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NCHS - U.S. National Center for Health Statistics

10/27/2020 | Press release | Distributed by Public on 10/26/2020 22:06

Percentage of Adults Aged 20 and Over with Abnormal Lipid Levels, Diagnosed High Cholesterol, and Percentage Taking Lipid-Lowering Medications, Los Angeles County and the[...]

by Craig M. Hales, M.D., M.P.H., and Margaret D. Carroll, M.S.P.H., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

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The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. A household interview and a physical examination are conducted for each survey participant. Because of the size and population density of Los Angeles (LA) County and the large Mexican-American and Hispanic populations, a primary sampling unit in LA County was chosen with certainty in each 2-year NHANES cycle (1). By aggregating NHANES data between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 to increase the sample size and improve the reliability of LA County estimates, the prevalence of many health conditions for the LA County and U.S. populations can be estimated and compared.

This Health E-Stat presents the percentage of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol (greater than or equal to 240 mg/dL), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (less than 40 mg/dL), high non-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C, greater than or equal to 190 mg/dL), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (greater than or equal to 160 mg/dL), and high triglycerides (greater than or equal to 175 mg/dL). The percentage of adults diagnosed with high cholesterol and, among those with diagnosed high cholesterol, those taking lipid-lowering medications and statins among adults in LA County and the United States during 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 are also presented.

Table 1 shows crude and age-adjusted percentages of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol, low HDL-C, high non-HDL-C, high LDL-C, diagnosed high cholesterol, the percentage taking a lipid-lowering medication among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol, and percentage taking a statin among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol in LA County and the United States for 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 (low HDL-C and high non-HDL-C is shown for 2007-2014 only due to changes in laboratories and methods).

The age-adjusted prevalence of high total cholesterol in LA County was 14.2% in 1999-2006 and 13.8% in 2007-2014, while the prevalence in the United States was 16.8% and 12.8%, respectively. Among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol in LA County, 39.5% took a lipid- lowering medication in 1999-2006 and 38.0% did in 2007-2014 (age-adjusted), while among U.S. adults, 37.3% took a lipid-lowering medication in 1999-2006 and 45.1% did in 2007-2014 (age-adjusted).

Table 2 shows age-adjusted percentages of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol, low HDL-C, high non-HDL-C, high LDL-C, diagnosed high cholesterol, the percentage taking a lipid-lowering medication among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol, and the percentage taking a statin among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol in LA County and the United States by age, sex, and race and Hispanic origin during 2007-2014.

Data source and methods

During the physical examination, venous blood samples were collected from NHANES participants and processed using a standardized protocol. Confidence intervals were constructed using the method of Korn and Graubard and the reliability of estimates was assessed using the NCHS data presentation standards for proportions (2). Despite aggregating NHANES data between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014 to increase the sample size and improve the reliability of LA County estimates, reduced power limited the ability to calculate reliable estimates for health conditions with a low prevalence, especially among subgroups. See the publication 'National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: California and LA County, Estimation Methods and Analytic Considerations' (1) for additional information on methods related to the LA County sample.

References

  1. Parker JD, Kruszon-Moran D, Mohadjer LK, Dohrmann SM, Van de Kerckhove W, Clark J, et al. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: California and Los Angeles County, estimation methods and analytic considerations, 1999-2006 and 2007-2014. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(173). 2017.
  2. Parker JD, Talih M, Malec DJ, Beresovsky V, Carroll M, Gonzalez Jr JF. National Center for Health Statistics data presentation standards for proportions. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(175). 2017.

Suggested citation

Hales CM, Carroll MD. Abnormal lipid levels, diagnosed high cholesterol, and lipid-lowering treatment among adults: Los Angeles County and the United States, 1999-2014. NCHS Health E-Stat. 2020.

