Results

Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust

09/24/2021 | Press release | Distributed by Public on 09/24/2021 13:13

Filing by Investment Company (SEC Filing - 497)

PART B

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED APRIL 30, 2021, AS SUPPLEMENTED SEPTEMBER 24, 2021

ADVISOR SHARES

INSTITUTIONAL SHARES

SERVICE SHARES

GOLDMAN SACHS U.S. EQUITY INSIGHTS FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS SMALL CAP EQUITY INSIGHTS FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS STRATEGIC GROWTH FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS LARGE CAP VALUE FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS MID CAP VALUE FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS EQUITY INDEX FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS INTERNATIONAL EQUITY INSIGHTS FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS HIGH QUALITY FLOATING RATE FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS CORE FIXED INCOME FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS GLOBAL TRENDS ALLOCATION FUND

GOLDMAN SACHS MULTI-STRATEGY ALTERNATIVES PORTFOLIO

GOLDMAN SACHS GOVERNMENT MONEY MARKET FUND

(PORTFOLIOS OF GOLDMAN SACHS VARIABLE INSURANCE TRUST)

Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

This Statement of Additional Information (the "SAI") is not a prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the prospectuses for Service Shares of the Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Strategic Growth Fund, Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Fund, Goldman Sachs Mid Cap Value Fund, Goldman Sachs Growth Opportunities Fund, Goldman Sachs Equity Index Fund, Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Trends Allocation Fund, Goldman Sachs Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Goldman Sachs Government Money Market Fund (each, a "Fund" and collectively, the "Funds") dated April 30, 2021, the prospectuses for Institutional Shares of the Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs Strategic Growth Fund, Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Fund, Goldman Sachs Mid Cap Value Fund, Goldman Sachs Growth Opportunities Fund, Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights Fund, Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Trends Allocation Fund, Goldman Sachs Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Goldman Sachs Government Money Market Fund dated April 30, 2021, and the prospectuses for Advisor Shares of the Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund and Goldman Sachs Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio dated April 30, 2021, as they each may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time. The prospectuses may be obtained without charge from Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC by calling the telephone number, or writing to one of the addresses listed below.

The audited financial statements and related reports of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for each Fund, contained in each Fund's 2020 Annual Report are incorporated herein by reference in the section "FINANCIAL STATEMENTS." No other parts of any Annual Report or Semi-Annual Report are incorporated by reference herein. A Fund's Annual Report or Semi-Annual Report may be obtained upon request and without charge by writing Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, P.O. Box 06050, Chicago, Illinois 60606 or by calling Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC toll-free at 1-800-621-2550.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

B-1

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

B-1

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

B-22

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

B-107

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

B-111

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

B-123

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

B-137

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

B-151

NET ASSET VALUE

B-154

SHARES OF THE TRUST

B-157

TAXATION

B-159

PROXY VOTING

B-162

PAYMENTS TO OTHERS (INCLUDING INTERMEDIARIES)

B-163

OTHER INFORMATION

B-170

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

B-174

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLANS (Service Shares and Advisor Shares)

B-174

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

1-A

APPENDIX B GSAM PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES SUMMARY

1-B

APPENDIX C STATE STREET GLOBAL ADVISORS PROXY VOTING POLICY

1-C

-i-

GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Investment Adviser to:

Distributor

Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Insights Fund

200 West Street

Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

New York, New York 10282

Goldman Sachs Strategic Growth Fund

Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Fund

Goldman Sachs Mid Cap Value Fund

GOLDMAN SACHS & CO. LLC

Goldman Sachs Growth Opportunities Fund

Transfer Agent

Goldman Sachs Equity Index Fund

71 South Wacker Drive

Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights Fund

Chicago, IL 60606

Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund

Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund

Goldman Sachs Global Trends Allocation Fund

Goldman Sachs Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

Goldman Sachs Government Money Market Fund

SSGA Funds Management, Inc.

Investment Sub-Adviser to:

Goldman Sachs Equity Index Fund

One Iron Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02210

Toll free (in U.S.) 800-621-2550

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INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (the "Trust") is an open-end, management investment company. Service Shares, Institutional Shares and Advisor Shares of the Trust may be purchased and held by the separate accounts ("Separate Accounts") of participating life insurance companies ("Participating Insurance Companies") for the purpose of funding variable annuity contracts and variable life insurance policies. Service Shares, Institutional Shares and Advisor Shares of the Trust are not offered directly to the general public. The following series of the Trust are described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs U.S. Equity Insights Fund ("U.S. Equity Insights Fund"), Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights Fund ("Small Cap Equity Insights Fund"), Goldman Sachs Strategic Growth Fund ("Strategic Growth Fund"), Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Fund ("Large Cap Value Fund"), Goldman Sachs Mid Cap Value Fund ("Mid Cap Value Fund"), Goldman Sachs Growth Opportunities Fund ("Growth Opportunities Fund"), Goldman Sachs Equity Index Fund ("Equity Index Fund"), Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights Fund (prior to April 23, 2018, the Goldman Sachs Strategic International Equity Fund) ("International Equity Insights Fund"), Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund ("High Quality Floating Rate Fund"), Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund ("Core Fixed Income Fund"), Goldman Sachs Global Trends Allocation Fund (prior to April 29, 2015, the Goldman Sachs Global Markets Navigator Fund) ("Global Trends Allocation Fund"), Goldman Sachs Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio ("Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio" or the "Portfolio") and Goldman Sachs Government Money Market Fund (prior to April 15, 2016, the Goldman Sachs Money Market Fund) ("Government Money Market Fund") (each a "Fund," and collectively, the "Funds"; as the context requires, references herein to "a Fund," "the Fund" or "the Funds" may refer to the specific Fund or Funds first named in a particular paragraph or section within this SAI).

Each Fund is a series of Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust, which was formed under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 16, 1997. The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares of beneficial interest into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Funds. Additional series and classes may be added in the future from time to time. Each Fund currently offers Service Shares; the U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Strategic Growth Fund, Large Cap Value Fund, Mid Cap Value Fund, International Equity Insights Fund, High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Growth Opportunities Fund, Core Fixed Income Fund, Global Trends Allocation Fund, Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Government Money Market Fund offer Institutional Shares; and the High Quality Floating Rate Fund and Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio offer Advisor Shares. See"SHARES OF THE TRUST."

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. ("GSAM" or the "Investment Adviser"), an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC ("Goldman Sachs"), serves as the investment adviser to each Fund. SSGA Funds Management, Inc. ("SSGA FM") serves as investment sub-adviser to the Equity Index Fund. SSGA FM is referred to herein as the "Sub-Adviser." In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as each Fund's distributor (the "Distributor") and transfer agent (the "Transfer Agent"). Except for the Government Money Market Fund, each Fund's custodian is JPMorganChase Bank, N.A. ("JPMorganChase"). The Bank of New York Mellon ("BNYM") is the custodian for the Government Money Market Fund.

The following information relates to and supplements the description of each Fund's investment policies contained in the Prospectuses. See the Prospectuses for more complete descriptions of the Funds' investment objectives and policies. Investing in the Funds entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that a Fund will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectuses.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES

Each Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that a Fund's objective will be achieved. Each Fund, other than Strategic Growth Fund, is a diversified open-end management company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "Act"). The Strategic Growth Fund is a non-diversified, open-end management company as defined in the Act. The investment objective and policies of each Fund, and the associated risks of each Fund, are discussed in the Funds' Prospectuses, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval. However, with respect to the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate, Core Fixed Income and Government Money Market Funds, shareholders will be provided with sixty (60) days' notice in the manner prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") before any change in a Fund's policy to invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) in the particular type of investment suggested by its name. Additional information about the Funds, their policies, and the investment instruments they may hold is provided below.

B-1

Each of the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, Growth Opportunities, Equity Index and International Equity Insights Funds may be referred to in this SAI individually as an "Equity Fund" and collectively as the "Equity Funds." Each of the High Quality Floating Rate and Core Fixed Income Funds may be referred to in this SAI individually as a "Fixed Income Fund" and together as the "Fixed Income Funds." The Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio invests in a combination of underlying variable insurance funds and mutual funds that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which GSAM or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser. These funds are identified below under General Information Regarding the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio, and are referred to in this SAI collectively as the "Underlying Funds."

Each Fund's share price will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in any of the Funds may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased (although the Government Money Market Fund seeks to preserve the value of your investment at $1.00 per share, it cannot guarantee it will do so). The Equity Index Fund's performance depends on the ability of the Sub-Adviser to successfully execute the Fund's investment strategies. None of the Funds should be relied upon as a complete investment program.

The Investment Adviser is subject to registration and regulation as a "commodity pool operator" ("CPO") under the Commodity Exchange Act ("CEA") with respect to its service as investment adviser to Global Trends Allocation Fund and Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio. The Investment Adviser, on behalf of the U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Growth Opportunities Fund and Equity Index Fund, has filed a notice of eligibility claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term CPO under the CEA and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA with respect to those Funds. The Investment Adviser has claimed temporary relief from registration as a CPO under the CEA for the Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Strategic Growth Fund, Large Cap Value Fund, Mid Cap Value Fund, International Equity Insights Fund, High Quality Floating Rate Fund and Core Fixed Income Fund and therefore is not subject to registration or regulation as a CPO under the CEA with respect to those Funds.

The following discussion supplements the information in the Funds' Prospectuses.

General Information Regarding the Equity Funds (Other than the Equity Index Fund)

The Investment Adviser may purchase for the Equity Funds common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in real estate investment trusts ("REITs"), convertible debt obligations, convertible preferred stocks, equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, master limited partnerships ("MLPs"), shares of other investment companies (including exchange traded funds ("ETFs")), warrants, stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities ("equity investments"). The Investment Adviser utilizes first-hand fundamental research, including visiting company facilities to assess operations and to meet decision-makers, in choosing an Equity Fund's securities. The Investment Adviser may also use macro analysis of numerous economic and valuation variables to anticipate changes in company earnings and the overall investment climate. The Investment Adviser is able to draw on the research and market expertise of the Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research Department and other affiliates of the Investment Adviser, as well as information provided by other securities dealers. Equity investments in an Equity Fund's portfolio will generally be sold when the Investment Adviser believes that the market price fully reflects or exceeds the investments' fundamental valuation or when other more attractive investments are identified.

Value Style Funds. The Large Cap Value and Mid Cap Value Funds are managed using a value oriented approach. The Investment Adviser evaluates securities using fundamental analysis and intends to purchase equity investments that are, in its view, underpriced relative to a combination of such companies' long-term earnings prospects, growth rate, free cash flow and/or dividend-paying ability. Consideration will be given to the business quality of the issuer. Factors positively affecting the Investment Adviser's view of that quality include the competitiveness and degree of regulation in the markets in which the company operates, the existence of a management team with a record of success, the position of the company in the markets in which it operates, the level of the company's financial leverage and the sustainable return on capital invested in the business. The Funds may also purchase securities of companies that have experienced difficulties and that, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, are available at attractive prices.

Growth Style Funds. The Strategic Growth and Growth Opportunities Funds are managed using a growth equity oriented approach. Equity investments for these Funds are selected based on their long-term prospects for above average growth. The Investment Adviser employs an investment strategy with three primary components. The first is to buy a business with the belief that wealth is created by the long-term ownership of a growing business. The second is to buy a high-quality business that exhibits high-quality growth criteria including strong business franchise, favorable long-term trends and excellent management. The third component of the strategy is to buy the business at an attractive valuation. The Investment Adviser maintains a long-term outlook when implementing this disciplined investment process.

B-2

Quantitative Style Equity Funds. The International Equity Insights, U.S. Equity Insights and Small Cap Equity Insights Funds (the "Equity Insights Funds") are managed using both quantitative and fundamental techniques, and, from time to time in the Investment Adviser's discretion, in combination with a qualitative overlay. The investment process and the proprietary multifactor models used to implement it are discussed below.

Investment Process. The Investment Adviser begins with a broad universe of U.S. equity investments for the U.S. Equity Insights and Small Cap Equity Insights Funds and a broad universe of non-U.S. equity investments for the International Equity Insights Fund. As described more fully below, the Investment Adviser uses proprietary multifactor models (the "Multifactor Models") that attempt to forecast the returns of different markets, currencies and individual securities.

The Multifactor Models rely on some or all of the following investment pillars and themes to forecast the returns of individual securities (although additional pillars and themes may be added in the future without prior notice):

Fundamental Mispricings

Valuation: The Valuation theme attempts to capture potential mispricings of securities, typically by comparing a measure of the company's intrinsic value to its market value.

High Quality Business Models

Profitability: The Profitability theme seeks to assess whether a company is earning more than its cost of capital.

Quality: The Quality theme assesses both firm and management quality.

Management: The Management theme assesses the characteristics, policies and strategic decisions of company management.

Market Themes and Trends

Momentum: The Momentum theme seeks to predict drifts in stock prices caused by delayed investor reaction to company-specific information and information about related companies.

Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment: The Sentiment theme reflects selected investment views and decisions of individuals and financial intermediaries.

In building a diversified portfolio for each Equity Insights Fund, the Investment Adviser utilizes optimization techniques to seek to construct the most efficient risk/return portfolio given each Equity Insights Fund's benchmark. Each portfolio is primarily composed of securities that the Investment Adviser believes maximize the portfolio's risk/return tradeoff characteristics. Each portfolio holds industry weightings similar to those of the relevant Fund's benchmark.

Multifactor Models. The Multifactor Models are systematic rating systems that seek to forecast the returns of individual equity investments according to fundamental and other investment characteristics. Each Fund uses one or more Multifactor Models (and, from time to time in the Investment Adviser's discretion, in combination with a qualitative overlay) that seek to forecast the returns of securities in its portfolio. Each Multifactor Model may incorporate common variables including, but not limited to, measures of fundamental mispricings, high quality business models, market themes & trends, quality, management and sentiment analysis. The Investment Adviser believes that all of the factors used in the Multifactor Models impact the performance of the securities in the forecast universe. As a result of the qualitative overlay, the Funds' investments may not correspond to, and the Funds may invest in securities other than those generated by the Multifactor Models.

The weightings assigned to the factors in the Multifactor Models can be but are not necessarily derived using a statistical formulation that considers each factor's historical performance, volatility and stability of ranking in different market environments, and judgment. Because they include many disparate factors, the Investment Adviser believes that all the Multifactor Models are broader in scope and provide a more thorough evaluation than traditional investment processes. Securities and markets ranked highest by the relevant Multifactor Model do not have one dominant investment characteristic; rather, they possess an attractive combination of investment characteristics. By using a variety of relevant factors to select securities, currencies or markets, the Investment Adviser believes that the Fund will be better balanced and have more consistent performance than an investment portfolio that uses only one or two factors to select such investments.

B-3

The Multifactor Models assess a wide range of indicators, which may include certain environmental, social and governance ("ESG") indicators. These ESG indicators may include, but are not limited to, emission intensity, labor satisfaction, reputational concerns, governance and management incentives. The Investment Adviser also seeks to address climate transition risk in the portfolio construction process by using proprietary emissions metrics.

The Investment Adviser in its sole discretion may periodically update the indicators used in the investment decision-making process of the Funds. The indicators applied by the Investment Adviser are assessed in reliance on one or a number of third-party ESG vendors. The Investment Adviser, in its sole discretion, retains the right to disapply data and/or ratings provided by third-party vendors where it deems the data and/or ratings to be inaccurate or inappropriate.

From time to time, the Investment Adviser will monitor, and may make changes to, the selection or weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets. Such changes (which may be the result of changes in the Multifactor Models, the method of applying the Multifactor Models or the judgment of the Investment Adviser) may include: (i) evolutionary changes to the structure of the Multifactor Models (e.g., the addition of new factors or a new means of weighting the factors); (ii) changes in trading procedures (e.g., trading frequency or the manner in which a Fund uses futures); or (iii) changes to the weight of individual or groups of securities, currencies or markets based on the Investment Adviser's judgment. Any such changes will preserve a Fund's basic investment philosophy of selecting investments using a disciplined investment process combining quantitative methods with a qualitative overlay when determined appropriate in the Investment Adviser's discretion.

The Investment Adviser employs a dynamic investment process that considers a wide range of indicators and risks, and no one indicator, risk or consideration is determinative.

Other Information. Because normal settlement for equity investments is two trading days (for certain international markets settlement may be longer), the Equity Funds will need to hold cash balances to satisfy shareholder redemption requests. Such cash balances will normally range from 2% to 5% of a Fund's net assets in order to keep their effective equity exposure close to 100%. The U.S. Equity Insights Fund may enter into futures transactions only with respect to the Standard & Poor's 500 Composite Stock Price Index (the "S&P 500® Index"), and the Small Cap Equity Insights Fund may enter into futures transactions only with respect to a representative index. The International Equity Insights Fund may purchase other types of futures contracts. For example, if cash balances are equal to 5% of the net assets, the Fund may enter into long futures contracts covering an amount equal to 5% of the Fund's net assets. As cash balances fluctuate based on new contributions or withdrawals, a Fund may enter into additional contracts or close out existing positions.

Information About the Equity Index Fund

The Equity Index Fund will attempt to replicate the investment results of the S&P 500® Index while minimizing transactional costs and other expenses. Stocks in the S&P 500® Index are ranked in accordance with their statistical weighting from highest to lowest. The method used to select investments for the Fund involves investing in common stocks in approximately the order of their weighting in the S&P 500® Index, beginning with those having the highest weighting. The Fund uses the S&P 500® Index as the performance standard because it represents over 70 percent of the total market value of all publicly-traded common stocks in the U.S. and is widely regarded as representative of the performance of common stocks publicly-traded in the United States. Many, but not all, of the stocks in the S&P 500® Index are issued by companies that are among the 500 largest as measured by the aggregate market value of their outstanding stock (market price per share multiplied by number of shares outstanding). Inclusion of a stock in the S&P 500® Index does not imply that Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global ("S&P"), has endorsed it as an investment. With respect to investing in common stocks, there can be no assurance of capital appreciation, and there is a substantial risk of market decline.

The Fund's ability to duplicate the performance of the S&P 500® Index will be influenced by the size and timing of cash flows into or out of the Fund, the liquidity of the securities included in the S&P 500® Index, transaction and operating expenses and other factors. In addition, the Investment Adviser and/or Sub-Adviser may be restricted from purchasing certain securities on behalf of the Fund due to various regulatory requirements applicable to such securities. Such regulatory requirements (e.g. regulations applicable to banking entities, insurance companies and public utility holdings companies) may limit the amount of securities that may be owned by accounts over which an investment adviser or its affiliates have discretionary authority or control. As a result, there may be times when the Fund is unable to purchase securities that would otherwise be purchased to replicate the performance of the S&P 500® Index. These factors, among others, may result in "tracking error," which is a measure of the degree to which the Fund's results differ from those of the S&P 500® Index.

B-4

Tracking error is measured by the difference between total return for the S&P 500® Index with dividends reinvested and total return for the Fund with dividends reinvested prior to deductions for fund or product expenses. Tracking error is monitored by the Sub-Adviser on a regular basis. All tracking error deviations are reviewed to determine the effectiveness of investment policies and techniques. If the tracking error deviation exceeds industry standards for the Fund's asset size, the Sub-Adviser will bring the deviation to the attention of the Trustees.

While the Board of Trustees of the Trust has selected the S&P 500® Index as the index the Fund will attempt to replicate, the Trustees reserve the right to select another index at any time without seeking shareholder approval if they believe that the S&P 500® Index no longer represents a broad spectrum of common stocks that are publicly traded in the United States or if there are legal, economic or other factors limiting the use of any particular index. If the Trustees change the index which the Fund attempts to replicate, the Fund may incur significant transaction costs in switching from one index to another.

The Fund will invest only in those stocks, and in such amounts, as the Investment Adviser and/or the Sub-Adviser determines to be necessary or appropriate for the Fund to approximate the S&P 500® Index. As the size of the Fund increases, the Fund may purchase a larger number of stocks included in the S&P 500® Index, and the percentage of its assets invested in most stocks included in the S&P 500® Index will approach the percentage that each such stock represents in the S&P 500® Index. However, there is no minimum or maximum number of stocks included in the S&P 500 Index which the Fund will hold. Under normal circumstances, it is expected that the Fund will hold approximately 500 different companies included in the S&P 500® Index. The Fund may compensate for the omission of a stock that is included in the S&P 500® Index, or for purchasing stocks in other than the same proportions that they are represented in the S&P 500® Index, by purchasing stocks which are believed to have characteristics which correspond to those of the omitted stocks.

The Fund may invest in short-term debt securities to maintain liquidity, or pending investment in stocks. Such investments will not be made for defensive purposes or in anticipation of a general decline in the market price of stocks in which the Fund invests; investors in the Fund bear the risk of general declines in the stock markets. The Fund also may take advantage of tender offers, resulting in higher returns than are reflected in the performance of the S&P 500® Index. In addition, the Fund may hold warrants, preferred stocks and debt securities, whether or not convertible into common stock or with rights attached, if acquired as a result of in-kind dividend distributions, mergers, acquisitions or other corporate activity involving the common stocks held by the Fund. Such investment transactions and securities holdings may result in positive or negative tracking error.

The Fund may purchase or sell futures contracts on stock indexes for hedging purposes and in order to maintain equity exposure while maintaining sufficient liquidity to meet possible net redemptions. The effectiveness of a strategy of investing in stock index futures contracts will depend upon the continued availability of futures contracts based on the S&P 500® Index or which tend to move together with stocks included in the S&P 500® Index. The Fund will not enter into futures contracts on stock indexes for speculative purposes.

The Fund may invest up to 15% of its total assets in foreign securities (not including its investments in American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs")). The Fund may also invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets (as discussed below).

Because of its policy of tracking the S&P 500® Index, the Fund is not managed according to traditional methods of active investment management, which involve the buying and selling of securities based upon investment analysis of economic, financial and market factors. Consequently, the projected adverse financial performance of a company normally would not result in the sale of the company's stock, and projected superior financial performance by a company normally would not lead to an increase in the holdings of the company. From time to time, the Sub-Adviser may make adjustments in the portfolio because of cash flows, mergers, changes in the composition of the S&P 500® Index and other similar reasons.

Standard & Poor's is not in any way affiliated with the Fund or the Trust. "Standard & Poor's," "Standard & Poor's 500," "S&P 500" and "500" are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor's Corporation.

Information About the High Quality Floating Rate Fund

The High Quality Floating Rate Fund is designed for investors who seek a high level of current income, consistent with low volatility of principal. The Fund is appropriate for investors who seek the high credit quality of securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises ("U.S. Government Securities") and obligations rated AAA or Aaa by a nationally recognized statistical rating organization ("NRSRO") at the time of purchase (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality), without incurring the administrative and accounting burdens involved in direct investment.

B-5

Market and economic conditions may affect the investments of the Fund differently than the investments normally purchased by other types of fixed income investors. Relative to U.S. Treasury and non-fluctuating money market instruments, the market value of adjustable rate mortgage securities in which Fund may invest may be adversely affected by increases in market interest rates. Conversely, decreases in market interest rates may result in less capital appreciation for adjustable rate mortgage securities in relation to U.S. Treasury and money market investments.

High Current Income. The Fund seeks a higher current yield than that offered by money market funds or by bank certificates of deposit and money market accounts. However, the Fund does not maintain a constant net asset value ("NAV") per share and is subject to greater fluctuations in the value of its shares than a money market fund. Unlike bank certificates of deposit and money market accounts, investments in shares of the Fund are not insured or guaranteed by any government agency. The Fund seeks to provide such high current income without sacrificing credit quality.

Relative Low Volatility of Principal. The Fund seeks to minimize NAV fluctuations by investing primarily in high quality floating rate or variable rate obligations. The Fund considers "high quality" obligations to be (i) those rated AAA or Aaa by an NRSRO at the time of purchase, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, including repurchase agreements with counterparties rated AAA or Aaa by an NRSRO at the time of purchase, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, and (ii) U.S. Government Securities, including securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable rate and fixed rate mortgage loans or other mortgage-related securities, and in repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government Securities, with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. The target duration range of the Fund under normal interest rate conditions is that of the ICE BofAML Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index, plus or minus 1 year. The Fund utilizes certain active management techniques to seek to hedge interest rate risk.

Professional Management and Administration. Investors who invest in securities of the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae") and other mortgage-backed securities may prefer professional management and administration of their mortgage-backed securities portfolios. A well-diversified portfolio of such securities emphasizing minimal fluctuation of NAV requires significant active management as well as significant accounting and administrative resources. Members of the Investment Adviser's highly skilled portfolio management team bring together many years of experience in the analysis, valuation and trading of U.S. fixed income securities.

Information About the Core Fixed Income Fund

The Core Fixed Income Fund is designed for investors seeking a total return consisting of capital appreciation and income. Such investors also prefer liquidity, experienced professional management and administration, a sophisticated investment process, and the convenience of a mutual fund structure. The Fund may be appropriate as part of a balanced investment strategy consisting of stocks, bonds and cash or as a complement to positions in other types of fixed income investments.

The Fund's benchmark, the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index (the "Index"), currently includes U.S. Government Securities and fixed-rate, publicly issued, U.S. dollar-denominated fixed income securities rated at least Baa by Moody's Investors Service, Inc. ("Moody's"), or if a Moody's rating is unavailable, the comparable Standard & Poor's Ratings Group ("Standard & Poor's") rating is used. The securities currently included in the Index have at least one year remaining to maturity; and are issued by the following types of issuers, with each category receiving a different weighting in the Index: U.S. Treasury; agencies, authorities or instrumentalities of the U.S. government; issuers of mortgage-backed securities; utilities; industrial issuers; financial institutions; foreign issuers; and issuers of asset-backed securities. The Index is a trademark of Bloomberg. Inclusion of a security in the Index does not imply an opinion by Bloomberg as to its attractiveness or appropriateness for investment. Although Bloomberg obtains factual information used in connection with the Index from sources which it considers reliable, Bloomberg claims no responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or timeliness of such information and has no liability to any person for any loss arising from results obtained from the use of the Index data.

The Fund's overall returns are generally likely to move in the opposite direction from interest rates. Therefore, when interest rates decline, the Fund's return is likely to increase. Conversely, when interest rates increase, the Fund's return is likely to decline. However, the Investment Adviser believes that, given the flexibility of managers to invest in a diversified portfolio of securities, the Fund's return is not likely to decline as quickly as that of other fixed income funds with comparable average portfolio durations. In exchange for accepting a higher degree of potential share price fluctuation, investors have the opportunity to achieve a higher return from the Fund than from shorter-term investments.

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A number of investment strategies will be used to attempt to achieve the Fund's investment objective, including market sector selection, determination of yield curve exposure, and issuer selection. In addition, the Investment Adviser will attempt to take advantage of pricing inefficiencies in the fixed income markets. Market sector selection is the underweighting or overweighting of one or more of the five market sectors (i.e., U.S. Treasuries, U.S. government agencies, corporate securities, mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities) in which the Fund primarily invests. The decision to overweight or underweight a given market sector is based on expectations of future yield spreads among different sectors. Yield curve exposure strategy consists of overweighting or underweighting different maturity sectors to take advantage of the shape of the yield curve. Issuer selection is the purchase and sale of corporate securities based on a corporation's current and expected credit standing. To take advantage of price discrepancies between securities resulting from supply and demand imbalances or other technical factors, the Fund may simultaneously purchase and sell comparable, but not identical, securities. The Investment Adviser will usually have access to the research of, and proprietary technical models developed by, Goldman Sachs and will apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in determining the appropriate allocations among the categories of issuers and types of securities.

A Sophisticated Investment Process. The Fund will attempt to control its exposure to interest rate risk, including overall market exposure and the spread risk of particular sectors and securities, through active portfolio management techniques. The Fund's investment process starts with a review of trends for the overall economy as well as for different sectors of the fixed income securities markets. The Investment Adviser's portfolio managers then analyze yield spreads, implied volatility and the shape of the yield curve. In planning the Fund's portfolio investment strategies, the Investment Adviser is able to draw upon the economic and fixed income research resources of Goldman Sachs. The Investment Adviser will use a sophisticated analytical process including Goldman Sachs' proprietary mortgage prepayment model and option-adjusted spread model to assist in structuring and maintaining the Fund's investment portfolio. In determining the Fund's investment strategy and making market timing decisions, the Investment Adviser will have access to input from Goldman Sachs' economists, fixed income analysts and mortgage specialists.

