07/06/2020 | Press release | Distributed by Public on 07/06/2020 07:52
This year's theme of World Population Day was to safeguard the health and rights of women and girls
11 July 1987, which was the day when the world's population reached 5 billion, was accepted as the 'World Population Day' by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1989. On this special day, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) selects a theme which addresses important issues of the population and works to raise awareness on this theme every year.
UNFPA points out that the COVID-19 outbreak, which is the biggest global health problem of the last century, threatens the health of all people in the world, especially the groups defined as the 'vulnerable population', and exacerbates gender inequalities. UNFPA states that the epidemic negatively affects reproductive health, rights and uninterrupted access to reproductive health services, and that more women and girls are at risk of losing their ability to plan their families and protect their health.
Accordingly, as the theme of 2020 World Population Day, UNFPA decided to emphasize on the theme of 'Putting the breaks on COVID-19: How to safeguard the health and rights of women and girls now?' The first and most important step that can be taken in this regard is to have the most up-to-date basic statistics on the current status of these groups. In this context, basic information on birth, marriage and gender statistics are presented in this press release.
Total fertility rate was 1.88 children
Total fertility rate is the average number of live births that a woman would have under the assumption that she survived to the end of her reproductive life which is 15-49 age group and had a child according to a given age specific fertility rate.
While the total fertility rate was 2.38 children in 2001, this rate was 1.88 children in 2019. In other words, a woman gave approximately 1.88 live births during her reproductive life in 2019. This showed that fertility remained below the population's replacement level of 2.10.
Total fertility rate, 2001-2019
The highest total fertility rate was in Şanlıurfa with 3.89 children
In 2019, the province having the highest total fertility rate was Şanlıurfa with 3.89 children. Şanlıurfa was followed by Şırnak with 3.37 children, Ağrı with 3.16 children and Muş with 3.15 children. The province having the lowest total fertility rate was Gümüşhane with 1.33 children. Gümüşhane was followed by Kütahya and Edirne with 1.34 children.
The first 10 provinces with the highest and the lowest total fertility rate, 2019
The average total fertility rate for European Union (EU) member countries was 1.56 children
It was seen that total fertility rate of Turkey was higher than the total fertility rates of 28 EU member countries. When the total fertility rates of 28 EU member countries were analyzed, the country having the highest total fertility rate was France with 1.88 children and the country having the lowest total fertility rate was Malta with 1.23 children in 2018.
Comparison of the total fertility rate with the European Union member countries, 2018
The highest age specific fertility rate was in 25-29 age group
Age specific fertility rate is the average number of live births per thousand women in certain age group.
When the fertility rate was examined by age group, it was seen that while the highest age specific fertility rate was in 20-24 age group with 144 per thousand in 2001, this rate was in 25-29 age group with 122 per thousand in 2019. This showed that fertility occurred at a later age of the woman.
Age specific fertility rate, 2001, 2019
Adolescent fertility rate decreased
Adolescent fertility rate is the average number of live births per thousand women in 15-19 age group. Since teenage mothers are more likely to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternity-related mortality than more mature women, adolescent fertility is a very important issue for maternal and child health care.
While the adolescent fertility rate was 49 per thousand in 2001, this rate decreased to 17 per thousand in 2019. In other words, the number of live births was 17 per thousand women in 15-19 age group in 2019.
Adolescent fertility rate, 2001-2019
The average adolescent fertility rate for EU member countries was 9 per thousand
When the adolescent fertility rates of 28 EU member countries were analyzed, the country having the highest adolescent fertility rate was Bulgaria with 39 per thousand and the country having the lowest adolescent fertility rate was Denmark with 2 per thousand in 2018. Turkey with the adolescent fertility rate of 19 per thousand was higher than EU average like 11 EU member countries.
Mean age of the mothers giving birth was 28.9
While the mean age of the mothers giving birth was 26.7 in 2001, it was 28.9 in 2019. On the other hand, mean age of mothers giving birth to first child in 2019 was 26.4.
Mean age of the mother, 2001-2019
Maternal mortality ratio decreased to 13.6 per hundred thousand
Maternal mortality ratio is defined as the number of maternal deaths per hundred thousand live births in a year. Maternal death is the death of a woman from the beginning of pregnancy to the 42ndday after birth, by any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
Maternal mortality ratio in Turkey, which was 16.7 per hundred thousand in 2010, has tended to decline over the years and decrease to 13.6 per hundred thousand in 2018.
Maternal mortality ratio, 2010-2018
The country with the highest maternal mortality ratio in the world was South Sudan
The average maternal mortality ratio for the world was 211 per hundred thousand in 2017. When maternal mortality ratio was analyzed by countries, South Sudan ranked first with one thousand and 150 per hundred thousand. This country was followed by Chad with one thousand and 140 per hundred thousand and Sierra Leone with one thousand and 120 per hundred thousand. The first four countries with the lowest maternal mortality ratio were Belarus, Italy, Norway and Poland with 2 per hundred thousand. In Turkey, the maternal mortality ratio was about 15 per hundred thousand in 2017.
Infant mortality rate was 9.1 per thousand
While the number of infant deaths was 11 thousand and 598 in 2018, it was 10 thousand and 770 in 2019. While infant mortality rate was 9.3 per thousand in 2018, it was 9.1 per thousand in 2019. In other words, the number of infant deaths was 9.1 per thousand live births in 2019.
While the under five mortality rate which is the probability of dying during five years after birth was 11.3 per thousand in 2018, it was 11.2 per thousand in 2019.
The proportion of legal child marriages for girls declined
According to marriage statistics, while the proportion of legal child marriages for girls aged between 16-17 within the legal total marriages was 8.1% in 2009, it declined to 3.1% in 2019.
The proportion of child marriages for girls within total marriages, 2002-2019
Mean age at first marriage for females increased
The age at first marriage has a major impact on childbearing because women who marry early will have, on average, a longer period of exposure to pregnancy, which in turn often leads to a higher number of lifetime births. Mean age at first marriage for females was 24.4 in 2015 and increased to 25 in 2019.
5.1% of married women in the 20-24 age group were married before age of 18
'Proportion of individuals aged between 20-24 and married before age 18' is one of the indicators covered in 'United Nations 52 Minimum Set of Gender Indicators' which were adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 2013. In Turkey, while this indicator was 8.2% in 2010, it became 5.1% in 2019.
The ratio of women in management positions was 17.5%
According to the results of the household labour force survey, the ratio of women in senior and middle management positions in companies was 14.4% in 2012 and increased to 17.5% in 2019.
The next release on this subject will be on July, 2021.