Table

Table 1. Crude and age-adjusted percentage of adults aged 20 and over with abnormal lipids, diagnosed high cholesterol, and taking lipid-lowering medications: Los Angeles County and the United States, 1999-2006 and 2007-2014

Measurement Los Angeles County United States
1999-2006 2007-2014 1999-2006 2007-2014
N Percent (95% CI) N Percent (95% CI) N Percent (95% CI) N Percent (95% CI)
High total cholesterol (greater than or equal to 240 mg/dL) 850 13.7 (9.9, 18.4) 972 13.7 (10.2, 17.9) 17,766 16.8 (16.0, 17.7) 21,283 13.1 (12.4, 13.8)
Low HDL-C (less than 40 mg/dL) 972 17.9 (14.4, 21.7) 1.921,283 20.0 (19.0, 21.1)
High non-HDL-C (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dL) 972 11.6 (8.9, 14.9) 21,283 12.1 (11.5, 12.7)
High LDL-C (greater than or equal to 160 mg/dL) 341 12.7 (7.7, 19.4) 446 11.5 (7.8, 16.1) 7,674 12.5 (11.4, 13.7) 9,422 10.0 (9.3, 10.7)
Diagnosed high cholesterol 623 39.4 (35.1, 43.8) 909 33.9 (28.8, 39.2) 13,535 38.7 (37.4, 40.0) 19,764 37.1 (36.0, 38.1)
Percent taking a lipid-lowering medication among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol 275 38.6 (30.6, 47.1) 353 44.2 (36.2, 52.4) 5,383 41.0 (39.0, 43.1) 7,592 51.3 (49.5, 53.0)
Percent taking a statin among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol 276 23.5 (15.9, 32.7) 354 31.6 (22.6, 41.7) 5,398 32.3 (30.5, 34.1) 7,616 42.7 (41.0, 44.4)
Age-adjusted percentage1
850 14.2 (10.3, 19.0) 972 13.8 (10.4, 17.8) 17,766 16.8 (16.0, 17.6) 21,283 12.8 (12.2, 13.6)
Low HDL-C (less than 40 mg/dL) 972 17.8 (14.5, 21.5) 21,283 20.2 (19.1, 21.3)
High non-HDL-C (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dL) 972 11.6 (9.0, 14.7) 21,283 12.0 (11.4, 12.6)
High LDL-C (greater than or equal to 160 mg/dL) 341 12.8 (7.9, 19.1) 446 11.8 (7.9, 16.6) 7,674 12.5 (11.4, 13.6) 9,422 9.9 (9.2, 10.6)
High triglycerides (greater than or equal to 175 mg/dL) 364 32.5 (23.5, 42.7) 454 15.8 (12.2, 20.0 7,893 24.3 (23.0, 25.6) 9,593 17.6 (16.5, 18.8)
Diagnosed high cholesterol 623 38.2 (33.7, 42.9) 909 32.7 (28.6, 37.0) 13,535 35.7 (34.6, 36.8) 19,764 34.2 (33.4, 35.1)
Percent taking a lipid-lowering medication among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol 275 39.5 (32.5, 46.8) 353 38.0 (31.8, 44.5) 5,383 37.3 (35.7, 38.9) 7,592 45.1 (43.4, 46.9)
Percent taking a statin among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol 276 23.2 (16.1, 31.6) 354 26.9 (19.1, 35.9) 5,398 29.0 (27.5, 30.6) 7,616 37.3 (35.7, 39.0)

…Category not applicable. Percentages prior to 2007-2008 are not presented due to changes in laboratories and methods.
1Age-adjusted by the direct method to the projected 2000 U.S. census population using the age groups 20-39, 40-59, and 60 and over.

NOTES: CI is confidence interval. HDL-C is high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. LDL-C is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Diagnosed high cholesterol is based on an affirmative response to the question, 'Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that your blood cholesterol level was high?' Taking a lipid-lowering medication is based on an affirmative response to the question, 'Are you currently taking lipid- lowering medication?' asked of adults diagnosed with high cholesterol. Taking a statin is based on a comprehensive enumeration of prescription medications that the participant reported taking in the past 30 days.

SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2014.

Table 2. Age-adjusted percentage of adults aged 20 and older with abnormal lipids, diagnosed high cholesterol, and percentage taking lipid-lowering medications by age, sex, and race and Hispanic origin: Los Angeles County and United States, 2007-2014