"Core" in the Core Fixed Income Fund's name means that the Fund focuses its investments in intermediate- and long-term investment grade bonds.

Information About the Global Trends Allocation Fund

The Fund primarily seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in a globally diversified portfolio of equity and fixed income asset classes. The Fund may invest in any one or in a combination of the following securities and instruments: pooled investment vehicles, including ETFs and other investment companies; equity securities and fixed income securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers; and derivatives that provide exposure to a broad spectrum of asset classes and geographic regions. The percentage of the Fund's portfolio exposed to any asset class or geographic region will vary from time to time as the weightings of the Fund change, and the Fund may not be invested in each asset class at all times. Moreover, at times the Fund may be heavily invested in certain asset classes or geographic regions, depending on the asset allocation of the strategy.

As part of the Fund's investment strategy, the Investment Adviser utilizes certain control mechanisms to seek to manage volatility and limit losses, by allocating the Fund's assets away from risky investments in distressed market environments. Volatility is a statistical measurement of the magnitude of up and down fluctuations in the value of a financial instrument or index. In distressed market environments, the Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasury, short-term, or other fixed income investments, including money market funds and repurchase agreements or cash, and at times may invest up to 100% of its assets in such investments. While the Investment Adviser attempts to manage the Fund's volatility, there can be no guarantee that the Fund will be successful.

The Fund's investments in derivatives may include: (i) futures contracts, including futures based on securities and/or indices; (ii) swaps, including interest rate, total return, variance, and/or index swaps, and swaps on futures contracts; (iii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices, or currencies, swaptions and options on futures contracts; and (iv) structured notes. The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both investment and hedging purposes.

The Fund intends to have investments economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States, and may invest in the securities of issuers in emerging market countries.

In determining whether an issuer is economically tied to a particular country, the Investment Adviser will consider whether the issuer:

Has a class of securities whose principal securities market is in that country;

Has its principal office in that country;

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Derives 50% or more of its total revenue or profit from goods produced, sales made or services provided in that country;

Maintains 50% or more of its assets in that country; or

Is otherwise determined to be economically tied to that country by the Investment Adviser in its discretion. For example, the Investment Adviser may use the classifications assigned by third parties, including an issuer's "country of risk" as determined by Bloomberg or the classifications assigned to an issuer by the Fund's benchmark index provider. These classifications are generally based on a number of criteria, including an issuer's country of domicile, the primary stock exchange on which an issuer's securities trade, the location from which the majority of an issuer's revenue is derived, and an issuer's reporting currency. Although the Investment Adviser may rely on these classifications, it is not required to do so.

The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with the Fund's principal investment strategy in attempting to respond to adverse market, political or other conditions. For temporary defensive purposes, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor's, P-2 by Moody's, or having a comparable credit rating from another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable quality); certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances, repurchase agreements, non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs and other investment companies and cash items. When the Fund's assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Information About the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

The Portfolio seeks to achieve its objective by investing in the Underlying Funds. These Underlying Funds are currently expected to include: Goldman Sachs Absolute Return Tracker Fund ("Absolute Return Tracker Fund"), Goldman Sachs Alternative Premia Fund ("Alternative Premia Fund"), Goldman Sachs Dynamic Global Equity Fund ("Dynamic Global Equity Fund"), Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Debt Fund ("Emerging Markets Debt Fund"), Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund ("Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund"), Goldman Sachs Financial Square Government Fund ("Financial Square Government Fund"), Goldman Sachs Global Infrastructure Fund ("Global Infrastructure Fund"), Goldman Sachs High Yield Fund ("High Yield Fund"), Goldman Sachs High Yield Floating Rate Fund ("High Yield Floating Rate Fund"), Goldman Sachs Long Short Credit Strategies Fund ("Long Short Credit Strategies Fund"), Goldman Sachs Managed Futures Strategy Fund ("Managed Futures Strategy Fund"), Goldman Sachs Strategic Income Fund ("Strategic Income Fund") and Goldman Sachs Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund ("Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund"). The particular Underlying Funds in which the Portfolio may invest may be changed from time to time without shareholder approval or notice. The value of the Underlying Funds' investments and the NAV of the shares of both the Underlying Funds and the Portfolio will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in the Portfolio may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased.

The Portfolio may also invest directly in other securities and instruments, including ETFs and derivative instruments (such as futures contracts, swaps, options, forward contracts and other instruments). Although it does not currently intend to do so, the Portfolio may also invest through a wholly-owned subsidiary, which would be advised by the Investment Adviser and would seek to gain commodities exposure, or invest in certain commodity-linked investments.

Descriptions of Underlying Funds

The following descriptions provide additional information regarding the Underlying Funds and the types of investments that the Underlying Funds may make, and supplement the information in the Portfolio's Prospectuses.

Absolute Return Tracker Fund

Objective. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund seeks to deliver long-term total return consistent with investment results that approximate the return and risk patterns of a diversified universe of hedge funds.

Primary Investment Focus. The Absolute Return Tracker Fund's Investment Adviser believes that hedge funds derive a large portion of their returns from exposure to sources of market risk ("Market Exposures") and "Trading Strategies" involving long and/or short positions in Market Exposures and/or individual securities or baskets of securities. In seeking to meet its investment objective, the Underlying Fund uses a dynamic investment process to seek to identify the appropriate weights to Market Exposures and Trading Strategies that approximate the return and risk patterns of specific hedge fund sub-strategies. The hedge fund sub-strategies whose returns the Underlying Fund seeks to approximate include, but are not limited to, Equity Long Short, Event Driven, Relative Value and Macro sub-strategies (each a "Hedge Fund Sub-Strategy"). To establish the Market Exposures and Trading Strategies that drive the returns of the Hedge Fund Sub-Strategies, the Investment Adviser uses industry analysis of hedge funds, including hedge fund return databases, prime brokerage reports, industry participants and regulatory filings and other public sources. The Investment Adviser then applies a quantitative methodology, in combination with a qualitative overlay, to assess the appropriate weight to each Market Exposure and Trading Strategy. The Underlying Fund may seek to establish long and/or short positions in a multitude of Market Exposures, including but not limited to:

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U.S. and non-U.S. (including emerging market) equity indices;

U.S. and non-U.S. (including emerging market) fixed income indices;

Credit indices;

Interest rates;

Commodity indices;

Master limited partnership ("MLP") indices;

Foreign currency exchange rates;

Baskets of top positions held by hedge funds;

Single stocks and single commodities;

Volatility; and

Market momentum/trends.

The Underlying Fund invests in instruments that the Investment Adviser believes will assist the Underlying Fund in gaining exposure to the Market Exposures. The instruments in which the Underlying Fund may invest include, but are not limited to:

Equity securities (including securities that may convert into equity securities);

U.S. corporate bonds and other fixed income securities (including non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as "junk bonds"));

Futures (including equity index futures, interest rate futures, bond futures and volatility futures);

Swaps (including total return swaps and credit default swaps on indices);

Options (including listed equity index put and call options, listed government bond future put and call options, options on volatility, and swaptions);

Structured notes (including commodity-linked notes);

ETFs;

Forward contracts (including currency forward contracts on developed and emerging markets currencies);

Wholly-owned subsidiary (to gain exposure to the commodities markets);

Asset and mortgage-backed securities and REITs;

U.S. government securities, including agency debentures, and other high quality debt securities; and

Cash equivalents.

Investment in the Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund seeks to gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Underlying Fund organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the Cayman Islands, Cayman Commodity-Art, LLC (the "ART Subsidiary"). The ART Subsidiary is advised by the Investment Adviser and seeks to gain commodities exposure. The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the ART Subsidiary. The ART Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments (which may include total return swaps on commodity indexes, sub-indexes and single commodities, as well as commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures, commodity options and commodity-linked notes). Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. An option on commodities gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a specified exercise

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price within a specified period of time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the ART Subsidiary and the Underlying Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Underlying Fund nor the ART Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The ART Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, as well as volatility index derivatives and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

The Underlying Fund may from time to time hold foreign currencies. Additionally, as a result of the Underlying Fund's use of derivatives, the Underlying Fund may also hold as collateral significant amounts of U.S. Treasury or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits. In managing the collateral portion of the Fund's investment strategy, the Investment Adviser generally seeks capital preservation.

The weighting of a Market Exposure or Trading Strategy within the Underlying Fund may be positive or negative. A negative weighting will result from establishing a short position with respect to a Market Exposure or Trading Strategy. As a result of the Underlying Fund's negative weightings in various Market Exposures or Trading Strategies from time to time, the Underlying Fund's NAV per share may decline during certain periods, even if the value of any or all of the Market Exposures or Trading Strategies increases during that time. Additionally, the sum of the Underlying Fund's target weightings to each Market Exposure or Trading Strategy may not equal 100%.

The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser's proprietary investment model, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to the quantitative methodology used by the Underlying Fund, and the Underlying Fund may use other proprietary methodologies based on the Investment Adviser's proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund does not invest in hedge funds.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the HFRX Global Hedge Fund Index (net of management, administrative and performance/incentive fees). (The HFRX Global Hedge Fund Index (net of management, administrative and performance/incentive fees) is a trademark of Hedge Fund Research, Inc. ("HFR"). HFR has not participated in the formation of the Underlying Fund. HFR does not endorse or approve the Underlying Fund or make any recommendation with respect to investing in the Underlying Fund.)

Alternative Premia Fund

Objective. The Alternative Premia Fund seeks long-term absolute return.

Primary Investment Focus. The Alternative Premia Fund seeks to provide exposure to a diversified range of alternative investment strategies ("Alternative Risk Premia") using both long and short positions within a variety of asset classes. The Underlying Fund seeks to maintain a consistent level of volatility over the long term.

Alternative Risk Premia are multi-asset, quantitatively-driven investment strategies that seek to capture diversified sources of returns. Alternative Risk Premia may be classified into certain styles, including "carry," "value," "momentum," and "structural." Carry styles seek to capitalize on the tendency for higher yielding assets to outperform lower yielding assets. Value styles seek to take advantage of the tendency for assets with low or high market prices to revert to their fundamental valuation. Momentum styles seek to exploit the tendency for recent relative price movements to continue in the near future. Structural styles seek to profit from anomalies or mispricing present in the market.

The Investment Adviser will allocate to Alternative Risk Premia across a range of asset classes, which may include equities, fixed income, credit, currencies, and commodities. Exposure to these asset classes may be implemented directly or indirectly by investing in (i) global equity and fixed income securities; (ii) unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds ("ETFs"); (iii) affiliated investment companies, including ETFs, that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser or principal underwriter; (iv) derivative instruments, including foreign exchange forward contracts, options, futures contracts and options and swaps on futures contracts, credit, currency, index, interest rate, and total return swaps; and (iv) structured securities. Given the dynamic nature of the Investment Adviser's process and the underlying exposures within the Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund's overall exposure to derivative instruments will vary over time.

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Investment in the Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund may gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Underlying Fund organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the Cayman Islands, Cayman Commodity - AP, LLC (the "AP Subsidiary"). The AP Subsidiary is advised by the Investment Adviser and seeks to gain commodities exposure.

The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the AP Subsidiary. The AP Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments, which may include but are not limited to total return swaps, commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures and commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the AP Subsidiary and the Underlying Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Underlying Fund nor the AP Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The AP Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, as well as volatility index derivatives and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser's proprietary investment model, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to the quantitative methodology used by the Underlying Fund, and the Underlying Fund may use other proprietary methodologies based on the Investment Adviser's proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund's primary benchmark index is the ICE Bank of America Merrill Lynch Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index.

Dynamic Global Equity Fund

Objective. The Dynamic Global Equity Fund seeks long-term capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The Underlying Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of global equity asset classes. Such investments may include underlying funds (including ETFs), futures, forwards, options and other instruments with similar economic exposures. The Underlying Fund may invest in underlying funds that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which the Investment Adviser or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser or principal underwriter.

The Underlying Fund uses derivatives for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund's use of derivatives may include: (i) futures contracts, including futures based on equity indices; (ii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices, individual securities or currencies, and options on futures contracts; (iii) currency forwards and non-deliverable forwards; (iv) swaps, including equity, currency, interest rate, total return, and credit default swaps; and (v) interest rate derivatives (for hedging or when risk assets decline in value) to gain exposure to securities in the global asset classes. Given the dynamic nature of the Investment Adviser's process and the underlying exposures within the Underlying Fund, the Underlying Fund's overall exposure to derivative instruments will vary over time. As a result of the Underlying Fund's use of derivatives, the Underlying Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits.

The Underlying Fund may use leverage (e.g., by borrowing or through derivatives). As a result, the sum of the Underlying Fund's investment exposures may at times exceed the amount of assets invested in the Underlying Fund, although these exposures may vary over time.

The Underlying Fund intends to have investments economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States, and may invest in the securities of issuers economically tied to emerging market countries. The Underlying Fund seeks broad representation of large-cap and mid-cap issuers across major countries and sectors of the international economy, with some exposure to small-cap issuers.

The Underlying Fund's investment in any of the underlying funds may exceed 25% of its Net Assets. The Investment Adviser expects that the Underlying Fund may invest a relatively significant percentage of its assets in the Goldman Sachs ActiveBeta® U.S. Large Cap Equity ETF, Goldman Sachs ActiveBeta® Emerging Markets Equity ETF, Goldman Sachs ActiveBeta® International

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Equity ETF, Goldman Sachs MarketBeta Emerging Markets Equity ETF, and Goldman Sachs MarketBeta International Equity ETF, and the Goldman Sachs Large Cap Growth Insights, Goldman Sachs Large Cap Value Insights, Goldman Sachs International Equity Insights, Goldman Sachs Small Cap Equity Insights, Goldman Sachs International Small Cap Insights, Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Equity Insights, Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities, and Goldman Sachs Global Infrastructure Funds.

The Investment Adviser generally expects to identify investments using a dynamic management approach. This approach considers global equity and downside risks. The Investment Adviser will consider these risks in terms of the desired market exposure for a given global equity asset class.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the MSCI All Country World Index (ACWI) (Net, USD, Unhedged).

THE PARTICULAR UNDERLYING FUNDS IN WHICH THE UNDERLYING FUND MAY INVEST MAY BE CHANGED FROM TIME TO TIME WITHOUT SHAREHOLDER APPROVAL OR NOTICE.

Emerging Markets Debt Fund

Objective. The Emerging Markets Debt Fund seeks a high level of total return consisting of income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The Emerging Markets Debt Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in sovereign and corporate debt securities and other instruments of issuers in emerging market countries. Such instruments may include credit linked notes and other investments with similar economic exposures.

The Underlying Fund's portfolio managers seek to build a portfolio across the emerging markets debt market consistent with the Underlying Fund's overall risk budget and the views of the Investment Adviser's Global Fixed Income top-down teams. As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors, securities and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Underlying Fund's risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the portfolio managers may dynamically adjust the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Underlying Fund's portfolio. As part of the Investment Adviser's fundamental investment process, the Investment Adviser will integrate traditional fundamental factors with ESG factors. No one factor or consideration is determinative in the fundamental investment process

The Underlying Fund may invest in all types of foreign and emerging country fixed income securities, including the following:

Debt issued by governments, their agencies and instrumentalities, or by their central banks, including Brady Bonds;

Interests in structured securities;

Fixed and floating rate, senior and subordinated corporate debt obligations (such as bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper);

Loan participations; and

Repurchase agreements with respect to the foregoing.

Foreign securities include securities of issuers located outside the U.S. or securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than the U.S. Dollar.

The Underlying Fund intends to use structured securities or derivatives, including but not limited to credit linked notes, financial future contracts, forward contracts and swap contracts to gain exposure to certain countries or currencies.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

The Underlying Fund intends to use structured securities or derivatives, including but not limited to credit linked notes, financial future contracts, forward contracts and swap contracts to gain exposure to certain countries or currencies. The Underlying Fund may invest in securities without regard to credit rating. The countries in which the Underlying Fund invests may have sovereign ratings that are below investment grade or are unrated. Moreover, to the extent the Underlying Fund invests in corporate or other privately issued debt obligations, many of the issuers of such obligations will be smaller companies with stock market capitalizations of $1 billion or less at the time of investment. Securities of these issuers may be rated below investment grade (so-called "high yield" or "junk" bonds) or unrated. Although a majority of the Underlying Fund's assets may be denominated in U.S. Dollars, the Underlying Fund may invest in securities denominated in any currency and may be subject to the risk of adverse currency fluctuations.

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For purposes of the Underlying Fund's policy to invest at least 80% of its Net Assets in securities and instruments of issuers in "emerging market countries", the Investment Adviser generally expects a country to be an "emerging market country" if the country is identified as an "emerging market country" in any of the Underlying Fund's benchmark indices. Such countries are likely to be located in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe and Central and South America. Sovereign debt consists of debt securities issued by governments or any of their agencies, political subdivisions or instrumentalities. Sovereign debt may also include nominal and real inflation-linked securities. An emerging market country issuer is an issuer economically tied to an emerging market country.

The Underlying Fund's target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index (EMBISM) Global Diversified Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged), plus or minus 2 years, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2020, the duration of this Index has ranged between 6.38 and 7.61 years. "Duration" is a measure of a debt security's price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security's market price.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the J.P. Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index (EMBISM) Global Diversified Index (Gross, USD, Unhedged).

Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund

Objective. The Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund seeks long-term growth of capital.

Primary Investment Focus. The Emerging Markets Equity Insights Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a diversified portfolio of equity investments in emerging country issuers. Currently, emerging countries include, among others, Central and South American, African, Asian and Eastern European countries. Under normal circumstances, the Underlying Fund maintains investments in at least six emerging countries.

The portfolio management team uses two distinct strategies-a bottom-up stock selection strategy and a top-down country/currency selection strategy-to manage the Underlying Fund.

The Underlying Fund uses a quantitative style of management, in combination with a qualitative overlay, that emphasizes fundamentally-based stock and country/currency selection, careful portfolio construction and efficient implementation. The Underlying Fund's investments are selected using fundamental research and a variety of quantitative techniques based on certain investment themes, including, among others, Fundamental Mispricings, High Quality Business Models, Sentiment Analysis and Market Themes & Trends. Fundamental Mispricings seeks to identify high-quality businesses trading at a fair price, which the Investment Adviser believes leads to strong performance over the long-run. High Quality Business Models seeks to identify companies that are generating high-quality revenues with sustainable business models and aligned management incentives. Sentiment Analysis seeks to identify stocks experiencing improvements in their overall market sentiment. Market Themes and Trends seeks to identify companies positively positioned to benefit from themes and trends in the market and macroeconomic environment. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser's proprietary models, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its quantitative techniques, or use other quantitative techniques that are based on the Investment Adviser's proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund seeks to maximize its expected return, while maintaining risk, style and capitalization characteristics similar to the Morgan Stanley Capital International ("MSCI") Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged), adjusted for the Investment Adviser's country views. Additionally, the portfolio management team's views of the relative attractiveness of emerging countries and currencies are considered in allocating the Underlying Fund's assets among emerging countries. The MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged) is designed to measure equity market performance of the large and mid market capitalization segments of emerging markets.

The Underlying Fund may also invest in fixed income securities that are considered to be cash equivalents.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the MSCI Emerging Markets Standard Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

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THE UNDERLYING FUND IS "NON-DIVERSIFIED" UNDER THE ACT, AND MAY INVEST A LARGER PERCENTAGE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN DIVERSIFIED MUTUAL FUNDS.

Financial Square Government Fund

Objective. The Financial Square Government Fund seeks to maximize current income to the extent consistent with the preservation of capital and the maintenance of liquidity by investing exclusively in high quality money market instruments.

Primary Investment Focus. The Financial Square Government Fund pursues its investment objective by investing only in "government securities," as such term is defined in or interpreted under the Act, and repurchase agreements collateralized by such securities. "Government securities" generally are securities issued or guaranteed by the United States or certain U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities ("U.S. Government Securities").

The Underlying Fund intends to be a "government money market fund," as such term is defined in or interpreted under Rule 2a-7 under the Act. "Government money market funds" are money market funds that invest at least 99.5% of their total assets in cash, U.S. Government Securities, and/or repurchase agreements that are collateralized fully by cash or U.S. Government Securities. "Government money market funds" are exempt from requirements that permit money market funds to impose a "liquidity fee" and/or "redemption gate" that temporarily restricts redemptions. As a "government money market fund," the Underlying Fund values its securities using the amortized cost method. The Underlying Fund seeks to maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share

Under Rule 2a-7, the Underlying Fund may invest only in U.S. dollar-denominated securities that meet certain risk-limiting conditions relating to portfolio quality, maturity and liquidity.

Global Infrastructure Fund

Objective. The Global Infrastructure Fund seeks total return comprised of long-term growth of capital and income.

Primary Investment Focus. The Underlying Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in a portfolio of investments in issuers that are engaged in or related to the infrastructure group of industries ("infrastructure companies"). The Underlying Fund will invest primarily in the common stock of infrastructure companies.

An issuer is engaged in or related to the infrastructure group of industries if it is involved in the ownership, development, construction, renovation, financing, management, sale or operation of infrastructure assets, or that provide the services and raw materials necessary for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure assets. Infrastructure assets include, but are not limited to, utilities, energy, transportation, real estate, media, telecommunications and capital goods.

The Underlying Fund will invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to at least three countries, including the United States. Although the Underlying Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, primarily in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to developed countries (namely developed countries in North America and Europe), the Underlying Fund may also invest in the securities of infrastructure companies that are economically tied to countries with emerging markets or economies.

The Underlying Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization (including small- and mid-capitalization companies). A portion of the Underlying Fund's securities are denominated in foreign currencies and held outside the United States.

The Underlying Fund may invest in REITs. The Underlying Fund may also invest up to 20% of its total assets (measured at time of purchase) in MLPs that are taxed as partnerships and up to 20% of its Net Assets (measured at time of purchase) in issuers that are not infrastructure companies.

ETFs that provide exposure to infrastructure companies and derivative instruments, such as futures, that have similar economic exposures to infrastructure companies will be counted towards the Underlying Fund's 80% policy discussed above.

The Underlying Fund's investment strategy combines bottom-up company analysis with fundamental real asset research. The Investment Adviser may integrate ESG factors with traditional fundamental factors as part of its fundamental research process. No one factor or consideration is determinative in the stock selection process. The Investment Adviser may decide to sell a position for various reasons, including valuation and price considerations or for risk management purposes.

The Underlying Fund concentrates its investments in the securities of issuers in the infrastructure group of industries.

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THE UNDERLYING FUND IS "NON-DIVERSIFIED" UNDER THE ACT, AND MAY INVEST A LARGER PERCENTAGE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN DIVERSIFIED MUTUAL FUNDS.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the Dow Jones Brookfield Global Infrastructure Index (Net, USD, Unhedged).

High Yield Fund

Objective. The High Yield Fund seeks a high level of current income and may also consider the potential for capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The High Yield Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in high-yield, fixed income securities that, at the time of purchase, are non-investment grade securities. Non-investment grade securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by an NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, and are commonly referred to as "junk bonds." The Underlying Fund may invest in all types of fixed income securities, including loan participations.

The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in obligations of domestic and foreign issuers which are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar and in securities of issuers located in emerging countries denominated in any currency. However, to the extent that the Investment Adviser has entered into transactions that are intended to hedge the Underlying Fund's position in a non-dollar denominated obligation against currency risk, such obligation will not be counted when calculating compliance with the 25% limitation on obligations in non-U.S. currency.

Under normal market conditions, the Underlying Fund may invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in investment grade fixed income securities, including securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises ("U.S. Government Securities").

The Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives, including (i) credit default swap indices (or CDX) for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return, and (ii) interest rate futures, forwards and swaps to manage the portfolio's duration.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

The Underlying Fund's target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. High-Yield 2% Issuer Capped Bond Index, plus or minus 2.5 years, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2020, the duration of this Index has ranged between 3.12 and 4.26 years. "Duration" is a measure of a debt security's price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security's market price.

The Underlying Fund's portfolio managers seek to build a portfolio that reflects their investment views across the high yield securities market consistent with the Underlying Fund's overall risk budget and the views of the Investment Adviser's Global Fixed Income top-down teams. As market conditions change, the volatility and attractiveness of sectors, securities and strategies can change as well. To optimize the Underlying Fund's risk/return potential within its long-term risk budget, the portfolio managers may dynamically adjust the mix of top-down and bottom-up strategies in the Underlying Fund's portfolio. As part of the Investment Adviser's fundamental investment process, the Investment Adviser will integrate traditional fundamental factors with ESG factors. No one factor or consideration is determinative in the fundamental investment process.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the Bloomberg Barclays U.S. High-Yield 2% Issuer Capped Bond Index.

High Yield Floating Rate Fund

Objective. The High Yield Floating Rate Fund seeks a high level of current income.

Primary Investment Focus. The High Quality Floating Rate Fund invests, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of its Net Assets in domestic or foreign floating rate loans and other floating or variable rate obligations rated below investment grade. Non-investment grade obligations are those rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality, and are commonly referred to as "junk bonds."

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The Underlying Fund's investments in floating and variable rate obligations may include, without limitation, senior secured loans (including assignments and participations), second lien loans, senior unsecured and subordinated loans, senior and subordinated corporate debt obligations (such as bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper), debt issued by governments, their agencies and instrumentalities, and debt issued by central banks. The Underlying Fund may invest indirectly in loans by purchasing participations or sub-participations from financial institutions. Participations and sub-participations represent the right to receive a portion of the principal of, and all of the interest relating to such portion of, the applicable loan. The Underlying Fund expects to invest principally in the U.S. loan market and, to a lesser extent, in the European loan market. The Underlying Fund may also invest in other loan markets, although it does not currently intend to do so.

Under normal conditions, the Underlying Fund may invest up to 20% of its Net Assets in fixed income instruments, of any credit rating, including fixed rate corporate bonds, government bonds, convertible debt obligations, and mezzanine fixed income instruments. The Underlying Fund may also invest in floating or variable rate instruments that are rated investment grade and in preferred stock, repurchase agreements and cash securities.

The Underlying Fund may also invest in derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate or index. The Underlying Fund's investments in derivatives may include credit default swaps on credit and loan indices, forward contracts and total return swaps, among others. The Underlying Fund may use currency management techniques, such as forward foreign currency contracts, for hedging or non-hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund may invest in interest rate futures and swaps to manage the portfolio's duration. Derivatives that provide exposure to floating or variable rate loans or obligations rated below investment grade are counted towards the Underlying Fund's 80% policy.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

The Underlying Fund's target duration range under normal interest rate conditions is expected to approximate that of the Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index, plus or minus one year, and over the last five years ended June 30, 2020, the duration of the Index has ranged between 0.03 and 4.26 years. The Underlying Fund's investments in floating rate obligations will generally have short to intermediate maturities (approximately 4-7 years). "Duration" is a measure of a debt security's price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer the duration of the Underlying Fund (or an individual debt security), the more sensitive its market price to changes in interest rates. For example, if market interest rates increase by 1%, the market price of a debt security with a positive duration of 3 years will generally decrease by approximately 3%. Conversely, a 1% decline in market interest rates will generally result in an increase of approximately 3% of that security's market price.

The Underlying Fund's investments are selected using a bottom-up analysis that incorporates fundamental research, a focus on market conditions and pricing trends, quantitative research, and news or market events. As part of the Investment Adviser's fundamental investment process, the Investment Adviser will integrate traditional fundamental factors with environmental, social and governance ("ESG") factors. The selection of individual investments is based on the overall risk and return profile of the investment taking into account liquidity, structural complexity, cash flow uncertainty and downside potential. Research analysts and portfolio managers systematically assess portfolio positions, taking into consideration, among other factors, broader macroeconomic conditions and industry and company-specific financial performance and outlook. Based upon this analysis, the Investment Adviser will sell positions determined to be overvalued and reposition the portfolio in more attractive investment opportunities on a relative basis given the current climate. No one factor or consideration is determinative in the fundamental investment process.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the Credit Suisse Leveraged Loan Index.

