Votes related to remuneration and compensation are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PAM expects to specifically review instances of increased compensation (including bonus compensation) when the CEO to median employee ratio is higher than 300 to 14based on public remuneration disclosures by an issuer.

Shareholder engagement related proxies: These proxies are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PAM generally expects to vote against any resolution that would reduce or restrict shareholder rights or engagement activities without compensation deemed reasonable to justify such restriction.

1 https://listingcenter.nasdaq.com/assets/RuleBook/Nasdaq/filings/SR-NASDAQ-2020-081.pdf
2 Defined per NASDAQ (see Footnote 1) as referring to any person who self-identifies as female, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latinx, Asian, Native American or Alaska Native, Middle Eastern / North African, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, two or more races or ethnicities, or as LGBTQ+.
3 PAM's review is limited to publicly available data that is reasonably practicable to locate or otherwise identify, and/or readily available in ESG disclosures
4 https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2021/07/15/americas-most-staggering-ceo-to-worker-pay-ratios-infographic/?sh=59eb3a762c56
B-2

Shareholder proposals and other voting issues, including ESG-related issues not described above, are evaluated on case-by-case basis with consideration to our ESG policy. If a proposal relates to the disclosure of material5 ESG-related information (e.g., disclosure related to climate risk), and does not create duplicate disclosure effort or an unreasonable cost burden to the company, we generally expect to vote in favor of such proposal.

Any proxies that PAM votes outside of these general Voting Guidelines will be documented along with the rationale prior to the date of the shareholder's meeting for that particular proxy.

Procedures
All proxies are sent to the appropriate PAM Portfolio Manager(s), ESG Product Manager and analyst responsible for the security held in a Client Account for their review and recommendation. These individuals research the implications of proxy proposals and make voting recommendations specific for each account that holds the related security. PAM Portfolio Managers are ultimately responsible for voting any Client proxy. PAM uses information gathered from research, company management, and outside shareholder groups to reach voting decisions. In determining how to vote proxy issues, PAM votes proxies in a manner intended to protect and enhance the economic value of the securities held in Client Accounts.

Proxies in certain Client Accounts are voted using a proxy management system called ProxyEdge. ProxyEdge is used exclusively to assist with the administrative processes for proxy voting such as tracking and management of proxy records, vote execution, reporting, and auditing. ProxyEdge generates a variety of reports and makes available various other types of information to assist in the review and monitoring of votes cast. The holdings in certain Client Accounts are electronically sent to the ProxyEdge system automatically by the custodians to ensure that PAM is voting the most current share position for clients. Once Compliance receives email notification from ProxyEdge that there are proxies in the system to be voted, a ballot is created as a distributable unmarked ballot and sent via email to the respective Portfolio Managers for their vote selection. The Portfolio Managers respond with their selections. Compliance has the responsibility to vote the proxies according to the Portfolio Manager selections. Once voted, an email is sent via ProxyEdge to the client, Client Account Custodian or third party as defined in the IMA confirming that Client Account proxies have been voted. An email is received from ProxyEdge confirming the vote was submitted.

For those Client Accounts not on the ProxyEdge system, all custodian banks and trustees are notified of their responsibility to forward to Compliance all proxy materials. When Compliance is notified of an upcoming proxy for the accounts on ProxyEdge, the proxy material is verified to have been received for the accounts not on ProxyEdge as well. If an expected proxy is not received by the voting deadline, Compliance will direct the custodian or trustee to vote in accordance with PAM's instructions. The final authority and responsibility for proxy voting remains with PAM.

Oversight Controls
PAM Compliance reviews the proxy votes casted to make sure PAM is following the proxy voting policies and procedures by:
Reviewing no less than annually the adequacy of the proxy voting policies and procedures to make sure that they have been implemented effectively, including whether the policies continue to be reasonably designed to ensure that proxies are voted in the best interests of Clients.

Cross Reference / Source
Rule 206(4)-6 of the Advisors Act
Fiduciary Duty
Contractual Requirements
Department of Labor Interpretive Bulletin 2008-2, 29 C.F.R. 2509.08-2 (Oct. 17, 2008)
PAM ESG Policy

Last Updated
October 1, 2021

5 As defined by SASB as ESG risks that create a financial or operational impairment to a company https://www.sasb.org/standards/materiality-map/
B-3

PACER FUNDS TRUST
PART C

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 28. Exhibits.
(a) (1)
(2)
(b)
(c)
(d) (1)
(2)
Amended Schedule A to the Investment Advisory Agreement dated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Pacer Advisors, Inc. and Pacific Asset Management LLC- Filed Herewith.
(e) (1)
(2)
Amended Appendix A to the Distribution Agreement dated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
(f)
Bonus, profit sharing contracts-None.
(g) (1)
(2)
(3)
Form of Amended Exhibit B to the Custody Agreementdated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
(h) Other Material Contracts.
(1) (A)
(B)
(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Fund Administration Servicing Agreementdated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
1

(2) (A)
(B)
(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Transfer Agent Agreementdated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
(3) (A)
(B)
(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Fund Accounting Servicing Agreementdated October 19, 2021- Filed Herewith.
(4)
(5) (A)
(B)
(i) (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
2

(11)
Opinion and Consent of Practus, LLP for Pacer Pacific Asset Floating RateHigh Income ETF- Filed Herewith.
(j) (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - not applicable.
(5)
Consent of the Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF Predecessor Fund's Accounting Firm- Filed Herewith.
(k)
Financial statements omitted from prospectus - None.
(l)
(m) (1)
(2)
Amended Schedule A dated October 19, 2021 to Rule 12b-1 Plan- Filed Herewith.
(n)
Rule 18f-3 Plan - None.
(o)
Reserved.
(p) (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

Item 29. Persons Controlled by or Under Common Control with Registrant

Not Applicable.