Los Angeles County United States
Measurement N Percent (95% CI) N Percent (95% CI)
High total cholesterol (greater than or equal to 240 mg/dL)
Age group:
20-39 314 9.9 (5.5, 15.9) 7,157 7.9 (7.0, 8.9)
40-59 335 17.6 (12.8, 23.4) 7,102 17.2 (16.1, 18.4)
60 and over 323 14.4 (9.5, 20.6) 7,024 14.3 (13.2, 15.4)
Sex:
Men 458 14.7 (10.9, 19.1) 10,357 11.6 (10.8, 12.5)
Women 514 12.7 ( 8.7, 17.6) 10,926 13.8 (12.9, 14.7)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 155 *12.3 (5.5, 22.5) 9,495 13.2 (12.3, 14.2)
Non-Hispanic black 104 9.5 (4.6, 16.9) 4,292 9.9 (8.9, 11.0)
Hispanic1 507 14.4 (11.5, 17.8) 5,366 13.8 (12.6, 15.1)
Mexican American 357 12.4 (9.2, 16.3) 3,204 12.9 (11.5, 14.4)
Low HDL-C (less than 40 mg/dL)
Age group:
20-39 314 17.4 (12.0, 23.9) 7,157 22.0 (20.4, 23.7)
40-59 335 20.3 (15.3, 26.1) 7,102 20.6 (19.1, 22.1)
60 and over 323 14.5 (9.5, 20.8) 7,024 16.3 (14.8, 17.9)
Sex:
Men 458 26.5 (21.6, 31.9) 10,357 29.8 (28.4, 31.3)
Women 514 9.4 (6.5, 12.9) 10,926 11.1 (10.1, 12.2)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 155 13.1 (7.8, 20.1) 9,495 20.8 (19.4, 22.2)
Non-Hispanic black 104 *9.1 (2.6, 21.5) 4,292 14.1 (13.0, 15.2)
Hispanic1 507 24.8 (19.7, 30.5) 5,366 22.7 (21.2, 24.2)
Mexican American 357 25.7 (20.1, 32.0) 3,204 23.2 (21.4, 25.2)
High non-HDL-C (greater than or equal to 190 mg/dL)
Age group:
20-39 314 8.8 (5.1, 13.8) 7,157 8.2 (7.4, 9.0)
40-59 335 15.2 (11.1, 20.1) 7,102 16.6 (15.5, 17.8)
60 and over 323 10.7 (6.6, 16.3) 7,024 11.1 (10.3, 11.9)
Sex:
Men 458 15.0 (11.2, 19.4) 10,357 13.5 (12.7, 14.4)
Women 514 8.2 6.0, 10.9) 10,926 10.4 (9.7, 11.1)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 155 *8.6 (3.4, 17.1) 9,495 12.2 (11.5, 13.0)
Non-Hispanic black 104 *6.6 (2.6, 13.2) 4,292 8.5 (7.5, 9.5)
Hispanic1 507 14.9 (11.8, 18.4) 5,366 13.9 (12.7, 15.2)
Mexican American 357 14.0 (10.4, 18.2) 3,204 13.6 (12.0, 15.2)
High LDL-C (greater than or equal to 160 mg/dL)
Age group:
20-39 146 *5.5 (2.0, 11.9) 3,109 7.0 (6.0, 8.1)
40-59 159 14.3 (8.3, 22.4) 3,186 13.1 (11.6, 14.6)
60 and over 141 *18.4 (7.5, 34.9) 3,127 9.8 (8.6, 11.0)
Sex:
Men 210 11.6 (7.0, 17.9) 4,497 9.8 (8.8, 10.9)
Women 236 11.8 (6.3, 19.8) 4,925 9.8 (9.0, 10.7)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 64 *, 12.4 (3.4, 29.0) 4,205 9.7 (8.7, 10.8)
Non-Hispanic black 43 *, 16.7 (2.6, 45.7) 1,809 10.3 (8.8, 11.9)
Hispanic1 255 8.6 (5.5, 12.8) 2,455 10.6 (9.1, 12.4)
Mexican American 184 8.3 (4.7, 13.3) 1,444 10.0 (8.0, 12.4)
High triglycerides (greater than or equal to 175 mg/dL)
Age group:
20-39 184 15.0 (8.1, 24.5) 3,158 13.3 (11.8, 15.1)
40-59 164 15.9 (10.7, 22.5) 3,268 20.9 (19.1, 22.7)
60 and over 142 17.1 (8.6, 28.9) 3,167 19.8 (17.6, 22.2)
Sex:
Men 215 18.2 (11.8, 26.3) 4,618 21.2 (19.6, 22.9)
Women 239 13.4 (9.1, 18.7) 4,975 14.1 (12.7, 15.6)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 65 *, 8.8 (3.2, 18.5) 4,296 18.2 (16.8, 19.7)
Non-Hispanic black 43 *, 11.7 (1.2, 38.3) 1,823 7.9 (6.4, 9.7)
Hispanic1 261 22.8 (16.6, 30.1) 2,509 22.2 (20.4, 24.1)
Mexican American 190 26.1 (17.4, 36.4) 1,481 22.9 (20.6, 25.4)