Long Short Credit Strategies Fund

Objective. The Long Short Credit Strategies Fund seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The Long Short Credit Strategies Fund will seek to achieve its investment objective through long and short exposures to "credit related instruments." Under normal market conditions, the Underlying Fund will invest at least 80% of its net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of purchase) ("Net Assets") in the following credit related instruments: (i) fixed rate and floating rate income securities; (ii) loans and loan participations including: (a) senior secured floating rate

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and fixed rate loans or debt ("Senior Loans"), (b) second lien or other subordinated or unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt ("Second Lien Loans") and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating, or variable interest rates; (iii) convertible securities; (iv) collateralized debt, bond and loan obligations; (v) bank and corporate debt obligations; (vi) securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises ("U.S. Government Securities"), and securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia); (vii) preferred securities and trust preferred securities; (viii) structured securities, including credit-linked notes; and/or (ix) listed and unlisted, public and private, rated and unrated debt instruments and other obligations, including those of financially troubled companies (sometimes known as "distressed securities" or "defaulted securities").

The Underlying Fund may invest in instruments and obligations directly, or indirectly by investing in derivative or synthetic instruments, including, without limitation, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices) and loan credit default swaps. The Underlying Fund will opportunistically seek short exposures to credit related instruments through the use of such derivatives or synthetic instruments, including, but not limited to, credit default swaps (including credit default swaps on credit related indices).

The Underlying Fund intends to implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Underlying Fund may buy credit default swaps. Credit default swaps involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security (or group of securities). When the Underlying Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Underlying Fund the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Underlying Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Underlying Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Underlying Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Underlying Fund may be required to pay the notional amount of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit swap. The Underlying Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by the Investment Adviser to meet the Underlying Fund's minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs

The Underlying Fund may invest in U.S. dollar denominated as well as non-U.S. dollar denominated (foreign) securities. The Underlying Fund may also hold cash, and/or invest in cash equivalents.

There is no minimum credit rating for instruments in which the Underlying Fund may invest, and the Underlying Fund may invest without limitation in securities below investment grade. Non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as "junk bonds") are rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality. The Underlying Fund may also invest in credit instruments of any maturity or duration.

When making investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to identify securities that are both fundamentally mispriced and have a potential catalyst for value creation. Within this universe, the Investment Adviser seeks perceived risk-adjusted return opportunities with a focus on:

Asymmetric return profile (i.e., upside versus downside potential);

Relative value analysis and impact on the current portfolio;

Technical dynamics in the market (i.e., understanding the price movements in the market relative to supply and demand); and

Overall risk/return potential.

The Underlying Fund employs a sell discipline aimed at minimizing losses. Although the portfolio management team considers many factors when implementing trades, there are three primary reasons why the Underlying Fund would exit an investment or trade:

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Position Target Achieved-Position targets are established at the time of investment and monitored on both an absolute and relative value basis. An asset is typically sold as it approaches the target, unless changes in circumstances dictate a revised target.

Credit Profile Change/Credit Event-The loss of (or change to) a catalyst or change in fundamentals which no longer support the initial investment decision will cause the team to exit a position.

Portfolio Re-Allocation-Each position is monitored on a relative value basis versus other holdings and market opportunities. Positions are sold or reduced to maintain proper portfolio diversification.

The Underlying Fund seeks an absolute return comprised of income and capital appreciation. Absolute return performance may be uncorrelated to fixed income and equity markets over the long-term. The Underlying Fund's investment strategies are intended to reduce volatility (i.e., the Underlying Fund may be less impacted by market fluctuations in rising and falling market conditions).

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the ICE Bank of America Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index.

Managed Futures Strategy Fund

Objective. The Managed Futures Strategy Fund seeks to generate long-term absolute return.

Primary Investment Focus. The Managed Futures Strategy Fund implements a trend-following strategy that takes long and/or short positions in a wide range of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities and currencies, among others, to seek long-term absolute return. The Underlying Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing primarily in a portfolio of equities, equity index futures, bonds, bond futures, equity swaps, interest rate swaps, currency forwards and non-deliverable forwards, options, ETFs and structured securities. As a result of the Underlying Fund's use of derivatives, the Underlying Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits. The Underlying Fund's investments will be made without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity, or credit rating.

The Investment Adviser seeks to identify price trends in various asset classes over short-, medium-, and long-term horizons via a proprietary investment model, in combination with a qualitative overlay. The proprietary investment model uses past asset prices and other market information to seek to determine the direction and the magnitude of the price trend. The investment model tends to have positive view on assets with positive trends and negative view on assets with negative trends. For certain assets where market events produce predictable price patterns, the model adjusts such asset views accordingly. Based on the investment model views, the Underlying Fund will take a long or short position in the instrument or asset. Long positions benefit from an increase in price of the underlying instrument or asset, while short positions benefit from a decrease in price of the underlying instrument or asset. The size of the Underlying Fund's position in an instrument or asset will primarily be related to the strength of the overall trend identified by the investment model as well as its forecasted risk. The Underlying Fund may make investment decisions that deviate from those generated by the Investment Adviser's proprietary investment model, at the discretion of the Investment Adviser. In addition, the Investment Adviser may, in its discretion, make changes to its investment model, or use other investment models that are based on the Investment Adviser's proprietary research.

The Underlying Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Underlying Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Underlying Fund a short position with respect to that asset.

The Underlying Fund may use leverage (e.g., by borrowing or through derivatives). As a result, the sum of the Underlying Fund's investment exposures may at times exceed the amount of assets invested in the Underlying Fund, although these exposures may vary over time.

The Underlying Fund may seek exposure to the commodities markets by investing in commodity index-linked structured notes. The Underlying Fund may also take long and/or short positions in commodities by investing in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles. The Underlying Fund may also gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Underlying Fund organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the Cayman Islands (the "MFS Subsidiary"). The MFS Subsidiary is advised by the Investment Adviser and seeks to gain commodities exposure.

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Investment in the Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the MFS Subsidiary. The MFS Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments, which may include but are not limited to total return swaps, commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures and commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the MFS Subsidiary and the Underlying Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Underlying Fund nor the MFS Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The MFS Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, as well as volatility index derivatives and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the ICE Bank of America Merrill Lynch Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index.

Strategic Income Fund

Objective. The Strategic Income Fund seeks total return comprised of income and capital appreciation.

Primary Investment Focus. The Strategic Income Fund invests in a broadly diversified portfolio of U.S. and foreign investment grade and non-investment grade fixed income investments including, but not limited to: U.S. Government securities (such as U.S. Treasury securities or Treasury inflation protected securities and including agency issued adjustable rate and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities or other mortgage-related securities ("Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities")), non-U.S. sovereign debt, agency securities, corporate debt securities, privately issued adjustable rate and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities or other mortgage-related securities ("Private Mortgage-Backed Securities" and, together with Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities, "Mortgage-Backed Securities"), asset-backed securities (including collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs")), custodial receipts, municipal securities, loan participations and loan assignments and convertible securities. The Underlying Fund's investments in loan participations and loan assignments may include, but are not limited to: (a) senior secured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt ("Senior Loans"), (b) second lien or other subordinated or unsecured floating rate and fixed rate loans or debt ("Second Lien Loans") and (c) other types of secured or unsecured loans with fixed, floating or variable interest rates. The Underlying Fund may invest in fixed income securities of any maturity.

Non-investment grade fixed income securities are securities rated BB+, Ba1 or below by a NRSRO, or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality.

The Underlying Fund may invest in sovereign and corporate debt securities and other instruments of issuers in emerging market countries. Such investments may include sovereign debt issued by emerging countries that have sovereign ratings below investment grade or that are unrated. There is no limitation to the amount the Underlying Fund invests in non-investment grade or emerging market securities. From time to time, the Underlying Fund may also invest in preferred stock. The Underlying Fund's investments may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

The Underlying Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund also intends to invest in other derivative instruments. Derivatives are instruments that have a value based on another instrument, exchange rate, interest rate or index. The Underlying Fund's investments in derivatives may include, in addition to forward foreign currency exchange contracts, futures contracts (including interest rate futures and treasury and sovereign bond futures), options (including options on futures contracts, swaps, bonds, stocks and indexes), swaps (including credit default, index, basis, total return, volatility, interest rate and currency swaps), and other forward contracts. The Underlying Fund may use derivatives instead of buying and selling bonds to manage duration, to gain exposure or to short individual securities or to gain exposure to a credit or asset backed index. The Underlying Fund may gain exposure to Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities through several methods, including by utilizing to-be-announced ("TBA") agreements in Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities or through the use of reverse repurchase agreements. TBA agreements for Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are standardized contracts for future delivery of fixed-rate mortgage pass-through securities in which the exact mortgage pools to be delivered are not specified until shortly before settlement. A reverse repurchase agreement enables the Underlying Fund to gain exposure to specified pools of Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities by purchasing them on a forward settling basis and using the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement to settle the trade.

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The Underlying Fund may implement short positions and may do so by using swaps, options or futures, TBA agreements in Agency Mortgage-Backed Securities, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment. For example, the Underlying Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset (that it does not currently own) at a specified price at a specified point in the future. This gives the Underlying Fund a short position with respect to that asset. The Underlying Fund may utilize short positions to implement macro views on securities valuations, long term views on relative value or short term views on security mispricings, as well as any other views the Investment Adviser deems appropriate. For example, the Underlying Fund may enter into a TBA agreement to sell an Agency Mortgage-Backed Security that it believes will underperform. The Underlying Fund will benefit from a short position to the extent the asset decreases in value (and will be harmed to the extent the asset increases in value) between the time it enters into the futures contract and the agreed date of sale. Alternatively, the Underlying Fund may sell an instrument (e.g., a bond, or a futures contract) it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, and then borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. In these transactions, the Underlying Fund is obligated to replace the instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement.

The Underlying Fund may also seek to obtain exposure to fixed income investments through investments in affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies, including ETFs.

"Strategic" in the Underlying Fund's name means that the Underlying Fund seeks both current income and capital appreciation as elements of total return. The Underlying Fund attempts to exploit pricing anomalies throughout the global fixed income and currency markets. Additionally, the Underlying Fund uses short positions and derivatives for both investment and hedging purposes. The Underlying Fund may sell investments that the portfolio managers believe are no longer favorable with regard to these factors.

The Investment Adviser employs a dynamic fundamental investment process that integrates traditional fundamental factors with ESG factors. No one factor or consideration is determinative in the fundamental investment process.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the ICE Bank of America Merrill Lynch Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index.

Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund

Objective. The Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund seeks long-term total return.

Primary Investment Focus. The Tactical Tilt Overlay Fund seeks to achieve its investment objective through the implementation of investment ideas that are generally derived from short-term or medium-term market views on a variety of asset classes and instruments ("Tactical Tilts") generated by the Goldman Sachs Investment Strategy Group ("Investment Strategy Group"). Investment Strategy Group Tactical Tilt recommendations are recommendations to overweight or underweight exposures to certain asset classes, with such overweighting and underweighting to be funded from a "funding source" from which assets should be reallocated. The Investment Strategy Group will consider, among other things, the stand-alone risk/reward of each investment idea that may become a Tactical Tilt recommendation, how it fits with the Investment Strategy Group's broader global economic and market views, and its merits compared to other ideas. The Investment Adviser determines in its sole discretion how to implement Tactical Tilt recommendations in the Underlying Fund.

Tactical Tilts are generally implemented by investing in any one or in any combination of the following securities and instruments: (i) U.S. and foreign equity securities, including common and preferred stocks; (ii) pooled investment vehicles including, but not limited to, (a) unaffiliated investment companies, ETFs and exchange-traded notes ("ETNs") and (b) affiliated investment companies that currently exist or that may become available for investment in the future for which GSAM or an affiliate now or in the future acts as investment adviser or principal underwriter (the "Tactical Tilt Underlying Funds"); (iii) fixed income instruments, which include, among others, debt issued by governments (including the U.S. and foreign governments), their agencies, instrumentalities, sponsored entities, and political subdivisions, notes, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, debt participations and non-investment grade securities (commonly known as "junk bonds"); (iv) derivatives and (v) commodity investments, primarily through a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Underlying Fund organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the Cayman Islands (the "Subsidiary"). The Underlying Fund's investments may be publicly traded or privately issued or negotiated. The Underlying Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity or credit rating. The Underlying Fund may implement short positions for hedging purposes or to seek to enhance absolute return, and may do so by using swaps or futures, or through short sales of any instrument that the Underlying Fund may purchase for investment.

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The Investment Adviser expects that the Underlying Fund may invest in one or more of the following Tactical Tilt Underlying Funds in order to implement Tactical Tilts: Goldman Sachs Core Fixed Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Dynamic Municipal Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Goldman Sachs Energy Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs Enhanced Income Fund, Goldman Sachs Global Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Government Income Fund, Goldman Sachs High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Floating Rate Fund, Goldman Sachs High Yield Municipal Fund, Goldman Sachs Inflation Protected Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs International Real Estate Securities Fund, Goldman Sachs Investment Grade Credit Fund, Goldman Sachs Local Emerging Markets Debt Fund, Goldman Sachs MLP Energy Infrastructure Fund, Goldman Sachs Short Duration Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Short Duration Tax-Free Fund as may be determined by the Investment Adviser from time to time without considering or canvassing the universe of unaffiliated investment companies available.

The Underlying Fund may invest in derivatives for both hedging and non-hedging purposes. Derivative positions may be listed or over the counter ("OTC") and may or may not be centrally cleared. The Underlying Fund's derivative investments may include but are not limited to (i) futures contracts, including futures based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, interest rate futures, currency futures and swap futures; (ii) swaps, including equity, currency, interest rate, total return, excess return, variance and credit default swaps, and swaps on futures contracts; (iii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices, individual securities or currencies, swaptions and options on futures contracts; (iv) forward contracts, including forwards based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, currency forwards, interest rate forwards, swap forwards and non-deliverable forwards; and (v) other instruments, including structured securities and exchange-traded notes. As a result of the Underlying Fund's use of derivatives, the Underlying Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits.

Investment in Cayman Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund seeks to gain exposure to the commodities markets by investing in the Subsidiary. The Underlying Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary primarily obtains its commodity exposure by investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments, which may include but are not limited to total return swaps and excess return swaps on commodity indexes, sub-indexes and single commodities, as well as commodity (U.S. or foreign) futures, commodity options and commodity-linked notes. Commodity-linked swaps are derivative instruments whereby the cash flows agreed upon between counterparties are dependent upon the price of the underlying commodity or commodity index over the life of the swap. Commodity futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of, or economic exposure to the price of, a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a future time. An option on commodities gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a commodity or a specified basket of commodities at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. The value of these commodity-linked derivatives will rise and fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or commodity index. Commodity-linked derivatives expose the Subsidiary and the Underlying Fund economically to movements in commodity prices. Such instruments may be leveraged so that small changes in the underlying commodity prices would result in disproportionate changes in the value of the instrument. Neither the Underlying Fund nor the Subsidiary invests directly in physical commodities. The Subsidiary may also invest in other instruments, including fixed income securities, either as investments or to serve as margin or collateral for its swap positions, and foreign currency transactions (including forward contracts).

Exposure to Commodities. The Underlying Fund may also gain exposure to commodities by investing in commodity index-linked structured notes, publicly traded partnerships ("PTPs") and pooled investment vehicles (including ETFs, ETNs and affiliated or unaffiliated investment companies). PTPs are limited partnerships, the interests (or "units") in which are traded on public exchanges. The Underlying Fund may invest in PTPs that are commodity pools.

The investments and positions that the Investment Adviser determines to use to implement the Tactical Tilt recommendations will constitute the Underlying Fund's only investments, other than its investments in investment-grade fixed income instruments, cash or cash equivalents or other short-term instruments. At any time, and from time to time, a material portion of the Underlying Fund's assets may be invested in such instruments, and not for the purpose of implementing Tactical Tilts.

The Underlying Fund is designed to provide investors with an efficient means of implementing the Tactical Tilts strategy, which is intended to complement an investor's broader, diversified investment portfolio. A Tactical Tilt strategy should be an appropriately sized portion of an investor's overall investment portfolio. It is important that investors view an allocation to the Underlying Fund as a long-term addition to a broader, diversified portfolio and not look to opportunistically time their investments in or redemptions from the Underlying Fund.

The Underlying Fund's benchmark index is the ICE® BofAML® U.S. Dollar Three-Month LIBOR Constant Maturity Index.

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DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

The investment securities and practices and related risks applicable to each Fund are presented below in alphabetical order, and not in the order of importance or potential exposure.

With respect to the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio, the following description applies generally to the Underlying Funds and to the Portfolio (unless otherwise indicated), to the extent that the Portfolio invests directly in securities and other financial instruments, including derivative instruments (such as futures contracts, swaps, options, forward contracts and other instruments), other than the Underlying Funds. Further information about the Underlying Funds and their respective investment objectives and policies is included in their respective prospectuses and Statements of Additional Information. There is no assurance that the Portfolio or any Underlying Fund will achieve its objective.

For purposes of this "Description of Investment Securities and Practices" section, and as the context requires, references to "a Fund," "the Fund" or "the Funds" includes the Fund, Funds and/or Underlying Funds identified in the beginning of a particular paragraph or sub-section. References to "a Fund," "the Fund" or "the Funds" do not include the Portfolio unless expressly noted. References to "the Investment Adviser" include, as the context requires, GSAM and SSGA FM.

Asset-Backed and Receivables-Backed Securities

Each Fund (except the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in asset-backed and receivables-backed securities. Asset-backed and receivables-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, pools of assets such as mortgages, motor vehicle installment sale contracts, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements, corporate receivables, and other categories of receivables. Such asset pools are securitized through the use of privately-formed trusts or special purpose vehicles. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or vehicle or other credit enhancements may be present. The value of a Fund's investments in asset-backed and receivables-backed securities may be adversely affected by prepayment of the underlying obligations. In addition, the risk of prepayment may cause the value of these investments to be more volatile than a Fund's other investments.

Through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations, various types of assets, including automobile loans, computer leases, trade receivables and credit card receivables, are being securitized in pass-through structures similar to mortgage pass-through structures. Consistent with their respective investment objectives and policies, the Funds may invest in these and other types of asset-backed securities that may be developed. This SAI may be amended or supplemented as necessary to reflect the intention of one or more Funds to invest in asset-backed securities with characteristics that are materially different from the securities described above. However, a Fund will generally not invest in an asset-backed security if the income received with respect to its investment constitutes rental income or other income not treated as qualifying income under the 90% test described in "TAXATION" below.

As set forth below, several types of asset-backed and receivables-backed securities are offered to investors, including for example, Certificates for Automobile Receivablessm ("CARSsm") and interests in pools of credit card receivables. CARSsm represent undivided fractional interests in a trust ("CAR Trust") whose assets consist of a pool of motor vehicle retail installment sales contracts and security interests in the vehicles securing the contracts. Payments of principal and interest on CARSsm are passed through monthly to certificate holders, and are guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trustee or originator of the CAR Trust. An investor's return on CARSsm may be affected by early prepayment of principal on the underlying vehicle sales contracts. If the letter of credit is exhausted, the CAR Trust may be prevented from realizing the full amount due on a sales contract because of state law requirements and restrictions relating to foreclosure sales of vehicles and the obtaining of deficiency judgments following such sales or because of depreciation, damage or loss of a vehicle, the application of federal and state bankruptcy and insolvency laws, or other factors. As a result, certificate holders may experience delays in payments or losses if the letter of credit is exhausted.

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Asset-backed securities and receivables-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, a Fund's ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that a Fund invests in asset-backed securities, the values of such Fund's portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, a Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund's recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Asset-backed securities are often backed by a pool of assets representing the obligations of a number of different parties. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, the securities may contain elements of credit support which fall into two categories: (i) liquidity protection, and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor or servicer. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pool of assets, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. This protection may be provided through guarantees, policies or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third parties, through various means of structuring the transactions or through a combination of such approaches. The degree of credit support provided for each issue is generally based on historical information reflecting the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquency or loss in excess of that anticipated or failure of the credit support could adversely affect the value of or return on an investment in such a security.

The availability of asset-backed securities may be affected by legislative or regulatory developments. It is possible that such developments could require a Fund to dispose of any then-existing holdings of such securities.

To the extent consistent with its investment objective and policies, each Fund may invest in new types of mortgage-related securities and in other asset-backed securities that may be developed in the future.

Asset Segregation

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Funds and Underlying Funds must identify on their books (often referred to as "asset segregation") liquid assets, or engage in other SEC- or SEC staff-approved or other appropriate measures, to "cover" open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that do not cash settle, for example, a Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument while the positions are open, to the extent there is not a permissible offsetting position or a contractual "netting" agreement with respect to swaps (other than credit default swaps where a Fund is the protection seller). However, with respect to certain swaps, futures contracts, options, forward contracts and other derivative instruments that are required to cash settle, a Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund's daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund's daily net liability) under the instrument, if any, rather than its full notional amount. Forwards and futures contracts that do not cash settle may be treated as cash settled for asset segregation purposes when the Funds have entered into a contractual arrangement with a third party futures commission merchant ("FCM") or other counterparty to off-set the Funds' exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign their delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty. The Funds reserve the right to modify their asset segregation policies in the future in their discretion, consistent with the Act and SEC or SEC staff guidance. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under certain instruments, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the instrument.

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In October 2020, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies. In connection with the final rule, the SEC and its staff will rescind and withdraw applicable guidance and relief regarding asset segregation and coverage transactions reflected in a Fund's asset segregation and cover practices discussed herein. Subject to certain exceptions, the final rule requires a Fund to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations subject to a value-at-risk ("VaR") leverage limit and certain derivatives risk management program and reporting requirements. Generally, these requirements apply unless a Fund satisfies a "limited derivatives users" exception that is included in the final rule. Under the final rule, when a Fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness (e.g., bank borrowings, if applicable) when calculating a Fund's asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions aggregated with other indebtedness do not need to be included in the calculation of whether a Fund satisfies the limited derivatives users exception, but for funds subject to the VaR testing requirement, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions must be included for purposes of such testing whether treated as derivatives transactions or not. The SEC also provided guidance in connection with the final rule regarding the use of securities lending collateral that may limit securities lending activities. Compliance with these new requirements will be required after an eighteen-month transition period. Following the compliance date, these requirements may limit the ability of the Fund to use derivatives, short sales, and reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements may increase the cost of a Fund's investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors. The Investment Adviser cannot predict the effects of these regulations on a Fund. The Investment Adviser intends to monitor developments and seek to manage a Fund in a manner consistent with achieving a Fund's investment objective

Bank Obligations

Bank obligations in which each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and Underlying Fund may invest include certificates of deposit, unsecured bank promissory notes, bankers' acceptances, fixed time deposits and other debt obligations. Bank obligations may be issued or guaranteed by U.S. banks or foreign banks (High Quality Floating Rate Fund may only invest in U.S. dollar denominated foreign securities). Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return.

Bankers' acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are "accepted" by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits. Bank notes and bankers' acceptances rank junior to domestic deposit liabilities of the bank and pari passu with other senior, unsecured obligations of the bank. Bank notes are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") or any other insurer. Deposit notes are generally insured by the FDIC only to the extent of $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category.

The activities of U.S. banks and most foreign banks are subject to comprehensive regulations which, in the case of U.S. regulations, have undergone substantial changes in the past decade. The enactment of new legislation or regulations, as well as changes in interpretation and enforcement of current laws, may affect the manner of operations and profitability of domestic and foreign banks. Significant developments in the U.S. banking industry have included increased competition from other types of financial institutions, increased acquisition activity and geographic expansion. Banks may be particularly susceptible to certain economic factors, such as interest rate changes and adverse developments in the market for real estate. Fiscal and monetary policy and general economic cycles can affect the availability and cost of funds, loan demand and asset quality and thereby impact the earnings and financial conditions of banks.

Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. Foreign banks are subject to different regulations and are generally permitted to engage in a wider variety of activities than U.S. banks. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

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Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. The Funds and Underlying Funds may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks satisfying the standards set forth above.

Collateralized Loan Obligations and Other Collateralized Debt Obligations

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs") and other similarly structured investments. A CLO is an asset-backed security whose underlying collateral is a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign floating rate and fixed rate senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. In addition to the normal risks associated with loan- and credit-related securities discussed elsewhere in the Prospectus (e.g., loan-related investments risk, interest rate risk and default risk), investments in CLOs carry additional risks including, but not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from the collateral may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in tranches of CLOs that are subordinate to other tranches; (iv) the structure and complexity of the transaction and the legal documents could lead to disputes among investors regarding the characterization of proceeds; and (v) the CLO's manager may perform poorly. CLOs may charge management and other administrative fees, which are in addition to those of the Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds.

CLOs issue classes or "tranches" that offer various maturity, risk and yield characteristics. Losses caused by defaults on underlying assets are borne first by the holders of subordinate tranches. Tranches are categorized as senior, mezzanine and subordinated/equity, according to their degree of risk. If there are defaults or the CLO's collateral otherwise underperforms, scheduled payments to senior tranches take precedence over those of mezzanine tranches, and scheduled payments to mezzanine tranches take precedence over those of subordinated/equity tranches. The riskiest portion is the "equity" tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the collateral and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying collateral and may be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity and mezzanine tranches, more senior tranches of CLOs can experience losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of more subordinate tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class. The Fixed Income Funds' and certain Underlying Funds' investments in CLOs primarily consist of investment grade tranches.

Typically, CLOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CLOs may have limited independent pricing transparency. However, an active dealer market may exist for CLOs that qualify under the Rule 144A "safe harbor" from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in CLOs.

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may also invest in collateralized debt obligations ("CDOs"), which are structured similarly to CLOs, but are backed by pools of assets that are debt securities (rather than being limited only to loans), typically including bonds, other structured finance securities (including other asset-backed securities and other CDOs) and/or synthetic instruments. Like CLOs, the risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type and quality of the collateral securities and the tranche of the CDO in which the Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds invests. CDOs collateralized by pools of asset-backed securities carry the same risks as investments in asset-backed securities directly, including losses with respect to the collateral underlying those asset-backed securities. In addition, certain CDOs may not hold their underlying collateral directly, but rather, use derivatives such as swaps to create "synthetic" exposure to the collateral pool. Such CDOs entail the risks associated with derivative instruments.

Combined Transactions

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may enter into multiple transactions, including multiple options transactions, multiple futures transactions, multiple currency transactions (as applicable) (including forward currency contracts) and multiple interest rate and other swap transactions and any combination of futures, options, currency and swap transactions ("component" transactions) as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, it is in the best interests of a Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although combined transactions are normally entered into based on the Investment Adviser's judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

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Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Funds (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Commodity-Linked Investments

Certain Underlying Funds may seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in commodity-linked derivative securities, such as structured notes, discussed below, which are designed to provide this exposure without direct investment in physical commodities or commodities futures contracts. Certain Underlying Funds may also seek to provide exposure to the investment returns of real assets that trade in the commodity markets through investments in a subsidiary. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, the Investment Adviser seeks to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities held by an Underlying Fund and/or a subsidiary may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.

The prices of commodity-linked derivative instruments may move in different directions than investments in traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions. As an example, during periods of rising inflation, debt securities have historically tended to decline in value due to the general increase in prevailing interest rates. Conversely, during those same periods of rising inflation, the prices of certain commodities, such as oil and metals, have historically tended to increase. Of course, there cannot be any guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner in the future, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked instruments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities. Commodities have historically tended to increase and decrease in value during different parts of the business cycle than financial assets. Nevertheless, at various times, commodities prices may move in tandem with the prices of financial assets and thus may not provide overall portfolio diversification benefits. Under favorable economic conditions, an Underlying Fund's investments may be expected to underperform an investment in traditional securities. Over the long term, the returns on an Underlying Fund's investments are expected to exhibit low or negative correlation with stocks and bonds.

Because commodity-linked investments are available from a relatively small number of issuers, an Underlying Fund's investments will be particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of the Underlying Fund's commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Convertible Securities

Each Fund (other than the High Quality Floating Rate, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock (or other securities) of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its "investment value" (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its "conversion value" (the security's worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security's investment value. The conversion

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value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed income security.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security's governing instrument. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on a Fund's ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund.

In evaluating a convertible security, the Investment Adviser will give primary emphasis to the attractiveness of the underlying common stock. Convertible debt securities are equity investments for purposes of each Equity Fund's and certain Underlying Funds' investment policies.