Item 30. Indemnification

Reference is made to Article VII, Section III of the Registrant's Declaration of Trust, which was filed with the Registrant's Initial Registration Statement on January 15, 2015. The general effect of this provision is to indemnify the Trustees, officers, employees and other agents of the Trust who are parties pursuant to any proceeding by reason of their actions performed in their scope of service on behalf of the Trust.

3

Pursuant to Rule 484 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), the Registrant furnishes the following undertaking: "Insofar as indemnification for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to trustees, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that, in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a trustee, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such trustee, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue."

Item 31. Business and Other Connections of Investment Adviser
This Item incorporated by reference each investment adviser's Uniform Application for Investment Adviser Registration ("Form ADV") on file with the SEC, as listed below. Each Form ADV may be obtained, free of charge, at the SEC's website at www.adviserinfo.sec.gov. Additional information as to any other business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by each officer and director of the below-listed investment advisers is included in the Trust's Statement of Additional Information.
Investment Adviser SEC File No. Investment Adviser SEC File No.
Pacer Advisors, Inc. 801-79654 CSOP Asset Management Limited 801-79092
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC 801-80534 Swan Global Management, LLC 801-80552
Metaurus Advisors LLC 801-121194 Pacific Asset Management LLC 801-117402

Item 32. Principal Underwriter

(a) Pacer Financial, Inc., the Registrant's principal underwriter, does not act as principal underwriter for any other investment companies.

(b)To the best of Registrant's knowledge, the directors and executive officers of Pacer Financial, Inc. are as follows:
Name and Principal
Business Address (1)
Position and Offices with Pacer Financial, Inc. Positions and Offices with Registrant
Joe M. Thomson President, CCO President, Chairman
Joann Thomson Secretary, Treasurer None
Paul L. Giorgio FINOP None
(1)The principal business address for each of the above directors and executive officers is 500 Chesterfield Parkway, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355.

(c)Not applicable.

4

Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records

The books, accounts and other documents required by Section 31(a) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules promulgated thereunder will be maintained at the offices of:
Records Relating to: Are located at:
Registrant's Transfer Agent, Fund Administrator and Fund Accountant U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
615 East Michigan Street
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Registrant's Custodian U.S. Bank National Association
1555 North Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302
Milwaukee, WI 53212
Registrant's Investment Adviser Pacer Advisors, Inc.
500 Chesterfield Parkway
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
Sub-Advisor for the Pacer Trendpilot US Bond ETF Vident Investment Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, GA 30009
Sub-Advisor for the Pacer CSOP FTSE China A50 ETF CSOP Asset Management Limited
2801-2803, Two Exchange Square
8 Connaught Place
Central, Hong Kong
Sub-Advisor for the Pacer Swan SOS ETFs Swan Global Management, LLC
20 Ridge Top Palmas Del Mar
Humacao, PR 00791
Sub-Advisor for the Pacer Metaurus ETFs
Metaurus Advisors LLC
22 Hudson Place, Third Floor
Hoboken, New Jersey 07030
Sub-Advisor for the Pacer Pacific Asset Floating Rate High Income ETF
Pacific Asset Management LLC
840 Newport Center Drive, 7 Floor,
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Registrant's Distributor Pacer Financial, Inc.
500 Chesterfield Parkway
Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355
Item 34. Management Services
Not applicable.
Item 35. Undertakings
Not applicable.
5

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for effectiveness of this registration statement under rule 485(b) under the Securities Act and has duly caused this Post-Effective Amendment to its Registration Statement on Form N-1A to be signed below on its behalf by the undersigned, duly authorized, in the City of Malvern and the State of Pennsylvania on October 19, 2021.

Pacer Funds Trust

By: /s/ Joe M. Thomson
Joe M. Thomson
President

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities indicated as of October 19, 2021.
Signature Title
Deborah G. Wolk* Lead Independent Trustee
Deborah G. Wolk
Colin C. Lake* Trustee
Colin C. Lake
Jonathan H. Newman, Sr.* Trustee
Jonathan H. Newman, Sr.
/s/ Joe M. Thomson Trustee and President
Joe M. Thomson
/s/ Sean E. O'Hara Treasurer
Sean E. O'Hara

*By: /s/ Sean E. O'Hara
Sean E. O'Hara
Attorney-in-Fact pursuant to
Powers of Attorney previously filed






INDEX TO EXHIBITS
Exhibit No. Exhibit Description
(d)(2)
Amended Schedule A to the Investment Advisory Agreement
(d)(7)
Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement with Pacific Asset Management
(e)(2)
Amended Appendix A to the Distribution Agreement
(g)(3)
Form of Amended Exhibit B to the Custody Agreement
(h)(1)(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Fund Administration Servicing Agreement
(h)(2)(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Transfer Agent Agreement
(h)(3)(C)
Form of Amended Exhibit A to the Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement
(i)(11)
Opinion and Consent of Practus, LLP
(j)(5)
Consent of the Predecessor Fund's Accounting Firm
(m)(2)
Amended Schedule A to Rule 12b-1 Plan