Diagnosed high cholesterol
Age group:
20-39 262 10.7 (7.2, 15.1) 5,734 14.7 (13.7, 15.7)
40-59 311 42.5 (35.2, 50.1) 6,710 41.2 (39.7, 42.8)
60 and over 336 54.5 (46.6, 62.2) 7,320 56.5 (54.7, 58.3)
Sex:
Men 412 33.6 (28.0, 39.5) 9,408 35.9 (34.5, 37.3)
Women 497 31.7 (26.8, 36.9) 10,356 32.7 (31.5, 33.9)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 148 28.1 (19.6, 37.9) 8,845 34.9 (33.8, 36.0)
Non-Hispanic black 105 38.0 (28.7, 48.0) 4,299 32.2 (30.6, 33.9)
Hispanic1 437 34.5 (29.2, 40.0) 4,450 33.3 (31.9, 34.7)
Mexican American 306 33.7 (27.6, 40.3) 2,507 32.2 (30.2, 34.2)
Percent taking a lipid-lowering medication
among adults diagnosed with high cholesterol
Age group:
20-39 849 15.1 (12.2, 18.3)
40-59 133 38.1 (27.1, 50.2) 2,719 42.9 (40.0, 45.8)
60 and over 192 64.2 (55.4, 72.4) 4,024 70.6 (68.9, 72.3)
Sex:
Men 162 36.3 (26.3, 47.1) 3,733 47.3 (45.0, 49.6)
Women 191 38.9 (31.4, 46.9) 3,859 43.1 (40.9, 45.4)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 49 4.3 (21.3, 49.2) 3,617 46.1 (44.0, 48.2)
Non-Hispanic black 48 *, 33.1 (18.9, 49.9) 1,569 47.5 (44.8, 50.3)
Hispanic1 171 37.3 (30.1, 45.0) 1,718 39.2 (36.1, 42.4)
Mexican American 113 36.7 (26.9, 47.4) 930 41.9 (37.4, 46.5)
Percent taking a statin among adults diagnosed with
high cholesterol
Age group:
20-39 851 11.6 (9.1, 14.5)
40-59 134 25.0 (14.2, 38.7) 2,721 34.6 (31.9, 37.3)
60 and over 192 49.5 (36.6, 62.4) 4,044 60.3 (58.4, 62.1)
Sex:
Men 163 22.9 (12.2, 36.9) 3,748 39.8 (37.9, 41.8)
Women 191 29.7 (21.7, 38.7) 3,868 35.1 (33.0, 37.2)
Race and Hispanic origin:
Non-Hispanic white 50 *, 20.3 (5.4, 45.3) 3,630 39.0 (37.2, 41.0)
Non-Hispanic black 48 31.4 (18.3, 47.0) 1,573 38.5 (35.7, 41.3)
Hispanic1 171 22.5 (16.5, 29.6) 1,723 28.2 (26.0, 30.4)
Mexican American 113 20.0 (12.9, 28.9) 931 29.4 (26.4, 32.5)

*Estimate does not meet National Center for Health Statistics standards of reliability.
Standard error based on less than 8 degrees of freedom.
‡ Estimate suppressed due to small sample size.
1Hispanic includes Mexican Americans.

NOTES: CI is confidence interval. HDL-C is high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. LDL-C is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Estimates were age-adjusted by the direct method to the projected 2000 U.S. census population using the age groups 20-39, 40-59, and 60 and over. Race and Hispanic origin-specific estimates reflect persons reporting only one race; those reporting more than one race are included in the total but are not reported separately. Diagnosed high cholesterol is based on an affirmative response to the question, 'Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that your blood cholesterol level was high?' Taking a lipid-lowering medication is based on an affirmative response to the question, 'Are you currently taking lipid-lowering medication?' asked of adults diagnosed with high cholesterol. Taking a statin is based on a comprehensive enumeration of prescription medications that the participant reported taking in the past 30 days.
SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2014.