Corporate Debt Obligations

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. The U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights and Equity Index Funds may only invest in debt securities that are cash equivalents. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer's inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

Corporate debt obligations rated BBB- or Baa3 are considered medium grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken their issuers' capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. The price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to fluctuations in supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the price of corporate debt obligations will generally fluctuate in response to interest rate levels. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in each Fund's NAV.

Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues. The Investment Adviser will attempt to reduce these risks through portfolio diversification and by analysis of each issuer and its ability to make timely payments of income and principal, as well as broad economic trends and corporate developments.

The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer's existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trend. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in a Fund's portfolio and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain corporate debt obligations whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, a Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities (as defined below), municipal securities or other types of securities in which the Funds may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. Government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Funds will bear their proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Funds and Underlying Funds may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

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Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate the Funds would typically be authorized to assert their rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Funds could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Funds may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Funds had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer's credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

Distressed Debt

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in the securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies, including stressed, distressed and bankrupt issuers and debt obligations that are in covenant or payment default. In addition, investments of a Fund may become distressed or bankrupt following the Fund's initial acquisition of the security. Historically, economic downturns or increases in interest rates have, under certain circumstances, resulted in a higher occurrence of default by the issuers of these instruments. Such investments generally trade significantly below par and are considered speculative. The repayment of defaulted obligations is subject to significant uncertainties. Defaulted obligations might be repaid only after lengthy workout or bankruptcy proceedings, during which the issuer might not make any interest or other payments. Typically such workout or bankruptcy proceedings result in only partial recovery of cash payments or an exchange of the defaulted obligation for other debt or equity securities of the issuer or its affiliates, which may in turn be speculative.

In any investment involving stressed and distressed debt obligations, there exists the risk that the transaction involving such debt obligations will be unsuccessful, take considerable time or will result in a distribution of cash or a new security or obligation in exchange for the stressed and distressed debt obligations, the value of which may be less than the Fund's purchase price of such debt obligations. Furthermore, if an anticipated transaction does not occur, the Fund may be required to sell its investment at a loss. Distressed investments may require active participation by the Investment Adviser in the restructuring of a Fund's investment or other actions intended to protect the Fund's investment; however, there may be situations where the Investment Adviser may determine to not so participate due to regulatory, tax or other considerations. In addition, a Fund may participate on creditors' committees to negotiate with the management of financially troubled issuers of securities held by the Fund. Such participation may subject a Fund to additional expenses (including legal fees) and may make a Fund an "insider" of the issuer for purposes of the federal securities laws. This may result in increased litigation risks to a Fund or may restrict the Investment Adviser's ability to dispose of the security.

There are a number of significant risks inherent in the bankruptcy process. Many events in a bankruptcy are the product of contested matters and adversary proceedings and are beyond the control of the creditors. A bankruptcy filing by an issuer may adversely and permanently affect the issuer, and if the proceeding is converted to a liquidation, the value of the issuer may not equal the liquidation value that was believed to exist at the time of the investment. The duration of a bankruptcy proceeding is difficult to predict, and a creditor's return on investment can be adversely affected by delays until the plan of reorganization ultimately becomes effective. The administrative costs in connection with a bankruptcy proceeding are frequently high and would be paid out of the debtor's estate prior to any return to creditors. Because the standards for classification of claims under bankruptcy law are vague, there exists the risk that the Fund's influence with respect to the class of securities or other obligations it owns can be lost by increases in the number and amount of claims in the same class or by different classification and treatment. In the early stages of the bankruptcy process it is often difficult to estimate the extent of, or even to identify, any contingent claims that might be made. In addition, certain claims that have priority by law (for example, claims for taxes) may be substantial.

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These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in securities and other obligations of financially troubled companies.

Dividend-Paying Investments

A Fund's investments in dividend-paying securities could cause the Fund to underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ a different investment style. Securities that pay dividends, as a group, can fall out of favor with the market, causing such securities to underperform securities that do not pay dividends. Additionally, depending upon market conditions and political and legislative responses to market conditions, dividend-paying securities that meet a Fund's investment criteria may not be widely available and/or may be highly concentrated in only a few market sectors. For example, in response to the outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus (known as COVID-19), the U.S. Government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act in March 2020, which established loan programs for certain issuers impacted by COVID-19. Among other conditions, borrowers under these loan programs are generally restricted from paying dividends. The adoption of any future legislation could further limit or restrict the ability of issuers to pay dividends. To the extent that dividend-paying securities are concentrated in only a few market sectors, a Fund may be subject to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions or developments that may be particular to a sector to a greater extent than if its investments were diversified across different sectors. In addition, issuers that have paid regular dividends or distributions to shareholders may not continue to do so at the same level or at all in the future. A sharp rise in interest rates or an economic downturn could cause an issuer to abruptly reduce or eliminate its dividend. This may limit the ability of the Fund to produce current income.

Equity Investments

Certain Underlying Funds may purchase equity investments. In addition, after its purchase, a portfolio investment (such as a convertible debt obligation) may convert to an equity security. Certain Underlying Funds may also acquire equity securities in connection with a restructuring event related to one or more of their investments. If this occurs, the Underlying Fund may continue to hold the investment if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Underlying Fund and its shareholders.

Floating Rate Loans and Other Variable and Floating Rate Securities

The interest rates payable on certain debt securities in which a Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. Variable and floating rate obligations are debt instruments issued by companies or other entities with interest rates that reset periodically (typically, daily, monthly, quarterly, or semi-annually) in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Moreover, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation, or for other reasons. The value of these obligations is generally more stable than that of a fixed rate obligation in response to changes in interest rate levels, but they may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in floating rate loans. Floating rate loans consist generally of obligations of companies or other entities (e.g., a U.S. or foreign bank, insurance company or finance company) (collectively, "borrowers") incurred for a variety of purposes. Floating rate loans may be acquired by direct investment as a lender or as an assignment of the portion of a floating rate loan previously attributable to a different lender. Certain Underlying Funds may also invest in floating rate loans through a participation interest (which represents a fractional interest in a floating rate loan) issued by a lender or other financial institution.

Floating rate loans may be obligations of borrowers who are highly leveraged. Floating rate loans may be structured to include both term loans, which are generally fully funded at the time of the making of the loan, and revolving credit facilities, which would require additional investments upon the borrower's demand. A revolving credit facility may require a purchaser to increase its investment in a floating rate loan at a time when it would not otherwise have done so, even if the borrower's condition makes it unlikely that the amount will ever be repaid.

A floating rate loan offered as part of the original lending syndicate typically is purchased at par value. As part of the original lending syndicate, a purchaser generally earns a yield equal to the stated interest rate. In addition, members of the original syndicate typically are paid a commitment fee. In secondary market trading, floating rate loans may be purchased or sold above, at, or below par, which can result in a yield that is below, equal to, or above the stated interest rate, respectively. At certain times when reduced opportunities exist for investing in new syndicated floating rate loans, floating rate loans may be available only through the secondary market. There can be no assurance that an adequate supply of floating rate loans will be available for purchase.

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Historically, floating rate loans have not been registered with the SEC or any state securities commission or listed on any securities exchange. As a result, the amount of public information available about a specific floating rate loan historically has been less extensive than if the floating rate loan were registered or exchange-traded. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating rate loans.

Purchasers of floating rate loans and other forms of debt obligations depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of interest and repayment of principal. If scheduled interest or principal payments are not made, the value of the obligation may be adversely affected. Floating rate loans and other debt obligations that are fully secured provide more protections than unsecured obligations in the event of failure to make scheduled interest or principal payments. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative. Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed. Some floating rate loans and other debt obligations are not rated by any NRSRO. In connection with the restructuring of a floating rate loan or other debt obligation outside of bankruptcy court in a negotiated work-out or in the context of bankruptcy proceedings, equity securities or junior debt obligations may be received in exchange for all or a portion of an interest in the obligation.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may borrow money from various banks in connection with their business activities. These banks also may sell floating rate loans to a Fund or acquire floating rate loans from the Fund, or may be intermediate participants with respect to floating rate loans owned by the Fund. These banks also may act as agents for floating rate loans that the Fund owns.

Agents. Floating rate loans typically are originated, negotiated, and structured by a bank, insurance company, finance company, or other financial institution (the "agent") for a lending syndicate of financial institutions. The borrower and the lender or lending syndicate enter into a loan agreement. In addition, an institution (typically, but not always, the agent) holds any collateral on behalf of the lenders.

In a typical floating rate loan, the agent administers the terms of the loan agreement and is responsible for the collection of principal and interest and fee payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to all lenders that are parties to the loan agreement. Purchasers will rely on the agent to use appropriate creditor remedies against the borrower. Typically, under loan agreements, the agent is given broad discretion in monitoring the borrower's performance and is obligated to use the same care it would use in the management of its own property. Upon an event of default, the agent typically will enforce the loan agreement after instruction from the lenders. The borrower compensates the agent for these services. This compensation may include special fees paid on structuring and funding the floating rate loan and other fees paid on a continuing basis. The typical practice of an agent or a lender in relying exclusively or primarily on reports from the borrower may involve a risk of fraud by the borrower.

If an agent becomes insolvent, or has a receiver, conservator, or similar official appointed for it by the appropriate bank or other regulatory authority, or becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding, the agent's appointment may be terminated, and a successor agent would be appointed. If an appropriate regulator or court determines that assets held by the agent for the benefit of the purchasers of floating rate loans are subject to the claims of the agent's general or secured creditors, the purchasers might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a floating rate loan or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. Furthermore, in the event of the borrower's bankruptcy or insolvency, the borrower's obligation to repay a floating rate loan may be subject to certain defenses that the borrower can assert as a result of improper conduct by the agent.

Assignments. The Funds may purchase an assignment of a portion of a floating rate loan from an agent or from another group of investors. The purchase of an assignment typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the original loan agreement; however, assignments may also be arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning agent or investor.

Loan Participation Interests. Purchasers of participation interests do not have any direct contractual relationship with the borrower. Purchasers rely on the lender who sold the participation interest not only for the enforcement of the purchaser's rights against the borrower but also for the receipt and processing of payments due under the floating rate loan. For additional information, see the section "Loans and Loan Participations" below.

Liquidity. Floating rate loans may be transferable among financial institutions, but may not have the liquidity of conventional debt securities and are often subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale. Floating rate loans are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system. As a result, no active market may exist for some floating rate loans. To the extent a secondary market exists for other floating rate loans, such market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads, and extended trade settlement periods. The lack of a highly liquid secondary market for floating rate loans may have an adverse effect on the value of

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such loans and may make it more difficult to value the loans for purposes of calculating their respective NAV. These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in floating rate loans and other variable and floating rate securities.

Extended Trade Settlement Periods. Because transactions in many floating rate loans are subject to extended trade settlement periods, a Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of a loan for a period after the sale. As a result, sale proceeds related to the sale of floating rate loans may not be available to make additional investments or to meet a Fund's redemption obligations for a period after the sale of the loans, and, as a result, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations.

Collateral. Most floating rate loans are secured by specific collateral of the borrower and are senior to most other securities or obligations of the borrower. The collateral typically has a market value, at the time the floating rate loan is made, that equals or exceeds the principal amount of the floating rate loan. The value of the collateral may decline, be insufficient to meet the obligations of the borrower, or be difficult to liquidate. As a result, a floating rate loan may not be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.

Floating rate loan collateral may consist of various types of assets or interests, including working capital assets, such as accounts receivable or inventory; tangible or intangible assets; or assets or other types of guarantees of affiliates of the borrower.

Generally, floating rate loans are secured unless (i) the purchaser's security interest in the collateral is invalidated for any reason by a court, or (ii) the collateral is fully released with the consent of the agent bank and lenders or under the terms of a loan agreement as the creditworthiness of the borrower improves. Collateral impairment is the risk that the value of the collateral for a floating rate loan will be insufficient in the event that a borrower defaults. Although the terms of a floating rate loan generally require that the collateral at issuance have a value at least equal to 100% of the amount of such floating rate loan, the value of the collateral may decline subsequent to the purchase of a floating rate loan. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral. There is no guarantee that the sale of collateral would allow a borrower to meet its obligations should the borrower be unable to repay principal or pay interest or that the collateral could be sold quickly or easily.

In addition, most borrowers pay their debts from the cash flow they generate. If the borrower's cash flow is insufficient to pay its debts as they come due, the borrower may seek to restructure its debts rather than sell collateral.

Borrowers may try to restructure their debts by filing for protection under the federal bankruptcy laws or negotiating a work-out. If a borrower becomes involved in bankruptcy proceedings, access to the collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws. In the event that a court decides that access to the collateral is limited or void, it is unlikely that purchasers could recover the full amount of the principal and interest due.

There may be temporary periods when the principal asset held by a borrower is the stock of a related company, which may not legally be pledged to secure a floating rate loan. On occasions when such stock cannot be pledged, the floating rate loan will be temporarily unsecured until the stock can be pledged or is exchanged for, or replaced by, other assets.

Some floating rate loans are unsecured. The claims of holders under unsecured loans are subordinated to claims of creditors holding secured indebtedness and possibly also to claims of other creditors holding unsecured debt. Unsecured loans have a greater risk of default than secured loans, particularly during periods of deteriorating economic conditions. If the borrower defaults on an unsecured floating rate loan, there is no specific collateral on which the purchaser can foreclose.

Floating Interest Rates. The rate of interest payable on floating rate loans and other floating or variable rate obligations is the sum of a base lending rate plus a specified spread. Base lending rates are generally the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), the Prime Rate of a designated U.S. bank, the Federal Funds Rate, or another base lending rate used by commercial lenders. A borrower usually has the right to select the base lending rate and to change the base lending rate at specified intervals. The applicable spread may be fixed at time of issuance or may adjust upward or downward to reflect changes in credit quality of the borrower.

The interest rate on LIBOR-based floating rate loans/obligations is reset periodically at intervals ranging from 30 to 180 days, while the interest rate on Prime Rate- or Federal Funds Rate-based floating rate loans/obligations floats daily as those rates change. Investment in floating rate loans/obligations with longer interest rate reset periods can increase fluctuations in the floating rate loans' values when interest rates change.

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The yield on a floating rate loan/obligation will primarily depend on the terms of the underlying floating rate loan/obligation and the base lending rate chosen by the borrower. The relationship between LIBOR, the Prime Rate, and the Federal Funds Rate will vary as market conditions change.

Maturity. Floating rate loans typically will have a stated term of five to nine years. However, because floating rate loans are frequently prepaid, their average maturity is expected to be two to three years. The degree to which borrowers prepay floating rate loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, the borrower's financial condition, and competitive conditions among lenders. Prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy. Prepayments of principal to the purchaser of a floating rate loan may result in the principal's being reinvested in floating rate loans with lower yields.

Supply of Floating Rate Loans. The legislation of state or federal regulators that regulate certain financial institutions may impose additional requirements or restrictions on the ability of such institutions to make loans, particularly with respect to highly leveraged transactions. The supply of floating rate loans may be limited from time to time due to a lack of sellers in the market for existing floating rate loans or the number of new floating rate loans currently being issued. As a result, the floating rate loans available for purchase may be lower quality or higher priced.

Restrictive Covenants. A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants contained in the loan agreement. In addition to requiring the scheduled payment of interest and principal, these covenants may include restrictions on dividend payments and other distributions to stockholders, provisions requiring the borrower to maintain specific financial ratios, and limits on total debt. The loan agreement may also contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the floating rate loan with any free cash flow. A breach of a covenant that is not waived by the agent (or by the lenders directly) is normally an event of default, which provides the agent or the lenders the right to call the outstanding floating rate loan.

Fees. Purchasers of floating rate loans may receive and/or pay certain fees. These fees are in addition to interest payments received and may include facility fees, commitment fees, commissions, and prepayment penalty fees. When a purchaser buys a floating rate loan, it may receive a facility fee; and when it sells a floating rate loan, it may pay a facility fee. A purchaser may receive a commitment fee based on the undrawn portion of the underlying line of credit portion of a floating rate loan or a prepayment penalty fee on the prepayment of a floating rate loan. A purchaser may also receive other fees, including covenant waiver fees and covenant modification fees.

Other Types of Floating Rate Debt Obligations. Floating rate debt obligations include other forms of indebtedness of borrowers such as notes and bonds, obligations with fixed rate interest payments in conjunction with a right to receive floating rate interest payments, and shares of other investment companies. These instruments are generally subject to the same risks as floating rate loans but are often more widely issued and traded.

Inverse Floating Rate Debt Obligations. Certain Funds may invest in "leveraged" inverse floating rate debt instruments ("inverse floaters"), including "leveraged inverse floaters." The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity.

Foreign Investments

Each Equity Fund, the Core Fixed Income Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in securities of foreign issuers, including securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars. The Strategic Growth, Growth Opportunities and Equity Index Funds may invest in the aggregate up to 25%, 25% and 15%, respectively, of their total assets in foreign securities. The Mid Cap Value and Large Cap Value Funds may invest in the aggregate up to 25% and 20%, respectively, of their net assets plus any borrowings in securities of foreign issuers. The High Quality Floating Rate Fund may only invest in securities of foreign issuers that are denominated in U.S. dollars. The International Equity Insights Fund will invest primarily in foreign securities under normal circumstances. The International Equity Insights Fund is intended for long-term investors who can accept the risks associated with investing primarily in equity and equity-related securities of foreign issuers, including emerging country issuers, as well as the risks associated with investments quoted or denominated in foreign currencies. With respect to the U.S. Equity Insights and Small Cap Equity Insights Funds, equity securities of foreign issuers must be traded in the United States. The Core Fixed Income Fund may also invest in securities of foreign issuers and in fixed income securities quoted or denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars.

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Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of the Investment Adviser, to offer the potential for better long-term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Funds' Prospectuses and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Many of these risks are more pronounced for investments in emerging economies.

With respect to investments in certain foreign countries, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, military unrest, social instability, war and terrorism, confiscation without fair compensation, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, or diplomatic developments, any of which could adversely affect a Fund's investments in those countries. Governments in certain foreign countries continue to participate to a significant degree, through ownership interest or regulation, in their respective economies. Action by these governments could have a significant effect on market prices of securities and dividend payments.

From time to time, certain of the companies in which a Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. For example, the United Nations Security Council has imposed certain sanctions relating to Iran and Sudan and both countries are embargoed countries by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the U.S. Treasury.

In addition, from time to time, certain of the companies in which a Fund may invest may engage in, or have dealings with countries or companies that engage in, activities that may not be considered socially and/or environmentally responsible. Such activities may relate to human rights issues (such as patterns of human rights abuses or violations, persecution or discrimination), impacts to local communities in which companies operate and environmental sustainability. For a description of the Investment Adviser's approach to responsible and sustainable investing, please see GSAM's Statement on Responsible and Sustainable Investing at: https://www.gsam.com/content/dam/gsam/pdfs/common/en/public/miscellaneous/GSAM_statement_on_respon_sustainable_investing.pdf.

As a result, a company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which engages in, or has dealings with countries or companies that engage in, the above referenced activities. As an investor in such companies, a Fund would be indirectly subject to those risks.

The Investment Adviser is committed to complying fully with sanctions in effect as of the date of this Statement of Additional Information and any other applicable sanctions that may be enacted in the future with respect to Sudan or any other country.

Many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. Additionally, many foreign country economies are heavily dependent on international trade and are adversely affected by protective trade barriers and economic conditions of their trading partners. Protectionist trade legislation enacted by those trading partners could have a significant adverse effect on the securities markets of those countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position.

Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, a Fund may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. Certain Funds may be subject to currency exposure independent of their securities positions. To the extent that a Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or the failure to intervene or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a portion of a Fund's total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund's net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries. A Fund's net currency positions may expose it to risks independent of its securities positions.

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Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States markets and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although each Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. For example, there may be no comparable provisions under certain foreign laws to insider trading and similar investor protections that apply with respect to securities transactions consummated in the United States. Mail service between the United States and foreign countries may be slower or less reliable than within the United States, thus increasing the risk of delayed settlement of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of a Fund's assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of a Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities, or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, in possible liability to the purchaser.

Each Equity Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in foreign securities which take the form of sponsored and unsponsored ADRs, Global Depositary Receipts ("GDRs") and (except for the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights and Equity Index Funds) European Depositary Receipts ("EDRs") or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers (together, "Depositary Receipts"). ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security. To the extent a Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, which are quoted in U.S. dollars, a Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.

As described more fully below, each Equity Fund (except the Equity Index Fund), the Core Fixed Income Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of, or ignored internationally accepted standards of due process against, private companies. In addition, a country may take these and other retaliatory actions against a specific private company, including a Fund or the Investment Adviser. There may not be legal recourse against these actions, which could arise in connection with the commercial activities of Goldman Sachs or its affiliates or otherwise, and a Fund could be subject to substantial losses. In addition, a Fund or the Investment Adviser may determine not invest in, or may limit its overall investment in, a particular issuer, country or geographic region due to, among other things, heightened risks regarding repatriation restrictions, confiscation of assets and property, expropriation or nationalization.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in securities of foreign issuers.

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Foreign Government Obligations. The International Equity Insights, Core Fixed Income, Global Trends Allocation and (provided they are U.S. dollar denominated) High Quality Floating Rate Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in foreign government obligations. Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity's willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity's policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity's implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor's obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties' commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor's ability or willingness to service its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including certain Funds or Underlying Funds) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

Investing in Emerging Countries. The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as stringent, extensive and frequent accounting, auditing, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S., and the degree of cooperation between issuers in emerging and frontier market countries with foreign and U.S. financial regulators may vary significantly. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States. In addition, U.S. regulators may not have sufficient access to adequately audit and oversee issuers. For example, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the "PCAOB") is responsible for inspecting and auditing the accounting practices and products of U.S.-listed companies, regardless of the issuer's domicile. However, certain emerging market countries, including China, do not provide sufficient access to the PCAOB to conduct its inspections and audits. As a result, U.S. investors, including the Funds, may be subject to risks associated with less stringent accounting oversight.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect a Fund's ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests. In addition, emerging market countries are often characterized by limited reliable access to capital.

With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Funds. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder's investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations, and it may be more difficult for shareholders to bring derivative litigation. Moreover, the legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States, and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited. In addition, emerging countries may have less established accounting and financial reporting systems than those in more developed markets.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

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Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging and frontier market countries may not be fully developed. To the extent a Fund invests in emerging markets, Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit a Fund's investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer's outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.

The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for a Fund to invest in such emerging countries. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of a Fund. A Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Funds may invest and adversely affect the value of the Funds' assets. A Fund's investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

A Fund's income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See "TAXATION."

Investing in Asia. Although many countries in Asia have experienced a relatively stable political environment over the last decade, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging region, many factors may affect such stability on a country-by-country as well as on a regional basis - increasing gaps between the rich and poor, agrarian unrest, instability of existing coalitions in politically-fractionated countries, hostile relations with neighboring countries, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection - and may result in adverse consequences to a Fund or Underlying Fund. The political history of some Asian countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres, and political corruption. Such developments, if they continue to occur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and could result in significant disruption to securities markets.

The legal infrastructure in each of the countries in Asia is unique and often undeveloped. In most cases, securities laws are evolving and far from adequate for the protection of the public from serious fraud. Investment in Asian securities involves considerations and possible risks not typically involved with investment in other issuers, including changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The application of tax laws (e.g., the imposition of withholding

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taxes on dividend or interest payments) or confiscatory taxation may also affect investment in Asian securities. Higher expenses may result from investments in Asian securities than would from investments in other securities because of the costs that must be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies and brokerage commissions that may be higher than more established markets. Asian securities markets also may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than elsewhere. Investments in countries in the region could be affected by other factors not present elsewhere, including lack of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, inadequate settlement procedures and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations.

Some Asian economies have limited natural resources, resulting in dependence on foreign sources for energy and raw materials and economic vulnerability to global fluctuations of price and supply. Certain countries in Asia are especially prone to natural disasters, such as flooding, drought and earthquakes. Combined with the possibility of man-made disasters, the occurrence of such disasters may adversely affect companies in which a Fund is invested and, as a result, may result in adverse consequences to the Fund.

Many of the countries in Asia periodically have experienced significant inflation. Should the governments and central banks of the countries in Asia fail to control inflation, this may have an adverse effect on the performance of a Fund's investments in Asian securities.

Several of the countries in Asia remain dependent on the U.S. economy as their largest export customer, and future barriers to entry into the U.S. market or other important markets could adversely affect a Fund's performance. Intraregional trade is becoming an increasingly significant percentage of total trade for the countries in Asia. Consequently, the intertwined economies are becoming increasingly dependent on each other, and any barriers to entry to markets in Asia in the future may adversely affect a Fund's performance.

Certain Asian countries may have managed currencies which are maintained at artificial levels to the U.S. dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Asian countries also may restrict the free conversion of their currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would, as a result, be difficult to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of a Fund's interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

Although a Fund will generally attempt to invest in those markets which provide the greatest freedom of movement of foreign capital, there is no assurance that this will be possible or that certain countries in Asia will not restrict the movement of foreign capital in the future. Changes in securities laws and foreign ownership laws may have an adverse effect on a Fund.

Investing in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is facing many economic hurdles, including weak political institutions, poor infrastructure, lack of privatization of industry, and unemployment. Confrontational tendencies in Bangladeshi politics, including violent protests, raise concerns about political stability and could weigh on business sentiment and capital investment. Inadequate investment in the power sector has led to electricity shortages which continue to hamper Bangladesh's business environment. Many Bangladeshi industries are dependent upon exports and international trade and may demonstrate high volatility in response to economic conditions abroad.

Bangladesh's developing capital markets rely primarily on domestic investors. The 2010-2011 overheating of the stock market and subsequent correction underscored weaknesses in capital markets and regulatory oversight.

Bangladesh is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as monsoons, earthquakes and typhoons, and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on Bangladesh's economy.

Investing in Brazil. In addition to the risks listed above under "Foreign Securities" and "Investing in Emerging Countries," investing in Brazil presents additional risks.

Under current Brazilian law, an Underlying Fund may repatriate income received from dividends and interest earned on its investments in Brazilian securities. An Underlying Fund may also repatriate net realized capital gains from its investments in Brazilian securities. Additionally, whenever there occurs a serious imbalance in Brazil's balance of payments or serious reasons to foresee the imminence of such an imbalance, under current Brazilian law the Monetary Council may, for a limited period, impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad. Exchange control regulations may restrict repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales by foreign investors.

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Brazil suffers from chronic structural public sector deficits. In addition, disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization and capital market development, and ethnic and racial hostilities have led to social and labor unrest and violence in the past, and may do so again in the future.

Additionally, the Brazilian securities markets are smaller, less liquid and more volatile than domestic markets. The market for Brazilian securities is influenced by economic and market conditions of certain countries, especially emerging market countries in Central and South America. Brazil has historically experienced high rates of inflation and may continue to do so in the future. Appreciation of the Brazilian currency (the real) relative to the U.S. dollar may lead to a deterioration of Brazil's current account and balance of payments as well as limit the growth of exports. Inflationary pressures may lead to further government intervention in the economy, including the introduction of government policies that may adversely affect the overall performance of the Brazilian economy, which in turn could adversely affect an Underlying Fund's investments.

Investing in Canada. Certain Funds and Underlying Funds may invest in issuers located in Canada or that have significant exposure to the Canadian economy. The Canadian market is relatively concentrated in issuers involved in the production and distribution of natural resources, and therefore the Canadian economy is very dependent on the supply and demand for natural resources. There is a risk that any changes in these sectors could have an adverse impact on the Canadian economy. The Canadian economy is dependent on the economy of the United States as the United States is Canada's largest trading partner and foreign investor. Reduction in spending on Canadian products and services or changes in the U.S. economy may cause an impact in the Canadian economy. Past periodic demands by the Province of Quebec for sovereignty have also significantly affected equity valuations and foreign currency movements in the Canadian market.

Investing in Central and South American Countries. A significant portion of certain Underlying Funds' portfolios may be invested in issuers located in Central and South American countries. The economies of Central and South American countries have experienced considerable difficulties in the past decade, including high inflation rates, high interest rates and currency devaluations. As a result, Central and South American securities markets have experienced great volatility. In addition, many of the region's economies have become highly dependent upon foreign credit and loans from external sources to fuel their state-sponsored economic plans. A number of Central and South American countries are among the largest emerging country debtors. There have been moratoria on, and reschedulings of, repayment with respect to these debts. Such events can restrict the flexibility of these debtor nations in the international markets and result in the imposition of onerous conditions on their economies.

In the past, many Central and South American countries have experienced substantial, and in some periods extremely high, rates of inflation for many years. High inflation rates have also led to high interest rates. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and could, in the future, have very negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain Central and South American countries. Many of the currencies of Central and South American countries have experienced steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar, and major devaluations have historically occurred in certain countries. Any devaluations in the currencies in which a Fund's portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Fund. There is also a risk that certain Central and South American countries may restrict the free conversion of their currencies into other currencies. Some Central and South American countries may have managed currencies which are not free floating against the U.S. dollar. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency that, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Central and South American currencies may not be internationally traded and it would be difficult for a Fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Fund's interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

In addition, substantial limitations may exist in certain countries with respect to a Fund's ability to repatriate investment income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities by foreign investors. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to the Fund of any restrictions on investments.

The emergence of the Central and South American economies and securities markets will require continued economic and fiscal discipline that has been lacking at times in the past, as well as stable political and social conditions. Governments of many Central and South American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. The political history of certain Central and South American countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres and political corruption. Now democracy is beginning to become well established in some countries. Domestic economies have been deregulated, state-owned companies privatized, and foreign trade restrictions relaxed. Such developments, if they do not continue, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization and removal of trade barriers. Social inequality and poverty may contribute to political and economic instability in this region.

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International economic conditions, particularly those in the United States, as well as world prices for oil and other commodities may also influence the recovery of the Central and South American economies. Because commodities such as oil, gas, minerals and metals represent a significant percentage of the region's exports, the economies of Central and South American countries are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. As a result, the economies in many of these countries can experience significant volatility.

Certain Central and South American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be implemented, will be implemented but not completed or will be completed but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including share appreciation or depreciation of participant's national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Central and South American markets, an undermining of Central and South American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive toward Central and South American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on a Fund's investments in Central and South America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.

Investing in Eastern Europe. In addition to the risks listed under "Foreign Securities," "Investing in Emerging Countries" and "Investing in Europe," investing in Eastern Europe presents additional risks.

Certain of the Funds and Underlying Funds may seek investment opportunities within Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries' attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. Any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities. In addition, Eastern European markets are particularly sensitive to social, economic and currency events in Western Europe and Russia. Russia may attempt to assert its influence in the region through military measures.

Where a Fund invests in securities issued by companies incorporated in or whose principal operations are located in Eastern Europe, other risks may also be encountered. Legal, political, economic and fiscal uncertainties in Eastern European markets may affect the value of the Funds' investment in such securities. The currencies in which these investments may be denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible. Existing laws and regulations may not be consistently applied. The markets of the countries of Eastern Europe are still in the early stages of their development, have less volume, are less highly regulated, are less liquid and experience greater volatility than more established markets. Settlement of transactions may be subject to delay and administrative uncertainties. Custodians are not able to offer the level of service and safekeeping, settlement and administration services that is customary in more developed markets, and there is a risk that the Fund will not be recognized as the owner of securities held on its behalf by a sub-custodian.

Investing in Egypt. Historically, Egypt's national politics have been characterized by periods of instability and social unrest. Poor living standards, disparities of wealth and limitations on political freedom have contributed to the unstable environment. Unanticipated or sudden political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Egypt has experienced acts of terrorism, internal political conflict, popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions, strained international relations due to territorial disputes, regional military conflicts, internal insurgencies and other security concerns. These situations may cause uncertainty in the Egyptian market and may adversely affect the performance of the Egyptian economy.

Egypt's economy is dependent on trade with certain key trading partners including the United States. Reduction in spending by these economies on Egyptian products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may cause an adverse impact on Egypt's economy. Trade may also be negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other government imposed or negotiated protectionist measures.

Egypt and the U.S. have entered intoa bilateral investment treaty, which is designed to encourage and protect U.S. investment in Egypt. However, there may be a risk of loss due to expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. Other diplomatic developments could adversely affect investments in Egypt, particularly as Egypt is involved in negotiations for various regional conflicts.

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The Egyptian economy is heavily dependent on tourism, export of oil and gas, and shipping services revenues from the Suez Canal. Tourism receipts are vulnerable to terrorism, spillovers from conflicts in the region, and political instability. As Egypt produces and exports oil and gas, any acts of terrorism or armed conflict causing disruptions of oil and gas exports could affect the Egyptian economy and, thus, adversely affect the financial condition, results of operations or prospects of companies in which certain Underlying Funds may invest. Furthermore, any acts of terrorism or armed conflict in Egypt or regionally could divert demand for the use of the Suez Canal, thereby reducing revenues from the Suez Canal.

Investing in Emerging Countries. Certain Underlying Funds are intended for long-term investors who can accept the risks associated with investing primarily in equity and equity-related securities of foreign issuers, including emerging country issuers, as well as the risks associated with investments quoted or denominated in foreign currencies.

The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as stringent, extensive and frequent accounting, auditing, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S., and the degree of cooperation between issuers in emerging and frontier market countries with foreign and U.S. financial regulators may vary significantly. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States. In addition, U.S. regulators may not have sufficient access to adequately audit and oversee issuers. For example, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the "PCAOB") is responsible for inspecting and auditing the accounting practices and products of U.S.-listed companies, regardless of the issuer's domicile. However, certain emerging market countries, including China, do not provide sufficient access to the PCAOB to conduct its inspections and audits. As a result, U.S. investors, including certain Underlying Funds, may be subject to risks associated with less stringent accounting oversight.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect an Underlying Fund's ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests. In addition, emerging market countries are often characterized by limited reliable access to capital.

With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on an Underlying Fund. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder's investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations, and it may be more difficult for shareholders to bring derivative litigation. Moreover, the legal remedies for investors in emerging markets may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States, and the ability of U.S. authorities (e.g., SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice) to bring actions against bad actors may be limited. In addition, emerging countries may have less established accounting and financial reporting systems than those in more developed markets.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

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Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging and frontier market countries may not be fully developed. To the extent an Underlying Fund invests in emerging markets, Underlying Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit an Underlying Fund's investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Underlying Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer's outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals.

The repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time, which may make it difficult for an Underlying Fund to invest in such emerging countries. An Underlying Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of an Underlying Fund. An Underlying Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which an Underlying Fund may invest and adversely affect the value of the Underlying Funds' assets. An Underlying Fund's investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

An Underlying Fund may seek investment opportunities within former "Eastern bloc" countries. Most of these countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many of these countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of these countries' attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. Any change in the leadership or policies of these countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

An Underlying Fund's income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See "TAXATION."

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of an Underlying Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of an Underlying Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to an Underlying Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if an Underlying Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.

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Investing in Europe. The Funds (except the High Quality Floating Rate and the Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may operate in euros and/ or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit, general economic and political position of each such state, including each state's actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the EU, in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially adversely impact the value of securities a Fund has invested in.

European countries can be significantly affected by the tight fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union ("EMU") imposes for membership. Europe's economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several EU countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

Geopolitical developments in Europe have caused, or may in the future cause, significant volatility in financial markets. For example, in a June 2016 referendum, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the EU. In March 2017, the United Kingdom formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (commonly known as "Brexit") by invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which triggered a two-year period of negotiations on the terms of Brexit. Brexit has resulted in volatility in European and global markets and may also lead to weakening in political, regulatory, consumer, corporate and financial confidence in the markets of the United Kingdom and throughout Europe. The longer term economic, legal, political, regulatory and social framework between the United Kingdom and the EU remains unclear and may lead to ongoing political, regulatory and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some time. Additionally, the decision made in the British referendum may lead to a call for similar referenda in other European jurisdictions, which may cause increased economic volatility in European and global markets. The mid-to long-term uncertainty may have an adverse effect on the economy generally and on the value of a Fund's investments. This may be due to, among other things: fluctuations in asset values and exchange rates; increased illiquidity of investments located, traded or listed within the United Kingdom, the EU or elsewhere; changes in the willingness or ability of counterparties to enter into transactions at the price and terms on which a Fund is prepared to transact; and/or changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain of a Fund's assets are or become subject. Fluctuations in the value of the British Pound and/or the Euro, along with the potential downgrading of the United Kingdom's sovereign credit rating, may also have an impact on the performance of a Fund's assets or investments economically tied to the United Kingdom or Europe.

The full effects of Brexit will depend, in part, on whether the United Kingdom is able to negotiate agreements to retain access to EU markets including, but not limited to, trade and finance agreements. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. The extent of the impact of the withdrawal and the resulting economic arrangements in the United Kingdom and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remain unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of a Fund's investments. While certain measures have been proposed and/or implemented within the UK and at the EU level or at the member state level, which are designed to minimize disruption in the financial markets, it is not currently possible to determine whether such measures would achieve their intended effects.

On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU and the United Kingdom entered a transition period that expired on December 31, 2020. During this transition phase, the United Kingdom and the EU sought to negotiate and finalize a new, more permanent trade deal. On December 24, 2020, negotiators representing the United Kingdom and the EU came to a preliminary trade agreement, the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement ("TCA"), which is an agreement on the terms governing certain aspects of the EU's and United Kingdom's relationship following the end of the transition period. On December 30, 2020, the United Kingdom and the EU signed the TCA, which was ratified by the British Parliament on the same day. The TCA has been provisionally applied since January 1, 2021 but cannot formally enter into force until ratified by the European Parliament. In the event that the European Parliament does not ratify the TCA, the relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU would be based on the World Trade Organization rules. However, even under the TCA, many aspects of the UK-EU trade relationship remain subject to further negotiation. Due to political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate the form or nature of the future trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU.

Other economic challenges facing the region include high levels of public debt, significant rates of unemployment, aging populations and heavy regulation in certain economic sectors. European policy makers have taken unprecedented steps to respond to the economic crisis and to boost growth in the region, which has increased the risk that regulatory uncertainty could negatively affect the value of a Fund's investments.

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Certain countries have applied to become new member countries of the EU, and these candidate countries' accessions may become more controversial to the existing EU members. Some member states may repudiate certain candidate countries joining the EU upon concerns about the possible economic, immigration and cultural implications. Also, Russia may be opposed to the expansion of the EU to members of the former Soviet bloc and may, at times, take actions that could negatively impact EU economic activity.

Investing in Greater China. Investing in Greater China (Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of armed conflict); (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) the imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or foreign governments on exports from Mainland China; (e) increasing competition from Asia's other low-cost emerging economies; (f) greater price volatility and smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (g) decreased liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (h) currency exchange rate fluctuations (with respect to investments in Mainland China and Taiwan) and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (i) higher rates of inflation; (j) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a Fund's ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (k) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (l) uncertainty regarding the People's Republic of China's commitment to economic reforms; (m) the fact that Chinese companies may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (n) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers; (o) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of Greater China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (p) less extensive, and still developing, legal systems and regulatory frameworks regarding the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (q) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (r) the fact that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; and (s) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in the People's Republic of China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations.

Mainland China. Investments in Mainland China are subject to the risks associated with greater governmental control over the economy, political and legal uncertainties and currency fluctuations or blockage. In particular, the Chinese Communist Party exercises significant control over economic growth in Mainland China through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

Because the local legal system is still developing, it may be more difficult to obtain or enforce judgments with respect to investments in Mainland China. Chinese companies may not be subject to the same disclosure, accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices as U.S. companies. Thus, there may be less information publicly available about Chinese companies than about most U.S. companies. Government supervision and regulation of Chinese stock exchanges, currency markets, trading systems and brokers may be more or less rigorous than that present in the U.S. The procedures and rules governing transactions and custody in Mainland China also may involve delays in payment, delivery or recovery of money or investments. The imposition of tariffs or other trade barriers by the U.S. or other foreign governments on exports from Mainland China may also have an adverse impact on Chinese issuers and China's economy as a whole.

Foreign investments in Mainland China are somewhat restricted. Securities listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are divided into two classes of shares: A shares and B Shares. Ownership of A Shares is restricted to Chinese investors, Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors ("QFIIs") who have obtained a QFII license, and participants in the Shanghai-Hong Kong and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs ("Stock Connect"). B shares may be owned by Chinese and foreign investors. The Funds may obtain exposure to the A share market in the People's Republic of China by either investing directly in A shares through participation in Stock Connect, or by investing in participatory notes issued by banks, broker-dealers and other financial institutions, or other structured or derivative instruments that are designed to replicate, or otherwise provide exposure to, the performance of A shares of Chinese companies. The Funds may also invest directly in B shares on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges.

As a result of investing in the People's Republic of China, a Fund may be subject to withholding and various other taxes imposed by the People's Republic of China. To date, a 10% withholding tax has been levied on cash dividends, distributions and interest payments from companies listed in the People's Republic of China to foreign investors, unless the withholding tax can be reduced by an applicable income tax treaty.

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As of November 17, 2014, foreign mutual funds, which qualify as Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors ("QFIIs") and/or RMB Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors ("RQFIIs"), are temporarily exempt from enterprise income tax on capital gains arising from securities trading in the People's Republic of China. It is currently unclear when this preferential treatment would end. If the preferential treatment were to end, such capital gains would be subject to a 10% withholding tax in the People's Republic of China. Meanwhile, the purchase and sale of publicly traded equities by a QFII/RQFII is exempt from value-added tax in the People's Republic of China.

The tax law and regulations of the People's Republic of China are constantly changing, and they may be changed with retrospective effect to the advantage or disadvantage of shareholders. The interpretation and applicability of the tax law and regulations by tax authorities may not be as consistent and transparent as those of more developed nations, and may vary from region to region. It should also be noted that any provision for taxation made by the Investment Adviser may be excessive or inadequate to meet final tax liabilities. Consequently, shareholders may be advantaged or disadvantaged depending upon the final tax liabilities, the level of provision and when they subscribed and/or redeemed their shares of a Fund.

Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. Since Hong Kong reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, it has been governed by the Basic Law, a "quasi-constitution." The Basic Law guarantees a high degree of autonomy in certain matters, including economic matters, until 2047. Attempts by the government of the People's Republic of China to exert greater control over Hong Kong's economic, political or legal structures or its existing social policy, could negatively affect investor confidence in Hong Kong, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance.

In addition, the Hong Kong dollar trades within a fixed trading band rate to (or is "pegged" to) the U.S. dollar. This fixed exchange rate has contributed to the growth and stability of the economy, but could be discontinued. It is uncertain what effect any discontinuance of the currency peg and the establishment of an alternative exchange rate system would have on the Hong Kong economy.

Taiwan. The prospect of political reunification of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan has engendered hostility between the two regions' governments. This situation poses a significant threat to Taiwan's economy, as heightened conflict could potentially lead to distortions in Taiwan's capital accounts and have an adverse impact on the value of investments throughout Greater China.

Investing through Stock Connect. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in eligible securities ("Stock Connect Securities") listed and traded on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges through the Shanghai-Hong Kong and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect ("Stock Connect") program. Stock Connect is a mutual market access program that allows Chinese investors to trade Stock Connect Securities listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange via Chinese brokers and non-Chinese investors (such as an Underlying Fund) to purchase certain Shanghai and Shenzhen-listed equities ("China A-Shares") via brokers in Hong Kong. Although Stock Connect allows non-Chinese investors to trade Chinese equities without obtaining a special license (in contrast to earlier direct investment programs), purchases of securities through Stock Connect are subject to market-wide trading volume and market cap quota limitations, which may prevent an Underlying Fund from purchasing Stock Connect securities when it is otherwise desirable to do so. Additionally, restrictions on the timing of permitted trading activity in Stock Connect Securities, including the imposition of local holidays in either Hong Kong or China and restrictions on purchasing and selling the same security on the same day, may subject an Underlying Fund's Stock Connect Securities to price fluctuations at times where it is unable to add to or exit its position.

The eligibility of China A-Shares to be accessed through Stock Connect is subject to change by Chinese regulators. Only certain securities are accessible through Stock Connect and such eligibility may be revoked at any time, resulting in an Underlying Fund's inability to add to (but not subtract from) any existing positions in Stock Connect Securities. There can be no assurance that further regulations will not affect the availability of securities in the program or impose other limitations.

Because Stock Connect is relatively new, its effects on the market for trading China A-Shares are uncertain. In addition, the trading, settlement and information technology systems used to operate Stock Connect are relatively new and are continuing to evolve. In the event that these systems do not function properly, trading through Stock Connect could be disrupted.

Stock Connect is subject to regulation by both Hong Kong and China. Regulators in both jurisdictions may suspend or terminate Stock Connect trading in certain circumstances. In addition, Chinese regulators have previously suspended trading in Chinese issuers (or permitted such issuers to suspend trading) during market disruptions and may do so again in the event of future disruptions and/or various company-specific events. Such suspensions may be widespread and may adversely affect an Underlying Fund's ability to trade Stock Connect Securities during periods of heightened market volatility. There can be no assurance that any such suspensions or terminations will not be exercised against certain market participants.

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Stock Connect transactions are not subject to the investor protection programs of the Hong Kong, Shanghai or Shenzhen Stock Exchanges, though established Hong Kong law may provide other remedies as to any default by a Hong Kong broker. In China, Stock Connect Securities are held on behalf of ultimate investors (such as an Underlying Fund) by the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited ("HKSCC") as nominee. Although Chinese regulators have affirmed that ultimate investors hold a beneficial interest in Stock Connect Securities, the legal mechanisms available to beneficial owners for enforcing their rights are untested and therefore may expose ultimate investors to risks. Further, Chinese law surrounding the rights of beneficial owners of securities is relatively underdeveloped and courts in China have relatively limited experience in applying the concept of beneficial ownership. As the law continues to evolve, there is a risk that an Underlying Fund's ability to enforce its ownership rights may be uncertain, which could subject the Underlying Fund to significant losses.

An Underlying Fund may be unable to participate in corporate actions affecting Stock Connect Securities due to time constraints or for other operational reasons. In addition, an Underlying Fund will not be able to vote in shareholders' meetings except through HKSCC and will not be able to attend shareholders' meetings.

Trades in Stock Connect Securities are subject to certain pre-trade requirements and checks designed to confirm that, for purchases, there is sufficient Stock Connect quota to complete the purchase, and, for sales, the seller has sufficient Stock Connect Securities to complete the sale. Investment quota limitations are subject to change. In addition, these pre-trade requirements may, in practice, limit the number of brokers that an Underlying Fund may use to execute trades. While an Underlying Fund may use special segregated accounts in lieu of pre-trade requirements and checks, some market participants in Stock Connect Securities, either in China or others investing through Stock Connect or other foreign direct investment programs, have yet to fully implement information technology systems necessary to complete trades involving shares in such accounts in a timely manner. Market practice with respect to special segregated accounts is continuing to evolve.

An Underlying Fund will not be able to buy or sell Stock Connect Securities when either the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are closed for trading, and the Chinese and/or Hong Kong markets may be closed for trading for extended periods of time because of local holidays. When the Chinese and Hong Kong markets are not both open on the same day, an Underlying Fund may be unable to buy or sell a Stock Connect Security at the desired time. Stock Connect trades are settled in Renminbi (RMB), the official Chinese currency, and investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of RMB in Hong Kong, which cannot be guaranteed.

Certain Underlying Funds and the Investment Adviser (on behalf of itself and its other clients) will also be subject to restrictions on trading (including restriction on retention of proceeds) in China A-Shares as a result of their interest in China A-Shares and are responsible for compliance with all notifications, reporting and other applicable requirements in connection with such interests. For example, under current Chinese law, once an investor (and, potentially, related investors) holds up to 5% of the shares of a Chinese-listed company, the investor is required to disclose its interest within three days in accordance with applicable regulations and during the reporting period it cannot trade the shares of that company. The investor is also required to disclose any change in its holdings and comply with applicable trading restrictions in accordance with Chinese law.

Trades in Stock Connect Securities may also be subject to various fees, taxes and market charges imposed by Chinese market participants and regulatory authorities. These fees may result in greater trading expenses, which could be borne by an Underlying Fund.

Investing in India. In addition to the risks listed above under "Foreign Securities" and "Investing in Emerging Countries," investing in India presents additional risks.

The value of an Underlying Fund's investments in Indian securities may be affected by political and economic developments, changes in government regulation and government intervention, high rates of inflation or interest rates and withholding tax affecting India. The risk of loss may also be increased because there may be less information available about Indian issuers because they are not subject to the extensive accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices which are applicable in the U.S. and other developed countries. A large proportion of the shares of many Indian companies may be held by a limited number of persons and financial institutions, which may limit the number of shares available for investment. There is also a lower level of regulation and monitoring of the Indian securities market and its participants than in other more developed markets.

The laws in India relating to limited liability of corporate shareholders, fiduciary duties of officers and directors, and the bankruptcy of state enterprises are generally less well developed than or different from such laws in the United States. It may be more difficult to obtain or enforce a judgment in the courts in India than it is in the United States. India also has less developed clearance and settlement procedures, and there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities and have been significantly delayed. The Indian stock exchanges have in the past been subject to repeated closure and there can be no certainty that this will not recur. In addition, significant delays are common in registering transfers of securities and an Underlying Fund may be unable to sell securities until the registration process is completed and may experience delays in receipt of dividends and other entitlements.

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Foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India is usually restricted or controlled to some degree. In India, "foreign portfolio investors" ("FPIs") may predominately invest in exchange-traded securities (and securities to be listed, or those approved on the over-the-counter exchange of India) subject to the conditions specified in certain guidelines for direct foreign investment. FPIs have to apply for registration with a designated depository participant in India on behalf of the Securities and Exchange Board of India ("SEBI"). Certain Underlying Funds are registered as FPIs. An Underlying Fund's continued ability to invest in India is dependent on their continuing to meet current and future requirements placed on FPIs by SEBI regulations. If an Underlying Fund were to fail to meet applicable requirements in the future, the Underlying Fund would no longer be permitted to invest directly in Indian securities, may not be able to pursue its principal strategy and may be forced to liquidate. FPIs are required to observe certain investment restrictions, including an account ownership ceiling of 10% of the total issued share capital of any one company. Only registered FPIs that comply with certain statutory conditions may make direct portfolio investments in exchange-traded Indian securities. Under the current guidelines, income, gains and initial capital with respect to such investments are freely repatriable, subject to payment of applicable Indian taxes. On September 23, 2019, SEBI notified new regulations governing FPIs and on November 5, 2019, issued operational guidelines for implementing the new regulations. The regulations and guidelines covering foreign investment are relatively new and evolving and there can be no assurance that these investment control regimes will not change in a way that makes it more difficult or impossible for an Underlying Fund to implement its investment objective or repatriate its income, gains and initial capital from India. Further, SEBI has recently, in September 2019, notified new regulations governing FPIs which among other amend the categories of FPIs, and issued operational guidelines which lay down the process to implement the new regulations. There can be no assurance that an Underlying Fund will continue to qualify for its FPI license. Loss of the FPI registration could adversely impact the ability of an Underlying Fund to make investments in India.

With effect from April 1, 2018, a tax of 10% plus surcharges is imposed on gains from sales of equities held more than one year, provided such securities were both acquired and sold on a recognized stock exchange in India. For shares acquired prior to February 1, 2018, a step-up in the cost of acquisition may be available in certain circumstances. A tax of 15% plus surcharges is currently imposed on gains from sales of equities held not more than one year and sold on a recognized stock exchange in India. Gains from sales of equity securities in other cases are taxed at a rate of 30% plus surcharges (for securities held not more than one year) and 10% (for securities held for more than one year). Securities transaction tax applies for specified transactions at specified rates. India generally imposes a tax on interest income on debt securities at a rate of 20% plus surcharges. In certain cases, the tax rate may be reduced to 5%. This tax is imposed on the investor. For dividends paid on or before March 31, 2020, India imposes a tax the Indian company paying the dividend at a rate of 15% plus surcharges (on a gross up basis). Dividends paid on or after April 1, 2020 are subject to a withholding tax of 20% plus surcharges. The Investment Adviser will take into account the effects of local taxation on investment returns. In the past, these taxes have sometimes been substantial.

The Indian population is composed of diverse religious, linguistic and ethnic groups. Religious and border disputes continue to pose problems for India. From time to time, India has experienced internal disputes between religious groups within the country. In addition, India has faced, and continues to face, military hostilities with neighboring countries and regional countries. These events could adversely influence the Indian economy and, as a result, negatively affect an Underlying Fund's investments.

Investing in Indonesia. Indonesia has experienced currency devaluations, substantial rates of inflation, widespread corruption and economic recessions. The Indonesian government may exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector and may own or control many companies. Indonesia's securities laws are unsettled and judicial enforcement of contracts with foreign entities is inconsistent, often as a result of pervasive corruption. Indonesia has a history of political and military unrest including acts of terrorism, outbreaks of violence and civil unrest due to territorial disputes, historical animosities and domestic ethnic and religious conflicts. Indonesia's democracy has a relatively short history, increasing the risk of political instability.

The Indonesian securities market is an emerging market characterized by a small number of company listings, high price volatility and a relatively illiquid secondary trading environment. These factors, coupled with restrictions on investment by foreigners and other factors, limit the supply of securities available for investment by an Underlying Fund. This will affect the rate at which an Underlying Fund is able to invest in Indonesian securities, the purchase and sale prices for such securities and the timing of purchases and sales. The limited liquidity of the Indonesian securities markets may also affect an Underlying Fund's ability to acquire or dispose of securities at a price and time that it wishes to do so. Accordingly, in periods of rising market prices, an Underlying Fund may be unable to participate in such price increases fully to the extent that it is unable to acquire desired portfolio positions quickly; conversely an Underlying Fund's inability to dispose fully and promptly of positions in declining markets will cause its net asset value to decline as the value of unsold positions is marked to lower prices.

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The market for Indonesian securities is directly influenced by the flow of international capital, and economic and market conditions of certain countries. Adverse economic conditions or developments in other emerging market countries, especially in the Southeast Asia region, have at times significantly affected the availability of credit in the Indonesian economy and resulted in considerable outflows of funds and declines in the amount of foreign currency invested in Indonesia. Adverse conditions or changes in relationships with Indonesia's major trading partners, including Japan, China, and the U.S., may also significantly impact on the Indonesian economy. As a commodity exporter, Indonesia is susceptible to world prices for their exports, including crude oil.

Indonesia is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, and typhoons, and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on Indonesia's economy.

Investing in Japan. Japan's economy is heavily dependent upon international trade and is especially sensitive to any adverse effects arising from trade tariffs and other protectionist measures, as well as the economic condition of its trading partners. Japan's high volume of exports has caused trade tensions with Japan's primary trading partners, particularly with the United States. The relaxing of official and de facto barriers to imports, or hardships created by the actions of trading partners, could adversely affect Japan's economy. Because the Japanese economy is so dependent on exports, any fall-off in exports may be seen as a sign of economic weakness, which may adversely affect Japanese markets.

In addition, Japan's export industry, its most important economic sector, depends heavily on imported raw materials and fuels, including iron ore, copper, oil and many forest products. Japan has historically depended on oil for most of its energy requirements. Almost all of its oil is imported, the majority from the Middle East. In the past, oil prices have had a major impact on the domestic economy, but more recently Japan has worked to reduce its dependence on oil by encouraging energy conservation and use of alternative fuels. However, Japan remains sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices, and a substantial rise in world oil or commodity prices could have a negative effect on its economy.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely during recent periods and may be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, especially Southeast Asia. In addition, the yen has had a history of unpredictable and volatile movements against the U.S. dollar. A weak yen is disadvantageous to U.S. shareholders investing in yen-denominated securities. A strong yen, however, could be an impediment to strong continued exports and economic recovery, because it makes Japanese goods sold in other countries more expensive and reduces the value of foreign earnings repatriated to Japan.

The performance of the global economy could have a major impact upon equity returns in Japan. As a result of the strong correlation with the economy of the U.S., Japan's economy and its stock market are vulnerable to any unfavorable economic conditions in the U.S. and poor performance of U.S. stock markets. The growing economic relationship between Japan and its other neighboring countries in the Southeast Asia region, especially China, also exposes Japan's economy to changes to the economic climates in those countries.

Like many developed countries, Japan faces challenges to its competitiveness. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s and Japan's economy fell into a long recession. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, the Japanese economy fell into another recession in part due to the recent global economic crisis. This economic recession was likely compounded by an unstable financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses, which remain some of the major issues facing the Japanese economy. Japan is reforming its political process and deregulating its economy to address this situation. However, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed in making the performance of the Japanese economy more competitive.

Japan has experienced natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tidal waves, of varying degrees of severity. The risks of such phenomena, and the resulting damage, continue to exist and could have a severe and negative impact on a Fund's holdings in Japanese securities. Japan also has one of the world's highest population densities. A significant percentage of the total population of Japan is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. Therefore, a natural disaster centered in or very near to one of these cities could have a particularly devastating effect on Japan's financial markets. Japan's recovery from the recession has been affected by economic distress resulting from the earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck northeastern Japan in March 2011 causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Since the earthquake, Japan's financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The disaster caused large personal losses, reduced energy supplies, disrupted manufacturing, resulted in significant declines in stock market prices and resulted in an appreciable decline in Japan's economic output. Although production levels are recovering in some industries as work is shifted to factories in areas not directly affected by the disaster, the timing of a full economic recovery is uncertain, and foreign business whose supply chains are dependent on production or manufacturing in Japan may decrease their reliance on Japanese industries in the future.

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Investing in Mexico. Since the period of economic turmoil surrounding the devaluation of the peso in 1994, which triggered the worst recession in over 50 years, Mexico has experienced a period of general economic recovery. Mexico's economic growth continues to attract direct foreign investment, although at a slower pace than in the past due to the global deceleration. Economic and social concerns persist, however, with respect to low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution and few advancement opportunities for the large impoverished population in the southern states. Although inflation currently remains under control, Mexico has a history of high inflation and substantial devaluations of the peso, causing currency instabilities. These economic and political issues have caused volatility in the Mexican securities markets.

Mexico's free market economy contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have begun a process of privatization of certain entities and industries including seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports. In some instances, however, newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to an inability to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or to changing regulatory and legal standards. Recently, the Mexican government has been aiming to improve competitiveness and economic growth of the Mexican economy through a legislative reform agenda. The Mexican government has passed education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation. However, an Underlying Fund cannot predict whether these reforms will result in positive changes in Mexican governmental and economic policy.

The Mexican economy is heavily dependent on trade with, and foreign investment from, the U.S. and Canada, which are Mexico's principal trading partners. Any changes in the supply, demand, price or other economic components of Mexico's imports or exports, as well as any reductions in foreign investment from, or changes in the economies of, the U.S. or Canada, may have an adverse impact on the Mexican economy. In particular, Mexico's economy is very dependent on oil exports and susceptible to fluctuations in the price of oil. Mexico and the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 as well as a second treaty, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, in 2005. In an effort to expand trade with Pacific countries, Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations in 2012 and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Columbia and Chile. The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, the successor to NAFTA, took effect on July 1, 2020. This treaty may impact the trading relationship between Mexico and the U.S. and further Mexico's dependency on the U.S. economy.

Mexico is subject to social and political instability as a result of a recent rise in criminal activity, including violent crimes and terrorist actions committed by certain political and drug trade organizations. A general escalation of violent crime has led to uncertainty in the Mexican market and adversely affected the performance of the Mexican economy. Violence near border areas, as well as border-related political disputes, may lead to strained international relations.

Some recent elections have been contentious and closely-decided, and changes in political parties or other political events may affect the economy and cause instability. Corruption remains widespread in Mexican institutions and infrastructure is underdeveloped. Mexico has historically been prone to natural disasters such as tsunamis, volcanoes, hurricanes and destructive earthquakes, which may adversely impact its economy.

Investing in Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with vast resources of oil and gas, which provide strong potential for economic growth. However, dependence on oil revenues leaves Nigeria vulnerable to volatility in world oil prices and dependent on international trade. In addition, Nigeria suffers from poverty, marginalization of key regions, and ethnic and religious divides. Under-investment and corruption have slowed infrastructure development, leading to major electricity shortages, among other things. Electricity shortages have led many businesses to make costly private arrangements for generation of power. Excessive regulation, an unreliable justice system, government corruption, and high inflation are other risks faced by Nigerian companies.

Because Nigeria is heavily dependent upon international trade, its economy may be negatively affected by any trade barriers, exchange controls (including repatriation restrictions), managed adjustments in relative currency values or other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which it trades. Nigeria has imposed capital controls to varying degrees in the past, which may make it difficult for an Underlying Fund to invest in companies in Nigeria or repatriate investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales from Nigeria. An Underlying Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for such repatriation. The Nigerian economy may also be adversely affected by economic conditions in the countries with which it trades.

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Militancy in the Niger Delta region, which has had a significant impact on crude oil production in recent years, has subsided following a government amnesty initiative in 2009. However, political activism and violence in the Delta region, as well as religious riots in the north, continue to have an effect on the Nigerian economy. Religious tension, often fueled by politicians, may increase in the near future, especially as other African countries are experiencing similar religious and political discontent.

Nigeria is also subject to the risks of investing in African countries generally. Many African countries historically have suffered from political, economic, and social instability. Political risks may include substantial government control over the private sector, corrupt leaders, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, restrictions on and government intervention in international trade, confiscatory taxation, civil unrest, social instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest, suppression of opposition parties or fixed elections, terrorism, coups, and war. Certain African markets may face a higher concentration of market capitalization, greater illiquidity and greater price volatility than that found in more developed markets of Western Europe or the United States. Certain governments in Africa restrict or control to varying degrees the ability of foreign investors to invest in securities of issuers located or operating in those countries. Securities laws in many countries in Africa are relatively new and unsettled and, consequently, there is a risk of rapid and unpredictable change in laws regarding foreign investment, securities regulation, title to securities and shareholder rights. Accordingly, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations.

Investing in Pakistan. The Pakistani population is comprised of diverse religious, linguistic and ethnic groups which may sometimes be resistant to the central government's control. Acts of terrorism and armed clashes between Pakistani troops, local tribesmen, the Taliban and foreign extremists have resulted in population displacement and civil unrest. Pakistan, a nuclear power, also has a history of hostility with neighboring countries, most notably with India, also a nuclear power. These hostilities sometimes result in armed conflict and acts of terrorism. Even in the absence of armed conflict, the potential threat of war with India may depress economic growth in Pakistan. Further, Pakistan's geographic location between Afghanistan and Iran increases the risk that it may be involved in or affected by international conflicts. Pakistan's economic growth is due in large part to high levels of foreign aid, loans and debt forgiveness. However, this support may be reduced or terminated in response to a change in the political leadership of Pakistan. Unanticipated political or social developments may affect the value of an Underlying Fund's investments and the availability to an Underlying Fund of additional investments.

Pakistan's economy is heavily dependent on exports. Pakistan's key trading and foreign investment partner is the United States. Reduction in spending on Pakistani products and services, or changes in the U.S. economy, foreign policy, trade regulation or currency exchange rate may adversely impact the Pakistani economy.

The stock markets in the region are undergoing a period of growth and change, which may result in trading or price volatility and difficulties in the settlement and recording of transactions, and in interpreting and applying the relevant laws and regulations. The securities industries in Pakistan are comparatively underdeveloped. An Underlying Fund may be unable to sell securities where the registration process is incomplete and may experience delays in receipt of dividends. If trading volume is limited by operational difficulties, the ability of an Underlying Fund to invest its assets in Pakistan may be impaired. Settlement of securities transactions in Pakistan are subject to risk of loss, may be delayed and are generally less frequent than in the United States, which could affect the liquidity of an Underlying Fund's assets. In addition, disruptions due to work stoppages and trading improprieties in these securities markets have caused such markets to close. If extended closings were to occur in stock markets where an Underlying Fund was heavily invested, the Underlying Fund's ability to redeem Fund shares could become correspondingly impaired.

Pakistan is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters including floods and earthquakes and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on Pakistan's economy.

Investing in the Philippines. Investments in the Philippines may be negatively affected by slow or negative growth rates and economic instability in the Philippines and in Asia. The Philippines' economy is dependent on exports, particularly electronics and semiconductors. The Philippines' reliance on these sectors makes it vulnerable to economic declines in the information technology sector. In addition, the Philippines' dependence on exports ties the growth of its economy to those of its key trading partners, including the U.S., China, Japan and Singapore. Nonetheless, as a result of minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, high domestic rates of consumption and large remittances received from large overseas populations, the Philippines was able to weather the recent global economic and financial downturns better than its regional peers. However, reduction in spending on products and services from the Philippines, or changes in trade regulations or currency exchange rates in any of its key trading partners, may adversely impact the Philippine economy.

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In the past, the Philippines has experienced periods of slow or negative growth, high inflation, significant devaluation of the peso, imposition of exchange controls, debt restructuring and electricity shortages and blackouts. From mid-1997 to 1999, the Asian economic crisis adversely affected the Philippine economy and caused a significant depreciation of the Peso and increases in interest rates. These factors had a material adverse impact on the ability of many Philippine companies to meet their debt-servicing obligations. While the Philippines has recovered from the Asian economic crisis, it continues to face a significant budget deficit, limited foreign currency reserves and a volatile Peso exchange rate.

Political concerns, including uncertainties over the economic policies of the Philippine government, the large budget deficit and unsettled political conditions, could materially affect the financial and economic conditions of Philippine companies in which certain Underlying Funds may invest. The Philippines has experienced a high level of debt and public spending, which may stifle economic growth or contribute to prolonged periods of recession. Investments in Philippine companies will also subject an Underlying Fund to risks associated with government corruption, including lack of transparency and contradictions in regulations, appropriation of assets, graft, excessive and/or unpredictable taxation, and an unreliable judicial system.

The Philippines has historically been prone to incidents of political and religious related violence and terrorism, and may continue to experience this in the future.

The Philippines is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, and typhoons and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on the Philippines' economy.

Investing in Russia. In addition to the risks listed above under "Foreign Securities" and "Investing in Emerging Countries," investing in Russia presents additional risks. Investing in Russian securities is highly speculative and involves significant risks and special considerations not typically associated with investing in the securities markets of the U.S. and most other developed countries. Over the past century, Russia has experienced political, social and economic turbulence and has endured decades of communist rule under which tens of millions of its citizens were collectivized into state agricultural and industrial enterprises. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's government has been faced with the daunting task of stabilizing its domestic economy, while transforming it into a modern and efficient structure able to compete in international markets and respond to the needs of its citizens. However, to date, many of the country's economic reform initiatives have floundered as the proceeds of International Monetary Fund and other economic assistance have been squandered or stolen. In this environment, there is always the risk that the nation's government will abandon the current program of economic reform and replace it with radically different political and economic policies that would be detrimental to the interests of foreign investors. This could entail a return to a centrally planned economy and nationalization of private enterprises similar to what existed under the old Soviet Union.

Poor accounting standards, inept management, pervasive corruption, insider trading and crime, and inadequate regulatory protection for the rights of investors all pose a significant risk, particularly to foreign investors. In addition, there is the risk that the Russian tax system will not be reformed to prevent inconsistent, retroactive, and/or exorbitant taxation, or, in the alternative, the risk that a reformed tax system may result in the inconsistent and unpredictable enforcement of the new tax laws.

Compared to most national stock markets, the Russian securities market suffers from a variety of problems not encountered in more developed markets. There is little long-term historical data on the Russian securities market because it is relatively new and a substantial proportion of securities transactions in Russia are privately negotiated outside of stock exchanges. The inexperience of the Russian securities market and the limited volume of trading in securities in the market may make obtaining accurate prices on portfolio securities from independent sources more difficult than in more developed markets. Additionally, because of less stringent auditing and financial reporting standards that apply to U.S. companies, there is little solid corporate information available to investors. As a result, it may be difficult to assess the value or prospects of an investment in Russian companies. Stocks of Russian companies also may experience greater price volatility than stocks of U.S. companies.

Because of the relatively recent formation of the Russian securities market as well as the underdeveloped state of the banking and telecommunications systems, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to significant risks. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for share registration in Russia and registration was carried out by the companies themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars were not necessarily subject to effective state supervision nor were they licensed with any governmental entity. In 2013, Russia implemented the National Settlement Depository (NSD) as a recognized central securities depository (CSD). Title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the NSD rather than the registrars. The implementation of the NSD is expected to enhance the efficiency and transparency of the Russian securities market and decrease risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities. An Underlying Fund also may experience difficulty in obtaining and/or enforcing judgments in Russia.

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The Russian economy is heavily dependent upon the export of a range of commodities including most industrial metals, forestry products, oil, and gas. Accordingly, it is strongly affected by international commodity prices and is particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products.

Foreign investors also face a high degree of currency risk when investing in Russian securities and a lack of available currency hedging instruments. In a surprise move in August 1998, Russia devalued the ruble, defaulted on short-term domestic bonds, and imposed a moratorium on the repayment of its international debt and the restructuring of the repayment terms. These actions negatively affected Russian borrowers' ability to access international capital markets and had a damaging impact on the Russian economy. In addition, there is the risk that the government may impose capital controls on foreign portfolio investments in the event of extreme financial or political crisis. Such capital controls would prevent the sale of a portfolio of foreign assets and the repatriation of investment income and capital.

Russia's government has begun to take bolder steps, including use of the military, to re-assert its regional geo-political influence. These steps may increase tensions between its neighbors and Western countries, which may adversely affect its economic growth. These developments may continue for some time and create uncertainty in the region. Russia's actions have induced the United States and other countries to impose economic sanctions and may result in additional sanctions in the future. Such sanctions, which impact many sectors of the Russian economy, may cause a decline in the value and liquidity of Russian securities and adversely affect the performance of an Underlying Fund or make it difficult for an Underlying Fund to achieve its investment objectives. In certain instances, sanctions could prohibit an Underlying Fund from buying or selling Russian securities, rendering any such securities held by an Underlying Fund unmarketable for an indefinite period of time. In addition, such sanctions, and the Russian government's response, could result in a downgrade in Russia's credit rating, devaluation of its currency and/or increased volatility with respect to Russian securities.

Investing in South Africa. South Africa suffers from significant wealth and income inequality and high rates of unemployment. This may cause civil and social unrest, which could adversely impact the South African economy. Although economic reforms have been enacted to promote growth and foreign investments, there can be no assurance that these programs will achieve the desired results. South Africa has privatized or has begun the process of privatization of certain entities and industries. In some instances, investors in certain newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to the inability of the newly privatized entities to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or to changing regulatory and legal standards. Despite significant reform and privatization, the South African government continues to control a large share of South African economic activity. The agriculture and mining sectors of South Africa's economy account for a large portion of its exports, and thus the South African economy is susceptible to fluctuations in these commodity markets. South Africa is particularly susceptible to extended droughts and water shortages. Such episodes could intensify as a result of future climate changes and could potentially lead to political instability and lower economic productivity. The South African economy is heavily dependent upon the economies of Europe, Asia (particularly Japan) and the United States. Reduction in spending by these economies on South African products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may cause an adverse impact on the South African economy.

Investing in South Africa involves risks of less uniformity in accounting and reporting requirements, less reliable securities valuation, and greater risk associated with custody of securities, than investing in developed countries. Investments in South Africa may also be more likely to experience inflation risk and rapid changes in economic conditions than investments in more developed markets. As a result of these and other risks, an Underlying Fund's investments in South Africa may be subject to a greater risk of loss than investments in more developed markets.

Investing in Turkey. Certain political, economic, legal and currency risks have contributed to a high level of price volatility in the Turkish equity and currency markets. Turkey has experienced periods of substantial inflation, currency devaluations and severe economic recessions, any of which may have a negative effect on the Turkish economy and securities market. Turkey has also experienced a high level of debt and public spending, which may stifle Turkish economic growth, contribute to prolonged periods of recession or lower Turkey's sovereign debt rating.

Turkey has begun a process of privatization of certain entities and industries. In some instances, however, newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to an inability to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or to changing regulatory and legal standards. Privatized industries also run the risk of re-nationalization.

Historically, Turkey's national politics have been unpredictable and subject to influence by the military, and its government may be subject to sudden change. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization and capital market development and religious and racial disaffection have also led to social and political unrest. Unanticipated or sudden political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses.

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Investing in Vietnam. While Vietnam has been experiencing a period of rapid economic growth, the country remains relatively poor, with under-developed infrastructure and a lack of sophisticated or high tech industries. Risks of investing in Vietnam include, among others, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, political instability, including authoritarian and/or military involvement in governmental decision-making, and social instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socioeconomic unrest.

Vietnam has at times experienced a high inflation rate, at least partially as a result of the country's large trade deficit. The inflation rate could return to a high level and economic stability could be threatened.

Vietnam may be heavily dependent upon international trade and, consequently, may have been and may continue to be, negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which it trades. The economy of Vietnam also has been and may continue to be adversely affected by economic conditions in the countries with which it trades.

The Vietnamese economy also has suffered from excessive intervention by the Communist government. Many companies listed on the exchanges are still partly state-owned and have a degree of state influence in their operations. The government of Vietnam continues to hold a large share of the equity in privatized enterprises. State owned and operated companies tend to be less efficient than privately owned companies, due to lack of market competition.

The government of Vietnam may restrict or control to varying degrees the ability of foreign investors to invest in securities of issuers operating in Vietnam. Only a small percentage of the shares of privatized companies are held by investors. These restrictions and/or controls may at times limit or prevent foreign investment in securities of issuers located in Vietnam. Moreover, governmental approval prior to investments by foreign investors may be required in Vietnam and may limit the amount of investments by foreign investors in a particular industry and/or issuer and may limit such foreign investment to a certain class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous rights than the classes available for purchase by domiciliaries of Vietnam and/or impose additional taxes on foreign investors. These factors make investing in issuers located in Vietnam significantly riskier than investing in issuers located in more developed countries, and could a cause a decline in the value of an Underlying Fund's shares. In addition, the government of Vietnam may levy withholding or other taxes on dividend and interest income. Although a portion of these taxes may be recoverable, any non-recovered portion of foreign withholding taxes will reduce the income received from investments in such countries.

Investment in Vietnam may be subject to a greater degree of risk associated with governmental approval in connection with the repatriation of capital by foreign investors. Vietnamese authorities have in the past imposed arbitrary repatriation taxes on foreign owners. In addition, there is the risk that if Vietnam's balance of payments declines, Vietnam may impose temporary restrictions on foreign capital remittances. Consequently, an Underlying Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to an Underlying Fund of any restrictions on investments. Additionally, investments in Vietnam may require an Underlying Fund to adopt special procedures, seek local government approvals or take other actions, each of which may involve additional costs to the Underlying Fund.

Current investment regulations in Vietnam require funds to execute trades of securities of Vietnamese companies through a single broker. As a result, the Adviser will have less flexibility to choose among brokers on behalf an Underlying Fund than is typically the case for investment managers. In addition, because the process of purchasing securities in Vietnam requires that payment to the local broker occur prior to receipt of securities, failure of the broker to deliver the securities will adversely affect the applicable Underlying Fund.

Vietnam is also subject to certain environmental risks, including typhoons and floods, as well as rapid environmental degradation due to industrialization and lack of regulation.

Investing in Other N-11 Countries. In addition to the risks listed above under "Foreign Securities" and "Investing in Emerging Countries," investments in N-11 countries present additional risks. The "N-11 countries" are countries that have been identified by the Goldman Sachs Global Economics, Commodities, and Strategy Research Team as the "Next Eleven" emerging countries (i.e., after Brazil, Russia, India and China) that share the potential to experience high economic growth and be important contributors to global gross domestic product (GDP) in the future. The N-11 countries are Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey and Vietnam. The Underlying Funds will not invest in issuers organized under the laws of Iran, or domiciled in Iran, or in certain other issuers as necessary to comply with U.S. economic sanctions against Iran.

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Restrictions on Investment and Repatriation. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investments by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer's outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. Repatriation of investment income and capital from certain emerging countries is subject to certain governmental consents. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect the operation of a Fund or Underlying Fund.

Emerging Country Government Obligations. Emerging country governmental issuers are among the largest debtors to commercial banks, foreign governments, international financial organizations and other financial institutions. Certain emerging country governmental issuers have not been able to make payments of interest on or principal of debt obligations as those payments have come due. Obligations arising from past restructuring agreements may affect the economic performance and political and social stability of those issuers.

The ability of emerging country governmental issuers to make timely payments on their obligations is likely to be influenced strongly by the issuer's balance of payments, including export performance, and its access to international credits and investments. An emerging country whose exports are concentrated in a few commodities could be vulnerable to a decline in the international prices of one or more of those commodities. Increased protectionism on the part of an emerging country's trading partners could also adversely affect the country's exports and tarnish its trade account surplus, if any. To the extent that emerging countries receive payment for their exports in currencies other than dollars or non-emerging country currencies, the emerging country issuer's ability to make debt payments denominated in dollars or non-emerging market currencies could be affected.

To the extent that an emerging country cannot generate a trade surplus, it must depend on continuing loans from foreign governments, multilateral organizations or private commercial banks, aid payments from foreign governments and on inflows of foreign investment. The access of emerging countries to these forms of external funding may not be certain, and a withdrawal of external funding could adversely affect the capacity of emerging country governmental issuers to make payments on their obligations. In addition, the cost of servicing emerging country debt obligations can be affected by a change in international interest rates because the majority of these obligations carry interest rates that are adjusted periodically based upon international rates.

Another factor bearing on the ability of emerging countries to repay debt obligations is the level of international reserves of a country. Fluctuations in the level of these reserves affect the amount of foreign exchange readily available for external debt payments and thus could have a bearing on the capacity of emerging countries to make payments on these debt obligations.

As a result of the foregoing or other factors, a governmental obligor, especially in an emerging country, may default on its obligations. If such an event occurs, a Fund or Underlying Fund may have limited legal recourse against the issuer and/or guarantor. Remedies must, in some cases, be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party itself, and the ability of the holder of foreign sovereign debt securities to obtain recourse may be subject to the political climate in the relevant country. In addition, no assurance can be given that the holders of commercial bank debt will not contest payments to the holders of other foreign sovereign debt obligations in the event of default under the commercial bank loan agreements.

Brady Bonds. Certain foreign debt obligations, customarily referred to as "Brady Bonds," are created through the exchange of existing commercial bank loans to foreign entities for new obligations in connection with debt restructuring under a plan introduced by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, Nicholas F. Brady (the "Brady Plan"). Brady Bonds may be fully or partially collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are U.S. dollar denominated). In the event of a default on collateralized Brady Bonds for which obligations are accelerated, the collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments which would have then been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. In light of the residual risk of the Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of default with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds may be speculative.

Dollar-denominated, Collateralized Brady Bonds may be fixed rate bonds or floating rate bonds. Interest payments on Brady Bonds are often collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year's rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter. Certain Brady Bonds are entitled to "value recovery payments" in certain circumstances, which in effect constitute supplemental interest payments but generally are not collateralized. Brady Bonds are often viewed as having three or four valuation components: (i) collateralized repayment of principal at final maturity; (ii) collateralized interest payments; (iii) uncollateralized interest payments; and (iv) any uncollateralized repayment of principal at maturity (these uncollateralized amounts constitute the "residual risk"). In the event of a default with respect to Collateralized Brady Bonds as a

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result of which the payment obligations of the issuer are accelerated, the U.S. Treasury zero coupon obligations held as collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments which would have been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. In addition, in light of the residual risk of Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds should be viewed as speculative.

Restructured Investments. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in restructured investments. Included among the issuers of emerging country debt securities are entities organized and operated solely for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of various securities. These entities are often organized by investment banking firms which receive fees in connection with establishing each entity and arranging for the placement of its securities. This type of restructuring involves the deposit with or purchase by an entity, such as a corporation or trust, or specified instruments, such as Brady Bonds, and the issuance by the entity of one or more classes of securities ("Restructured Investments") backed by, or representing interests in, the underlying instruments. The cash flow on the underlying instruments may be apportioned among the newly issued Restructured Investments to create securities with different investment characteristics such as varying maturities, payment priorities or investment rate provisions. Because Restructured Investments of the type in which a Fund may invest typically involve no credit enhancement, their credit risk will generally be equivalent to that of the underlying instruments.

Certain Underlying Funds are permitted to invest in a class of Restructured Investments that is either subordinated or unsubordinated to the right of payment of another class. Subordinated Restructured Investments typically have higher yields and present greater risks than unsubordinated Restructured Investments. Although a Fund's purchases of subordinated Restructured Investments would have a similar economic effect to that of borrowing against the underlying securities, such purchases will not be deemed to be borrowing for purposes of the limitations placed on the extent of a Fund's assets that may be used for borrowing.

Certain issuers of Restructured Investments may be deemed to be "investment companies" as defined in the Act. As a result, a Fund's investments in these Restructured Investments may be limited by the restrictions contained in the Act. Restructured Investments are typically sold in private placement transactions, and there currently is no active trading market for most Restructured Investments.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. The U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, Growth Opportunities and Equity Index Funds and certain Underlying Funds may, to the extent consistent with their investment policies, enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. The Core Fixed Income Fund and certain Underlying Funds may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. The International Equity Insights Fund and Global Trends Allocation Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes, to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates and to seek to increase total return. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

At the maturity of a forward contract a Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing transactions with respect to forward contracts are usually effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

These Funds may, from time to time and consistent with their investment policies, engage in non-deliverable forward transactions to manage currency risk or to gain exposure to a currency without purchasing securities denominated in that currency. A non-deliverable forward is a transaction that represents an agreement between a Fund and a counterparty (usually a commercial bank) to buy or sell a specified (notional) amount of a particular currency at an agreed upon foreign exchange rate on an agreed upon future date. If the counterparty defaults, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreement related to the transaction, but the Fund may be delayed or prevented from obtaining payments owed to it pursuant to non-deliverable forward transactions. The Core Fixed Income Fund will not enter into a forward contract with a term of greater than one year.

A Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts in several circumstances. First, when a Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated or quoted in a foreign currency, or when a Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividend or interest payments on such a security which it holds, the Fund may desire to "lock in" the U.S. dollar

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price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund will attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

Additionally, when the Investment Adviser believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of a Fund's portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of a Fund's portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange, which a Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of a Fund's foreign assets.

Certain Funds and Underlying Funds may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency. In addition, certain Funds may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund's overall currency exposure and the currency exposure of a Fund's performance benchmark.

A Fund is not required to post cash collateral with its non-U.S. counterparties in certain foreign currency transactions. Accordingly, a Fund may remain more fully invested (and more of a Fund's assets may be subject to investment and market risk) than if it was required to post collateral with its counterparties (which is the case with U.S. counterparties). Because a Fund's non-U.S. counterparties are not required to post cash collateral with the Fund, the Fund will be subject to additional counterparty risk.

While a Fund may enter into forward contracts to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while a Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between a Fund's portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by such Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause a Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Certain forward foreign currency exchange contracts and other currency transactions are not exchange traded or cleared. Markets for trading such foreign forward currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Such forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive a Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward currency contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a portion of a Fund's total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund's net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in issuers of emerging country securities.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. The Small Cap Equity Insights Fund may only enter into such transactions with respect to a representative index. The U.S. Equity Insights Fund may enter into futures transactions only with respect to the S&P 500® Index. The International Equity Insights Fund may purchase other types of futures contracts. The other Funds and certain Underlying Funds may purchase and sell futures contracts based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices (except that the High Quality Floating Rate Fund may not purchase and sell future contracts

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based on foreign currencies). Financial futures contracts used by the Fixed Income Funds, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward LIBOR of a three-month deposit. Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts entered into by a Fund have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") or with respect to certain funds, on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC, or on foreign exchanges.

Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association ("NFA"), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these reasons, a Fund's investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC's regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, those persons may not have the protection of the U.S. securities laws.

Futures Contracts. A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, a Fund can seek through the sale of futures contracts to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, a Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. Similarly, each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds can purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds can purchase futures contracts on foreign currency to establish the price in U.S. dollars of a security quoted or denominated in such currency that the Fund has acquired or expects to acquire, or to seek to affect anticipated changes in the value of a currency in which such Fund's portfolio securities, or securities that it intends to purchase, are quoted or denominated. In addition, certain Funds and Underlying Funds may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between a Fund's overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of a Fund's performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While a Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities or currency in this manner, a Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts. When a Fund uses futures for hedging purposes, the Fund often seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price or rate of return on portfolio securities (or securities that the Fund proposes to acquire) or the exchange rate of currencies in which portfolio securities are quoted or denominated. A Fund or Underlying Fund may, for example, take a "short" position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an

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anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index and High Quality Floating Rate Funds) foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the dollar value of such Fund's portfolio securities. Such futures contracts may include contracts for the future delivery of securities held by a Fund or securities with characteristics similar to those of a Fund's portfolio securities. Similarly, each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may sell futures contracts on a currency in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated, or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of the applicable Investment Adviser, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for a Fund's portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of its hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in a Fund's portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, the Investment Adviser will attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting a Fund's portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of a Fund's portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

On other occasions, a Fund may take a "long" position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when a Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts. The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give a Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, a Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of a Fund's assets. By writing a call option, a Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that a Fund intends to purchase. However, a Fund becomes obligated (upon the exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by a Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. A Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. A Fund's ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations. A Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") for maintaining its qualification as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require the Fund to identify on its books cash or liquid assets. A Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law. For more information about these practices, see "Description of Investment Securities and Practices - Asset Segregation."

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in a poorer overall performance for a Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between a Fund's futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of an imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and a Fund may be exposed to risk of loss.

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In addition, it is not possible for a Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of a Fund's trading in futures depends upon the ability of the Investment Adviser to analyze correctly the futures markets.

High Yield (Non-Investment Grade) Securities

The Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, Growth Opportunities and Global Trends Allocation Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in bonds rated BB+ or below by Standard & Poor's or Ba1 or below by Moody's (B or higher by Standard & Poor's or by Moody's for the Mid Cap Value Fund) or comparable rated and unrated securities. These bonds are commonly referred to as "junk bonds," are non-investment grade, and are considered speculative. The ability of issuers of high yield securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable because such issuers are often less creditworthy or are highly leveraged. High yield securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments. In some cases, high yield securities may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investment grade bonds (i.e., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard & Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody's). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of a Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard & Poor's, Moody's, Fitch, Inc. ("Fitch") and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited ("DBRS").

The market values of high yield securities tend to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of high yield securities that are highly leveraged may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected by economic downturns or their inability to meet specific projected business forecasts than would be the case for issuers of higher rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such high yield securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers' creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility. Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of investments fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in a Fund's NAV.

The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by a Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by a Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, a Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that it is required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect its interests. A Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy annual distribution obligations of the Fund in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.

The secondary market for high yield securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities may not be as liquid as and may be more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high yield securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities and the secondary market for high yield securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of a Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments when needed to meet its redemption requests or other liquidity needs. The Investment Adviser could find it difficult to sell these investments or may be able to sell the investments only at prices lower than if such investments were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the NAV of a Fund. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for a Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in their portfolios.

The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.

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Non-investment grade or high yield securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield securities frequently contain "call" or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a "call option" and redeems the security, a Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if a Fund experiences net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of its portfolio and increasing its exposure to the risks of high yield securities.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of high yield securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on the Investment Adviser's credit analysis than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations. The Investment Adviser employs its own credit research and analysis, which includes a study of an issuer's existing debt, capital structure, ability to service debt and to pay dividends, sensitivity to economic conditions, operating history and current earnings trends. The Investment Adviser continually monitors the investments in the Funds' portfolios and evaluates whether to dispose of or to retain non-investment grade and comparable unrated securities whose credit ratings or credit quality may have changed. If after its purchase, a portfolio security is assigned a lower rating or ceases to be rated, a Fund may continue to hold the security if the Investment Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond investments to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on a Fund's NAV to the extent it invests in such investments. In addition, a Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.

These and other factors discussed in the section below, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in high yield securities.

Illiquid Investments

Pursuant to Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, a Fund may not acquire any "illiquid investment" if, immediately after the acquisition, the Fund would have invested more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments that are assets. An "illiquid investment" is any investment that a Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The Trust has implemented a liquidity risk management program and related procedures to categorize each Fund's portfolio investments and identify illiquid investments pursuant to Rule 22e-4, and the Trustees have approved the designation of the Investment Adviser to administer the Trust's liquidity risk management program and related procedures. In determining whether an investment is an illiquid investment, the Investment Adviser will take into account actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations. In addition, in determining the liquidity of an investment, the Investment Adviser must determine whether trading varying portions of a position in a particular portfolio investment or asset class, in sizes that a Fund would reasonably anticipate trading, is reasonably expected to significantly affect its liquidity, and if so, the Fund must take this determination into account when classifying the liquidity of that investment or asset class.

In addition to actual or estimated daily transaction volume of an investment, group of related investments or asset class and other relevant market, trading, and investment-specific considerations, the following factors, among others, will generally impact the classification of an investment as an "illiquid investment": (i) any investment that is placed on the Investment Adviser's restricted trading list; and (ii) any investment that is delisted or for which there is a trading halt at the close of the trading day on the primary listing exchange at the time of classification (and in respect of which no active secondary market exists). Investments purchased by a Fund that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to these and other events and circumstances. If one or more investments in a Fund's portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed the 15% limitation in illiquid investments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause a Fund to exceed this limit, the Fund must take steps to bring its illiquid investments that are assets to or below 15% of its net assets within a reasonable period of time. This requirement would not force a Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

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Index Swaps, Interest Rate Swaps, Equity Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Currency Swaps, Volatility and Variance Swaps, Inflation and Inflation Asset Swaps, Correlation Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Swaps, Caps, Floors and Collars

Each Fixed Income Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may enter into interest rate, mortgage, equity, credit and total return swaps for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return (except that the Global Trends Allocation Fund may not enter into mortgage swaps); may enter into interest rate caps, floors and collars; and may purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. The Global Trends Allocation Fund may enter into index swaps for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total returns. These Funds may enter into swap transactions for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. The Mid Cap Value, Large Cap Value, Strategic Growth, Growth Opportunities,International Equity Insights, Core Fixed Income and Global Trends Allocation Funds and certain Underlying Funds may enter into currency swaps for both hedging purposes and to seek to increase total return. Currency swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. As examples, a Fund may enter into swap transactions for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets, as a duration management technique, to protect against any increase in the price of securities a Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date, or to gain exposure to certain markets in an economical way.

In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or "swapped" between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a "notional amount," i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a "basket" of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through FCMs that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs.

Index swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of payments based on a notional principal amount of a specified index or indices. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive payments for floating rate payments based on interest rates at specified intervals in the future. Two types of interest rate swaps include "fixed-for-floating rate swaps" and "basis swaps." Fixed-for-floating rate swaps involve the exchange of payments based on a fixed interest rate for payments based on a floating interest rate index. By contrast, basis swaps involve the exchange of payments based on two different floating interest rate indices. Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, as a total return swap where a counterparty may agree to pay a Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in particular stocks (or a group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In other cases, the counterparty and a Fund may each agree to pay the other the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or a group of stocks). Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Credit default swaps (also referred to as credit swaps) involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payment in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security, or pool of securities. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay or receive interest in exchange for payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index, or an index component.

An Underlying Fund may enter into correlation, inflation, inflation asset, variance and volatility swaps. A volatility swap is an agreement between two parties to make payments based on changes in the volatility of a reference instrument over a stated period of time. Volatility swaps can be used to adjust the volatility profile of an Underlying Fund. For example, an Underlying Fund may buy a volatility swap to take the position that the reference instrument's volatility will increase over a stated period of time. If this occurs, an Underlying Fund will receive a payment based upon the amount by which the realized volatility level of the reference instrument exceeds an agreed upon volatility level. If volatility is less than the agreed upon volatility level, then the Underlying Fund will make a payment to the counterparty calculated in the same manner. A variance swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange cash payments based on changes in the variance of a reference instrument over a stated period of time. Volatility is the mathematical square root of variance, and variance swaps are used for similar purposes as volatility swaps.

An inflation swap is an agreement between two parties in which one party agrees to pay the cumulative percentage increase in a reference inflation index (e.g., the Consumer Price Index) and the other party agrees to pay a compounded fixed rate over a stated period of time. In an inflation asset swap, the reference instrument is a bond with a value that is tied to inflation (e.g., Treasury Inflation-Protected Security) and one party pays the cash flows from the reference instrument in exchange for a payment based on a fixed rate from the other party. An Underlying Fund may enter into inflation swaps and inflation asset swaps to protect the Underlying Fund against changes in the rate of inflation.

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A correlation swap is an agreement in which two parties agree to exchange cash payments based on the correlation between specified reference instruments over a set period of time. Two assets would be considered closely correlated if, for example, their daily returns vary in similar proportions or along similar trajectories. For example, an Underlying Fund may enter correlation swaps to change its exposure to increases or decreases in the correlation between prices or returns of different Underlying Fund holdings.

A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates. Because interest rate, mortgage swaps and interest rate caps, floors and collars are individually negotiated, a Fund expects to achieve an acceptable degree of correlation between its portfolio investments and its swap, cap, floor and collar positions.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally a Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit, equity, mortgage and index swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit, equity, mortgage and index swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit, equity, mortgage and index swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate, total return, credit, equity, mortgage or index swap defaults, a Fund's risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that such Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. In contrast, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in one designated currency in exchange for the gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire payment stream under a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations.

As a result of recent regulatory developments, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing and some of these cleared swaps must be traded on an exchange or swap execution facility ("SEF"). A SEF is a trading platform in which multiple market participants can execute swap transactions by accepting bids and offers made by multiple other participants on the platform. Transactions executed on a SEF may increase market transparency and liquidity but may cause a Fund to incur increased expenses to execute swaps. Central clearing should decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant's swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or liquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of a Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligation under a similar bilateral swap. However, the CFTC and other applicable regulators have adopted rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps which may result in a Fund and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps. Requiring margin on uncleared swaps may reduce, but not eliminate, counterparty credit risk.

Certain Underlying Funds may obtain exposure to Senior Loans through the use of derivative instruments including loan credit default swaps. Investments in loan credit default swaps involve many of the risks associated with investments in derivatives more generally.

A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by a Fund. The protection "buyer" in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection "seller" an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the "par value" (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. A Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, a Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income

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throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, a Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, a Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund.

If there is a default by the other party to such a transaction, a Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.

The use of swaps and swaptions, as well as interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the reference asset, reference rate, or index, but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, credit quality, interest rates and currency exchange rates, the investment performance of a Fund would be less favorable than it would have been if this investment technique were not used.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly since in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to liquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk, and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity's or group of entities' positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if a Fund invests in cleared swaps. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts that may have terms of greater than seven days. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or "basis" risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Certain rules also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in swaps.

Investment in Unseasoned Companies

Each Equity Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Investments in the Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in a subsidiary. Investments in a subsidiary are expected to provide an Underlying Fund with exposure to the commodity markets within the limitations of Subchapter M of the Code and IRS revenue rulings. Historically, the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") has issued private letter rulings in which the IRS specifically concluded that income and gains from investments in commodity index-linked structured notes (the "Notes Rulings") or a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary that invests in commodity-linked instruments are "qualifying income" for purposes of compliance with Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"). Certain Underlying Funds have received a private letter ruling concluding that income and gains from investments in a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary that invests in commodity-linked instruments are "qualifying income" for purposes of compliance with Subchapter M of the Code. However, other Underlying Funds have not received such a ruling and are unable to rely on private letter rulings issued to other taxpayers. The IRS issued a revenue procedure, which states that the IRS will not in the future issue private letter rulings that would require a determination of whether an asset (such as a commodity index-linked note)

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is a "security" under the Investment Company Act. In connection with issuing such revenue procedure, the IRS has revoked the Note Rulings on a prospective basis. In light of the revocation of the Note Rulings, the Underlying Funds intend to limit their investments in commodity index-linked structured notes. The IRS recently issued final regulations that would generally treat an Underlying Fund's income inclusion with respect to a subsidiary as qualifying income either if (i) there is a distribution out of the earnings and profits of a subsidiary that are attributable to such income inclusion or (ii) such inclusion is derived with respect to the Underlying Fund's business of investing in stock, securities, or currencies. The tax treatment of certain Underlying Funds' investments in a subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, Treasury Regulations and/or guidance issued by the IRS (which may be retroactive) that could affect whether income derived from such investments is "qualifying income" under Subchapter M of Code, or otherwise affect the character, timing and/or amount of the Underlying Funds' taxable income or any gains and distributions made by the Underlying Funds. In connection with investments in a subsidiary, certain Underlying Funds have obtained or may seek to obtain an opinion of counsel that their income from such investments should constitute "qualifying income." However, no assurances can be provided that the IRS would not be able to successfully assert that the Underlying Funds' income from such investments was not "qualifying income," in which case an Underlying Fund would fail to qualify as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code if over 10% of its gross income was derived from these investments. If an Underlying Fund failed to qualify as a regulated investment company, it would be subject to federal and state income tax on all of its taxable income at regular corporate tax rates with no deduction for any distributions paid to shareholders, which would significantly adversely affect the returns to, and could cause substantial losses for, Underlying Fund shareholders.

The subsidiaries are limited liability companies organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and each subsidiary is overseen by its own board of managers. Each of the relevant Underlying Funds is currently the sole shareholder of its respective subsidiary. The subsidiaries may invest without limitation in commodity index-linked securities (including leveraged and unleveraged structured notes) and other commodity-linked securities and derivative instruments that provide exposure to the performance of the commodity markets. Although an Underlying Fund may invest in commodity-linked derivative instruments directly, the Underlying Fund may gain exposure to these derivative instruments indirectly by investing in its respective subsidiary. Each subsidiary also invests in fixed income securities, which are intended to serve as margin or collateral for the subsidiary's derivative positions. To the extent that an Underlying Fund invests in its respective subsidiary, it may be subject to the risks associated with those derivative instruments and other securities, which are discussed elsewhere in the applicable Prospectus and SAI.

Each Subsidiary is not an investment company registered under the Act and, unless otherwise noted in the applicable Prospectus and SAI, is not subject to all of the investor protections of the Act and other U.S. regulations. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could result in the inability of the Underlying Funds and/or the subsidiaries to operate as described in the applicable Prospectus and SAI and could negatively affect the Underlying Funds and their shareholders.

Lending of Portfolio Securities

The Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation, Growth Opportunities, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, Multi-Strategy Alternatives, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, International Equity Insights and U.S. Equity Insights Funds and certain Underlying Funds may lend their portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other institutions, including Goldman Sachs. By lending its securities, a Fund attempts to increase its net investment income.

Securities loans are required to be secured continuously by collateral in cash, cash equivalents, letters of credit or U.S. Government Securities equal to at least 100% of the value of the loaned securities. This collateral must be valued, or "marked to market," daily. Borrowers are required to furnish additional collateral to a Fund as necessary to fully cover their obligations.

With respect to loans that are collateralized by cash, a Fund may reinvest that cash in short-term investments and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or "rebate" from any return earned on the investment. Investing the collateral subjects it to market depreciation or appreciation, and a Fund is responsible for any loss that may result from its investment of the borrowed collateral. Cash collateral may be invested in, among other things, other registered or unregistered funds, including private investing funds or money market funds that are managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates and which pay the Investment Adviser or its affiliates for their services. If the Fund would receive non-cash collateral, the Fund receives a fee from the borrower equal to a negotiated percentage of the market value of the loaned securities.

For the duration of any securities loan, the Fund will continue to receive the equivalent of the interest, dividends or other distributions paid by the issuer on the loaned securities. The Fund will not have the right to vote its loaned securities during the period of the loan, but a Fund may attempt to recall a loaned security in anticipation of a material vote if it desires to do so. A Fund will have the right to terminate a loan at any time and recall the loaned securities within the normal and customary settlement time for securities transactions.

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Securities lending involves certain risks. The Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral, resulting in a loss of principal, or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to cover the fee or rebate it has agreed to pay the borrower. A Fund may incur losses in connection with its securities lending activities that exceed the value of the interest income and fees received in connection with such transactions. Securities lending subjects a Fund to the risk of loss resulting from problems in the settlement and accounting process, and to additional credit, counterparty and market risk. These risks could be greater with respect to non-U.S. securities. Engaging in securities lending could have a leveraging effect, which may intensify the other risks associated with investments in the Fund. In addition, a Fund bears the risk that the price of the securities on loan will increase while they are on loan, or that the price of the collateral will decline in value during the period of the loan, and that the counterparty will not provide, or will delay in providing, additional collateral. A Fund also bears the risk that a borrower may fail to return securities in a timely manner or at all, either because the borrower fails financially or for other reasons. If a borrower of securities fails financially, a Fund may also lose its rights in the collateral. A Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering loaned securities or in gaining access to and liquidating the collateral, which could result in actual financial loss and which could interfere with portfolio management decisions or the exercise of ownership rights in the loaned securities. If a Fund is not able to recover the securities lent, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase replacement securities in the market. However, the Fund will incur transaction costs on the purchase of replacement securities. These events could trigger adverse tax consequences for the Fund. In determining whether to lend securities to a particular borrower, and throughout the period of the loan, the creditworthiness of the borrower will be considered and monitored. Loans will only be made to firms deemed to be of good standing, and where the consideration that can be earned currently from securities loans of this type is deemed to justify the attendant risk. It is intended that the value of securities loaned by a Fund will not exceed one-third of the value of a Fund's total assets (including the loan collateral).

A Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of a Fund, but will not consider any collateral as a Fund asset except when determining total assets for the purpose of the above one-third limitation. Loan collateral (including any investment of the collateral) is not subject to the percentage limitations stated elsewhere in this SAI or in the Prospectuses regarding investing in fixed income securities and cash equivalents.

The Funds' and Underlying Funds' Boards of Trustees have approved the Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation, Growth Opportunities, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value, Multi-Strategy Alternatives, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, International Equity Insights and U.S. Equity Insights Funds' and certain Underlying Funds' participation in a securities lending program and have adopted policies and procedures relating thereto. Under the current securities lending program, the Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights and U.S. Equity Insights Funds and certain Underlying Funds have retained an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to serve as the securities lending agent for the Funds.

For its services, the securities lending agent may receive a fee from the Funds and Underlying Funds, including a fee based on the returns earned on the Funds' investment of cash received as collateral for the loaned securities. In addition, the Funds may make brokerage and other payments to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates in connection with the Funds' portfolio investment transactions. The Funds' Boards of Trustees periodically review reports on securities loan transactions for which a Goldman Sachs affiliate has acted as lending agent for compliance with the Funds' securities lending procedures. Goldman Sachs also has been approved as a borrower under the Funds' securities lending program, subject to certain conditions.

Loans and Loan Participations

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in loans and loan participations. A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower which is administered and sold by a financial intermediary. In a typical corporate loan syndication, a number of lenders, usually banks (co-lenders), lend a corporate borrower a specified sum pursuant to the terms and conditions of a loan agreement. One of the co-lenders usually agrees to act as the agent bank with respect to the loan.

Participation interests acquired by the Fund may take the form of a direct or co-lending relationship with the corporate borrower, an assignment of an interest in the loan by a co-lender or another participant, or a participation in the seller's share of the loan. The participation by the Fund in a lender's portion of a loan typically will result in the Fund having a contractual relationship only with such lender, not with the business entity borrowing the funds (the "Borrower"). As a result, the Fund may have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender selling the participation and only upon receipt by such lender of payments from the Borrower. Such indebtedness may be secured or unsecured. Under the terms of the loan participation, the Fund may be regarded as a creditor of the agent bank (rather than of the underlying corporate borrower), so that the Fund may also be subject to the risk that the agent bank may become insolvent. Loan participations typically represent direct participations in a loan to a Borrower, and generally are offered by banks or other financial institutions or lending syndicates. The Fund may participate in such syndicates, or can buy part of a loan, becoming a part lender. The participation interests in which the Fund may invest may not be rated by any NRSRO. The secondary market, if any, for loan participations may be limited.

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When the Fund acts as co-lender in connection with a participation interest or when such Fund acquires certain participation interests, the Fund may have direct recourse against the borrower if the borrower fails to pay scheduled principal and interest. In cases where the Fund lacks direct recourse, it will look to the agent bank to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. In these cases, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of such borrower. For example, in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the corporate borrower, a loan participation may be subject to certain defenses by the borrower as a result of improper conduct by the agent bank.

For purposes of certain investment limitations pertaining to diversification of the Fund's portfolio investments, the issuer of a loan participation will be the underlying borrower. However, in cases where the Fund does not have recourse directly against the borrower, both the borrower and each agent bank and co-lender interposed between the Fund and the borrower will be deemed issuers of a loan participation.

Senior Loans. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in Senior Loans. Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity (the "Borrower"), are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the Borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the Borrower. The proceeds of Senior Loans primarily are used to finance leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, mergers, acquisitions, stock repurchases, refinancings and to finance internal growth and for other corporate purposes. Senior Loans typically have rates of interest which are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually by reference to a base lending rate, plus a premium or credit spread. These base lending rates are primarily the LIBOR and secondarily the prime rate offered by one or more major U.S. banks and the certificate of deposit rate or other base lending rates used by commercial lenders.

Senior Loans typically have a stated term of between five and nine years, and have rates of interest which typically are redetermined daily, monthly, quarterly or semi-annually. Longer interest rate reset periods generally increase fluctuations in a Fund's net asset value as a result of changes in market interest rates. A Fund is not subject to any restrictions with respect to the maturity of Senior Loans held in its portfolios. As a result, as short-term interest rates increase, interest payable to a Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should increase, and as short-term interest rates decrease, interest payable to the Fund from its investments in Senior Loans should decrease. Because of prepayments, the Investment Adviser expects the average lives of the Senior Loans in which a Fund invests to be shorter than the stated maturity.

Senior Loans are subject to the risk of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal. Such non-payment would result in a reduction of income to a Fund, a reduction in the value of the investment and a potential decrease in the Fund's net asset value. There can be no assurance that the liquidation of any collateral securing a Senior Loan would satisfy the Borrower's obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal payments, or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In the event of bankruptcy of a Borrower, a Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. The collateral securing a Senior Loan may lose all or substantially all of its value in the event of the bankruptcy of a Borrower. Some Senior Loans are subject to the risk that a court, pursuant to fraudulent conveyance or other similar laws, could subordinate such Senior Loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the Borrower or take other action detrimental to the holders of Senior Loans including, in certain circumstances, invalidating such Senior Loans or causing interest previously paid to be refunded to the Borrower. If interest were required to be refunded, it could negatively affect a Fund's performance.

Many Senior Loans in which a Fund may invest may not be rated by a rating agency, will not be registered with the SEC or any state securities commission, and will not be listed on any national securities exchange. The amount of public information available with respect to Senior Loans will generally be less extensive than that available for registered or exchange-listed securities. In evaluating the creditworthiness of Borrowers, the Investment Adviser will consider, and may rely in part, on analyses performed by others. Borrowers may have outstanding debt obligations that are rated below investment grade by a rating agency. Many of the Senior Loans in which a Fund may invest will have been assigned below investment grade ratings by independent rating agencies. In the event Senior Loans are not rated, they are likely to be the equivalent of below investment grade quality. Because of the protective features of Senior Loans, the Investment Adviser believes that Senior Loans tend to have more favorable loss recovery rates as compared to more junior types of below investment grade debt obligations. The Investment Adviser does not view ratings as the determinative factor in its investment decisions and rely more upon their credit analysis abilities than upon ratings. Investors in loans, such as a Fund, may not be entitled to rely on the anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws, although they may be entitled to certain contractual remedies.

No active trading market may exist for some Senior Loans, and some loans may be subject to restrictions on resale. A secondary market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods, which may impair the ability to realize full value and thus cause a material decline in the net asset value of a Fund. Because transactions in many Senior Loans

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are subject to extended trade settlement periods, a Fund may not receive the proceeds from the sale of Senior Loans for a period after the sale of the Senior Loans. In addition, a Fund may not be able to readily dispose of its Senior Loans at prices that approximate those at which the Fund could sell such loans if they were more widely-traded and, as a result of the relative illiquidity of the trading markets for Senior Loans, the Fund may have to sell other investments or engage in borrowing transactions, such as borrowing from its credit facility, if necessary to raise cash to meet its obligations, including redemption obligations. During periods of limited supply and liquidity of Senior Loans, a Fund's yield may be lower.

When interest rates decline, the value of a Fund invested in fixed rate obligations can be expected to rise. Conversely, when interest rates rise, the value of a Fund invested in fixed rate obligations can be expected to decline. Although changes in prevailing interest rates can be expected to cause some fluctuations in the value of Senior Loans (due to the fact that floating rates on Senior Loans only reset periodically), the value of Senior Loans is substantially less sensitive to changes in market interest rates than fixed rate instruments. As a result, to the extent a Fund invests in floating-rate Senior Loans, the Fund's portfolio may be less volatile and less sensitive to changes in market interest rates than if the Fund invested in fixed rate obligations. Similarly, a sudden and significant increase in market interest rates may cause a decline in the value of these investments and in a Fund's net asset value. Other factors (including, but not limited to, rating downgrades, credit deterioration, a large downward movement in stock prices, a disparity in supply and demand of certain securities or market conditions that reduce liquidity) can reduce the value of Senior Loans and other debt obligations, impairing the net asset value of a Fund.

A Fund may purchase and retain in its portfolio a Senior Loan where the Borrower has experienced, or may be perceived to be likely to experience, credit problems, including involvement in or recent emergence from bankruptcy reorganization proceedings or other forms of debt restructuring. Such investments may provide opportunities for enhanced income as well as capital appreciation, although they also will be subject to greater risk of loss. At times, in connection with the restructuring of a Senior Loan either outside of bankruptcy court or in the context of bankruptcy court proceedings, a Fund may determine or be required to accept equity securities or junior credit securities in exchange for all or a portion of a Senior Loan.

A Fund may also purchase Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis. If a Fund purchases a Senior Loan on direct assignment, it typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning lender and becomes a lender under the loan agreement with the same rights and obligations as the assigning lender. Investments in Senior Loans on a direct assignment basis may involve additional risks to a Fund. For example, if such loan is foreclosed, a Fund could become part owner of any collateral, and would bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.

Loans and other types of direct indebtedness may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. In some cases, negotiations involved in disposing of indebtedness may require weeks to complete. Consequently, some indebtedness may be difficult or impossible to dispose of readily at what the Investment Adviser believes to be a fair price. In addition, valuation of less readily marketable indebtedness involves a greater degree of judgment in determining the net asset value of a Fund than if that valuation were based on available market quotations, and could result in significant variations in a Fund's daily share price. At the same time, some loan interests are regularly traded among certain financial institutions. As the market for different types of indebtedness develops, the liquidity of the market for these instruments is expected to improve. The Funds currently intend to treat loan indebtedness as liquid when there is a readily available market for the investment. To the extent a readily available market ceases to exist for a particular investment, such investment would generally be treated as illiquid for purposes of a Fund's limitation on illiquid investments. Investments in loans and loan participations are considered to be debt obligations for purposes of the Fund's investment restriction relating to the lending of funds or assets by a Fund.

These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in loans and loan participations.

Second Lien Loans. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in Second Lien Loans, which have the same characteristics as Senior Loans except that such loans are second in lien property rather than first. Second Lien Loans typically have adjustable floating rate interest payments. Accordingly, the risks associated with Second Lien Loans are higher than the risk of loans with first priority over the collateral. In the event of default on a Second Lien Loan, the first priority lien holder has first claim to the underlying collateral of the loan. It is possible that no collateral value would remain for the second priority lien holder and therefore result in a loss of investment to a Fund.

This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral. Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. There is also a possibility that originators will not be able to sell participations in Second Lien Loans, which would create greater credit risk exposure for the holders of such loans. Second Lien Loans share the same risks as other below investment grade securities.

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Master Limited Partnerships

Certain Underlying Funds, may invest in MLPs. An MLP is an entity receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Code, and whose interests or "units" are traded on securities exchanges like shares of corporate stock. A typical MLP consists of a general partner and limited partners; however, some entities receiving partnership taxation treatment under the Code are established as limited liability companies. The general partner manages the partnership; has an ownership stake in the partnership; and is typically eligible to receive an incentive distribution. The limited partners provide capital to the partnership, have a limited (if any) role in the operation and management of the partnership, and receive cash distributions. Due to their partnership structure, MLPs generally do not pay income taxes.

Holders of MLP units could potentially become subject to liability for all of the obligations of an MLP, if a court determines that the rights of the unitholders to take certain action under the limited partnership agreement would constitute "control" of the business of that MLP, or if a court or governmental agency determines that the MLP is conducting business in a state without complying with the limited partnership statute of that state.

To be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an MLP must derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from qualifying sources, including activities such as the exploration, development, mining, production, processing, refining, transportation, storage and certain marketing of mineral or natural resources. Many of the MLPs in which an Underlying Fund may invest operate oil, gas or petroleum facilities, or other facilities within the energy sector.

Midstream MLPs are generally engaged in the treatment, gathering, compression, processing, transportation, transmission, fractionation, storage and terminalling of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined products or coal. Midstream MLPs may also operate ancillary businesses including marketing of energy products and logistical services. An Underlying Fund may also invest in "upstream" and "downstream" MLPs. Upstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the exploration, recovery, development and production of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Downstream MLPs are primarily engaged in the processing, treatment, and refining of natural gas liquids and crude oil. The MLPs in which an Underlying Fund invests may also engage in owning, managing and transporting alternative energy assets, including alternative fuels such as ethanol, hydrogen and biodiesel.

MLP Equity Securities. Equity securities issued by MLPs generally consist of common units, subordinated units and preferred units, as described more fully below.

MLP Common Units. The common units of many MLPs are listed and traded on U.S. securities exchanges, including the NYSE and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System ("NASDAQ"). An Underlying Fund may purchase such common units through open market transactions and underwritten offerings, but may also acquire common units through direct placements and privately negotiated transactions. Holders of MLP common units typically have very limited control and voting rights. Holders of such common units are typically entitled to receive a minimum quarterly distribution ("MQD") from the issuer, and typically have a right, to the extent that an MLP fails to make a previous MQD, to recover in future distributions the amount by which the MQD was short ("arrearage rights"). Generally, an MLP must pay (or set aside for payment) the MQD to holders of common units before any distributions may be paid to subordinated unit holders. In addition, incentive distributions are typically not paid to the general partner or managing member unless the quarterly distributions on the common units exceed specified threshold levels above the MQD. In the event of a liquidation, common unit holders are intended to have a preference with respect to the remaining assets of the issuer over holders of subordinated units. MLPs issue different classes of common units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. An Underlying Fund may invest in different classes of common units.

MLP Subordinated Units. Subordinated units, which, like common units, represent limited partner or member interests, are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. An Underlying Fund may purchase outstanding subordinated units through negotiated transactions directly with holders of such units or newly issued subordinated units directly from the issuer. Holders of such subordinated units are generally entitled to receive a distribution only after the MQD and any arrearages from prior quarters have been paid to holders of common units. Holders of subordinated units typically have the right to receive distributions before any incentive distributions are payable to the general partner or managing member. Subordinated units generally do not provide arrearage rights. Most MLP subordinated units are convertible into common units after the passage of a specified period of time or upon the achievement by the issuer of specified financial goals. MLPs issue different classes of subordinated units that may have different voting, trading, and distribution rights. An Underlying Fund may invest in different classes of subordinated units.

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MLP Convertible Subordinated Units. MLP convertible subordinated units are typically issued by MLPs to founders, corporate general partners of MLPs, entities that sell assets to MLPs, and institutional investors. Convertible subordinated units increase the likelihood that, during the subordination period, there will be available cash to be distributed to common unitholders. MLP convertible subordinated units generally are not entitled to distributions until holders of common units have received their specified MQD, plus any arrearages, and may receive less than common unitholders in distributions upon liquidation. Convertible subordinated unitholders generally are entitled to MQD prior to the payment of incentive distributions to the general partner, but are not entitled to arrearage rights. Therefore, MLP convertible subordinated units generally entail greater risk than MLP common units. Convertible subordinated units are generally convertible automatically into senior common units of the same issuer at a one-to-one ratio upon the passage of time or the satisfaction of certain financial tests. Convertible subordinated units do not trade on a national exchange or over-the-counter ("OTC"), and there is no active market for them. The value of a convertible subordinated unit is a function of its worth if converted into the underlying common units. Convertible subordinated units generally have similar voting rights as do MLP common units. Distributions may be paid in cash or in-kind.

MLP Preferred Units. MLP preferred units are not typically listed or traded on an exchange. An Underlying Fund may purchase MLP preferred units through negotiated transactions directly with MLPs, affiliates of MLPs and institutional holders of such units. Holders of MLP preferred units can be entitled to a wide range of voting and other rights, depending on the structure of each separate security.

MLP General Partner or Managing Member Interests. The general partner or managing member interest in an MLP is typically retained by the original sponsors of an MLP, such as its founders, corporate partners and entities that sell assets to the MLP. The holder of the general partner or managing member interest can be liable in certain circumstances for amounts greater than the amount of the holder's investment in the general partner or managing member. General partner or managing member interests often confer direct board participation rights in, and in many cases control over the operations of, the MLP. General partner or managing member interests can be privately held or owned by publicly traded entities. General partner or managing member interests receive cash distributions, typically in an amount of up to 2% of available cash, which is contractually defined in the partnership or limited liability company agreement. In addition, holders of general partner or managing member interests typically receive incentive distribution rights ("IDRs"), which provide them with an increasing share of the entity's aggregate cash distributions upon the payment of per common unit distributions that exceed specified threshold levels above the MQD. Incentive distributions to a general partner are designed to encourage the general partner, who controls and operates the partnership, to maximize the partnership's cash flow and increase distributions to the limited partners. Due to the IDRs, general partners of MLPs have higher distribution growth prospects than their underlying MLPs, but quarterly incentive distribution payments would also decline at a greater rate than the decline rate in quarterly distributions to common and subordinated unit holders in the event of a reduction in the MLP's quarterly distribution. The ability of the limited partners or members to remove the general partner or managing member without cause is typically very limited. In addition, some MLPs permit the holder of IDRs to reset, under specified circumstances, the incentive distribution levels and receive compensation in exchange for the distribution rights given up in the reset.

MLP Debt Securities. Debt securities issued by MLPs may include those rated below investment grade. An Underlying Fund may invest in MLP debt securities without regard to credit quality or maturity. Investments in such securities may not offer the tax characteristics of equity securities of MLPs.

Limited Liability Company Common Units.Some energy companies in which certain Underlying Funds may invest have been organized as limited liability companies ("MLP LLCs"). Such MLP LLCs are treated in the same manner as MLPs for federal income tax purposes. Consistent with its investment objective and policies, an Underlying Fund may invest in common units or other securities of such MLP LLCs. MLP LLC common units represent an equity ownership interest in an MLP LLC, entitling the holders to a share of the MLP LLC's success through distributions and/or capital appreciation. Similar to MLPs, MLP LLCs typically do not pay federal income tax at the entity level and are required by their operating agreements to distribute a large percentage of their current operating earnings. MLP LLC common unitholders generally have first right to an MQD prior to distributions to subordinated unitholders and typically have arrearage rights if the MQD is not met. In the event of liquidation, MLP LLC common unitholders have first right to the MLP LLC's remaining assets after bondholders, other debt holders and preferred unitholders, if any, have been paid in full. MLP LLC common units trade on a national securities exchange or OTC. In contrast to MLPs, MLP LLCs have no general partner and there are generally no incentives that entitle management or other unitholders to increased percentages of cash distributions as distributions reach higher target levels. In addition, MLP LLC common unitholders typically have voting rights with respect to the MLP LLC, whereas MLP common units have limited voting rights.

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MLP Affiliates and I-Units

Other MLP Equity and Debt Securities. Certain Underlying Funds, may invest in equity and debt securities issued by affiliates of MLPs, including the general partners or managing members of MLPs and companies that own MLP general partner interests and are energy companies. Such issuers may be organized and/or taxed as corporations and therefore may not offer the advantageous tax characteristics of MLP units. An Underlying Fund may purchase such other MLP equity securities through market transactions, but may also do so through direct placements.

I-Units. I-Units represent an indirect ownership interest in an MLP and are issued by an MLP affiliate. The MLP affiliate uses the proceeds from the sale of I-Units to purchase limited partnership interests in its affiliated MLP. Thus, I-Units represent an indirect interest in an MLP. I-Units have limited voting rights and are similar in that respect to MLP common units. I-Units differ from MLP common units primarily in that instead of receiving cash distributions, holders of I-Units will receive distributions of additional I-Units in an amount equal to the cash distributions received by common unit holders. I-Units are traded on the NYSE. Issuers of MLP I-Units are treated as corporations and not partnerships for tax purposes.

Greenfield Projects

Greenfield projects are energy-related projects built by private joint ventures formed by energy companies. Greenfield projects may include the creation of a new pipeline, processing plant or storage facility or other energy infrastructure asset that is integrated with the company's existing assets. Certain Underlying Funds, may invest in the equity of greenfield projects and also may invest in the secured debt of greenfield projects. However, an investment also may be structured as pay-in-kind securities with minimal or no cash interest or dividends until construction is completed, at which time interest payments or dividends would be paid in cash. The Investment Adviser believes that this niche leverages the organizational and operating expertise of large, publicly traded companies and provides certain Underlying Funds with the opportunity to earn higher returns. Greenfield projects involve less investment risk than typical private equity financing arrangements. The primary risk involved with greenfield projects is execution risk or construction risk. Changing project requirements, elevated costs for labor and materials, and unexpected construction hurdles all can increase construction costs. Financing risk exists should changes in construction costs or financial markets occur. Regulatory risk exists should changes in regulation occur during construction or the necessary permits are not secured prior to beginning construction.

Income Trusts

Certain Underlying Funds may invest in income trusts, including business trusts and oil royalty trusts. Income trusts are operating businesses that have been put into a trust. They pay out the bulk of their free cash flow to unit holders. The businesses that are sold into these trusts are usually mature and stable income-producing companies that lend themselves to fixed (monthly or quarterly) distributions. These trusts are regarded as equity investments with fixed-income attributes or high-yield debt with no fixed maturity date. These trusts typically offer regular income payments and a significant premium yield compared to other types of fixed income investments.

Business Trusts. A business trust is an income trust where the principal business of the underlying corporation or other entity is in the manufacturing, service or general industrial sectors. It is anticipated that the number of businesses constituted or reorganized as income trusts will increase significantly in the future. Conversion to the income trust structure is attractive to many existing mature businesses with relatively high, stable cash flows and low capital expenditure requirements, due to tax efficiency and investor demand for high-yielding equity securities. One of the primary attractions of business trusts, in addition to their relatively high yield, is their ability to enhance diversification in the portfolio as they cover a broad range of industries and geographies, including public refrigerated warehousing, mining, coal distribution, sugar distribution, forest products, retail sales, food sales and processing, chemical recovery and processing, data processing, gas marketing and check printing. Each business represented is typically characterized by long life assets or businesses that have exhibited a high degree of stability. Investments in business trusts are subject to various risks, including risks related to the underlying operating companies controlled by such trusts. These risks may include lack of or limited operating histories and increased susceptibility to interest rate risks.

Oil Royalty Trusts. A royalty trust typically controls an operating company which purchases oil and gas properties using the trust's capital. The royalty trust then receives royalties and/or interest payments from its operating company, and distributes them as income to its unit holders. Units of the royalty trust represent an economic interest in the underlying assets of the trust.

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An Underlying Fund may invest in oil royalty trusts that are traded on stock exchanges. Oil royalty trusts are income trusts that own or control oil and gas operating companies. Oil royalty trusts pay out substantially all of the cash flow they receive from the production and sale of underlying crude oil and natural gas reserves to shareholders (unitholders) in the form of monthly dividends (distributions). As a result of distributing the bulk of their cash flow to unitholders, royalty trusts are effectively precluded from internally originating new oil and gas prospects. Therefore, these royalty trusts typically grow through acquisition of producing companies or those with proven reserves of oil and gas, funded through the issuance of additional equity or, where the trust is able, additional debt. Consequently, oil royalty trusts are considered less exposed to the uncertainties faced by a traditional exploration and production corporation. However, they are still exposed to commodity risk and reserve risk, as well as operating risk.

The operations and financial condition of oil royalty trusts, and the amount of distributions or dividends paid on their securities is dependent on oil prices. Prices for commodities vary and are determined by supply and demand factors, including weather, and general economic and political conditions. A decline in oil prices could have a substantial adverse effect on the operations and financial conditions of the trusts. Such trusts are also subject to the risk of an adverse change in the regulations of the natural resource industry and other operational risks relating to the energy sector. In addition, the underlying operating companies held or controlled by the trusts are usually involved in oil exploration; however, such companies may not be successful in holding, discovering, or exploiting adequate commercial quantities of oil, the failure of which will adversely affect their values. Even if successful, oil and gas prices have fluctuated widely during the most recent years and may continue to do so in the future. The Investment Adviser expects that the combination of global demand growth and depleting reserves, together with current geopolitical instability, will continue to support strong crude oil prices over the long term. However, there is no guarantee that these prices will not decline. Declining crude oil prices may cause an Underlying Fund to incur losses on its investments. In addition, the demand in and supply to the developing markets could be affected by other factors such as restrictions on imports, increased taxation, and creation of government monopolies, as well as social, economic and political uncertainty and instability. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that non-conventional sources of natural gas will not be discovered which would adversely affect the oil industry.

Moreover, as the underlying oil and gas reserves are produced the remaining reserves attributable to the royalty trust are depleted. The ability of a royalty trust to replace reserves is therefore fundamental to its ability to maintain distribution levels and unit prices over time. Certain royalty trusts have demonstrated consistent positive reserve growth year-over-year and, as such, certain royalty trusts have been successful to date in this respect and are thus currently trading at unit prices significantly higher than those of five or ten years ago. Oil royalty trusts manage reserve depletion through reserve additions resulting from internal capital development activities and through acquisitions. When an Underlying Fund invests in foreign oil royalty trusts, it will also be subject to foreign securities risks, which are described above under "Foreign Securities."

MMD Rate Locks

Certain Underlying Funds may purchase and sell Municipal Market Data AAA Cash Curve forward contracts, also known as "MMD rate locks." A Fund may use these transactions for hedging purposes or, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, to enhance income or gain or to increase the Fund's yield, for example, during periods of steep interest rate yield curves (i.e., wide differences between short term and long term interest rates).

An MMD rate lock permits a Fund to lock in a specified municipal interest rate for a portion of its portfolio to preserve a return on a particular investment, as a duration management technique, or to protect against any increase in the price of securities to be purchased at a later date. By using an MMD rate lock, a Fund can create a synthetic long or short position, allowing the Fund to select the most attractive part of the yield curve. An MMD rate lock is a forward contract between a Fund and an MMD rate lock provider pursuant to which the parties agree to make payments to each other on a notional amount, contingent upon whether the Municipal Market Data AAA General Obligations Scale is above or below a specified level on the expiration date of the contract. In connection with investments in MMD rate locks, there is a risk that municipal yields will move in the opposite direction than that anticipated by a Fund, which would cause the Fund to make payments to its counterparty in the transaction that could adversely affect the Fund's performance.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may enter into mortgage "dollar rolls" in which a Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, a Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, a Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the applicable Fund. Each Fund will, until the settlement date, identify cash or liquid assets on its books, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

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For financial reporting and tax purposes, the Funds treat mortgage dollar rolls as two separate transactions: one involving the purchase of a security and a separate transaction involving a sale. The Funds do not currently intend to enter into mortgage dollar rolls for financing and do not treat them as borrowings.

Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom a Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, a Fund's right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which a Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which a Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon the Investment Adviser's ability to manage a Fund's interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of a Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.

Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities

Each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in mortgage loans, mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed-rate mortgage loans, including collateralized mortgage obligations, real estate mortgage investment conduits ("REMICs") and stripped mortgage-backed securities ("SMBS"), as described below ("Mortgage-Backed Securities").

Mortgage-Backed Securities are subject to both call risk and extension risk. Because of these risks, these securities can have significantly greater price and yield volatility than traditional fixed income securities.

General Characteristics of Mortgage Backed Securities.

In general, each mortgage pool underlying Mortgage-Backed Securities consists of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured by first mortgages or first deeds of trust or other similar security instruments creating a first lien on owner occupied and non-owner occupied one-unit to four-unit residential properties, multi-family (i.e., five-units or more) properties, agricultural properties, commercial properties and mixed use properties (the "Mortgaged Properties"). The Mortgaged Properties may consist of detached individual dwelling units, multi-family dwelling units, individual condominiums, townhouses, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, row houses, individual units in planned unit developments, other attached dwelling units ("Residential Mortgaged Properties") or commercial properties, such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property ("Commercial Mortgaged Properties"). Residential Mortgaged Properties may also include residential investment properties and second homes. In addition, the Mortgage-Backed Securities which are residential mortgage-backed securities may also consist of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured entirely or in part by second priority mortgage liens on Residential Mortgaged Properties.

The investment characteristics of adjustable and fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences include the payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities on a more frequent (usually monthly) schedule, and the possibility that principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with traditional fixed income securities. As a result, if a Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a premium, a faster than expected prepayment rate will reduce both the market value and the yield to maturity from their anticipated levels. A prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect, increasing yield to maturity and market value. Conversely, if a Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce yield to maturity and market value. To the extent that a Fund invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities, the Investment Adviser may seek to manage these potential risks by investing in a variety of Mortgage-Backed Securities and by using certain hedging techniques.

Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors (such as changes in mortgagor housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagor equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions). The timing and level of prepayments cannot be predicted. A predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on outstanding mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates (giving consideration to the cost of any refinancing). Generally, prepayments on mortgage loans will

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increase during a period of falling mortgage interest rates and decrease during a period of rising mortgage interest rates. Accordingly, the amounts of prepayments available for reinvestment by a Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining mortgage interest rates. If general interest rates decline, such prepayments are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than a Fund was earning on the Mortgage-Backed Securities that were prepaid. Due to these factors, Mortgage-Backed Securities may be less effective than U.S. Treasury and other types of debt securities of similar maturity at maintaining yields during periods of declining interest rates. Because a Fund's investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities are interest-rate sensitive, a Fund's performance will depend in part upon the ability of the Fund to anticipate and respond to fluctuations in market interest rates and to utilize appropriate strategies to maximize returns to the Fund, while attempting to minimize the associated risks to its investment capital. Prepayments may have a disproportionate effect on certain Mortgage-Backed Securities and other multiple class pass-through securities, which are discussed below.

The rate of interest paid on Mortgage-Backed Securities is normally lower than the rate of interest paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to (among other things) the fees paid to any servicer, special servicer and trustee for the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool, other costs and expenses of such trust fund, fees paid to any guarantor, such as Ginnie Mae (as defined below) or to any credit enhancers, mortgage pool insurers, bond insurers and/or hedge providers, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the Mortgage-Backed Securities are purchased or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there is normally some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer (or the trustee of the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool) makes the payments on the Mortgage-Backed Securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

The issuers of certain mortgage-backed obligations may elect to have the pool of mortgage loans (or indirect interests in mortgage loans) underlying the securities treated as a REMIC, which is subject to special federal income tax rules. A description of the types of mortgage loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities in which a Fund may invest is provided below. The descriptions are general and summary in nature, and do not detail every possible variation of the types of securities that are permissible investments for a Fund.

Delinquencies, defaults and losses on residential mortgage loans may increase substantially over certain periods, which may affect the performance of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which certain Funds may invest. Mortgage loans backing non-agency Mortgage-Backed Securities are more sensitive to economic factors that could affect the ability of borrowers to pay their obligations under the mortgage loans backing these securities. In addition, housing prices and appraisal values in many states and localities over certain periods have declined or stopped appreciating. A sustained decline or an extended flattening of those values may result in additional increases in delinquencies and losses on Mortgage-Backed Securities generally (including the Mortgaged-Backed Securities that the Funds may invest in as described above).

Adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate may reduce the cash flow which a Fund, to the extent it invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities or other asset-backed securities, receives from such securities and increase the incidence and severity of credit events and losses in respect of such securities. In the event that interest rate spreads for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities widen following the purchase of such assets by a Fund, the market value of such securities is likely to decline and, in the case of a substantial spread widening, could decline by a substantial amount. Furthermore, adverse changes in market conditions may result in reduced liquidity in the market for Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities (including the Mortgage-Backed Securities and other asset-backed securities in which certain Funds may invest) and an unwillingness by banks, financial institutions and investors to extend credit to servicers, originators and other participants in the market for Mortgage-Backed and other asset-backed securities. As a result, the liquidity and/or the market value of any Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that are owned by a Fund may experience declines after they are purchased by a Fund.

General Regulatory Considerations of Mortgage-Backed Securities

The unprecedented disruption in the mortgage- and asset-backed securities markets in 2008-2009 resulted in significant downward price pressures as well as foreclosures and defaults in residential and commercial real estate. As a result of these events, the liquidity of the mortgage- and asset-backed securities markets was negatively impacted during that time. Following the market dislocation, the U.S. Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), which imposed a new regulatory framework over the U.S. financial services industry and the consumer credit markets in general. Among its other provisions, the Dodd-Frank Act creates a liquidation framework under which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), may be appointed as receiver following a "systemic risk determination" by the Secretary of Treasury (in consultation with the President) for the resolution of certain nonbank financial companies and other entities, defined as "covered financial companies", and commonly referred to as "systemically important entities", in the event such a company is in default or in danger of default and the resolution of such a company under other applicable law would have serious adverse effects on financial stability in the United States, and also for the resolution of certain of their subsidiaries. No assurances can be given that this new liquidation framework would not apply to the

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originators of asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities, or their respective subsidiaries, including the issuers and depositors of such securities, although the expectation embedded in the Dodd-Frank Act is that the framework will be invoked only very rarely. Guidance from the FDIC indicates that such new framework will largely be exercised in a manner consistent with the existing bankruptcy laws, which is the insolvency regime that would otherwise apply to the sponsors, depositors and issuing entities with respect to asset-backed securities, including Mortgage-Backed Securities. The application of such liquidation framework to such entities could result in decreases or delays in amounts paid on, and hence the market value of, the Mortgage-Backed or asset-backed securities that may be owned by a Fund.

Certain General Characteristics of Mortgage Loans

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans ("ARMs"). Each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in ARMs. ARMs generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the "Mortgage Interest Rates") may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the "Index Rate"). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination. ARMs allow a Fund to participate in increases in interest rates through periodic increases in the securities coupon rates. During periods of declining interest rates, coupon rates may readjust downward resulting in lower yields to a Fund.

Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some mortgagors may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the "Maximum Adjustment"). Other ARMs ("Negatively Amortizing ARMs") may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization, and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to build up equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or "accelerated amortization") further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. After the expiration of the initial fixed rate period and upon the periodic recalculation of the payment to cause timely amortization of the related mortgage loan, the monthly payment on such mortgage loan may increase substantially which may, in turn, increase the risk of the borrower defaulting in respect of such mortgage loan. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases, but may result in increased credit exposure and prepayment risks for lenders. When interest due on a mortgage loan is added to the principal balance of such mortgage loan, the related mortgaged property provides proportionately less security for the repayment of such mortgage loan. Therefore, if the related borrower defaults on such mortgage loan, there is a greater likelihood that a loss will be incurred upon any liquidation of the mortgaged property which secures such mortgage loan.

ARMs also have the risk of prepayment. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. The value of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by ARMs is less likely to rise during periods of declining interest rates than the value of fixed-rate securities during such periods. Accordingly, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal repayments in a declining interest rate environment resulting in lower yields to a Fund. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates (than if prevailing interest rates remain constant or increase) because the availability of low fixed-rate mortgages may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to "lock-in" a fixed-rate mortgage. On the other hand, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of ARMs will lag behind changes in the market rate. ARMs are also typically subject to maximum increases and decreases in the interest rate adjustment which can be made on any one adjustment date, in any one year, or during the life of the security. In the event of dramatic increases or decreases in prevailing market interest rates, the value of a Fund's investment in ARMs may fluctuate more substantially because these limits may prevent the security from fully adjusting its interest rate to the prevailing market rates. As with fixed-rate mortgages, ARM prepayment rates vary in both stable and changing interest rate environments.

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There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Indices commonly used for this purpose include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year LIBOR, the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of ARMs in a Fund's portfolio and, therefore, in the NAV of the Fund's shares, will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans. Generally, fixed-rate mortgage loans included in mortgage pools (the "Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans") will bear simple interest at fixed annual rates and have original terms to maturity ranging from 5 to 40 years. Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans generally provide for monthly payments of principal and interest in substantially equal installments for the term of the mortgage note in sufficient amounts to fully amortize principal by maturity, although certain Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans provide for a large final "balloon" payment upon maturity.

Certain Legal Considerations of Mortgage Loans. The following is a discussion of certain legal and regulatory aspects of the mortgage loans in which the Funds may invest. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not address all of the legal or regulatory aspects affecting mortgage loans. These regulations may impair the ability of a mortgage lender to enforce its rights under the mortgage documents. These regulations may also adversely affect a Fund's investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities (including those issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities) by delaying the Fund's receipt of payments derived from principal or interest on mortgage loans affected by such regulations.

Foreclosure. A foreclosure of a defaulted mortgage loan may be delayed due to compliance with statutory notice or service of process provisions, difficulties in locating necessary parties or legal challenges to the mortgagee's right to foreclose. Depending upon market conditions, the ultimate proceeds of the sale of foreclosed property may not equal the amounts owed on the Mortgage-Backed Securities. Furthermore, courts in some cases have imposed general equitable principles upon foreclosure generally designed to relieve the borrower from the legal effect of default and have required lenders to undertake affirmative and expensive actions to determine the causes for the default and the likelihood of loan reinstatement.

Rights of Redemption. In some states, after foreclosure of a mortgage loan, the borrower and foreclosed junior lienors are given a statutory period in which to redeem the property, which right may diminish the mortgagee's ability to sell the property.

Legislative Limitations. In addition to anti-deficiency and related legislation, numerous other federal and state statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy laws and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with or affect the ability of a secured mortgage lender to enforce its security interest. For example, a bankruptcy court may grant the debtor a reasonable time to cure a default on a mortgage loan, including a payment default. The court in certain instances may also reduce the monthly payments due under such mortgage loan, change the rate of interest, reduce the principal balance of the loan to the then-current appraised value of the related mortgaged property, alter the mortgage loan repayment schedule and grant priority of certain liens over the lien of the mortgage loan. If a court relieves a borrower's obligation to repay amounts otherwise due on a mortgage loan, the mortgage loan servicer will not be required to advance such amounts, and any loss may be borne by the holders of securities backed by such loans. In addition, numerous federal and state consumer protection laws impose penalties for failure to comply with specific requirements in connection with origination and servicing of mortgage loans.

"Due-on-Sale"Provisions. Fixed-rate mortgage loans may contain a so-called"due-on-sale" clause permitting acceleration of the maturity of the mortgage loan if the borrower transfers the property. The Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 sets forth nine specific instances in which no mortgage lender covered by that Act may exercise a "due-on-sale" clause upon a transfer of property. The inability to enforce a "due-on-sale" clause or the lack of such a clause in mortgage loan documents may result in a mortgage loan being assumed by a purchaser of the property that bears an interest rate below the current market rate.

Usury Laws. Some states prohibit charging interest on mortgage loans in excess of statutory limits. If such limits are exceeded, substantial penalties may be incurred and, in some cases, enforceability of the obligation to pay principal and interest may be affected.

Governmental Action, Legislation and Regulation. Legislative, regulatory and enforcement actions seeking to prevent or restrict foreclosures or providing forbearance relief to borrowers of residential mortgage loans may adversely affect the value of Mortgage-

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Backed Securities (e.g. the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act). Legislative or regulatory initiatives by federal, state or local legislative bodies or administrative agencies, if enacted or adopted, could delay foreclosure or the exercise of other remedies, provide new defenses to foreclosure, or otherwise impair the ability of the loan servicer to foreclose or realize on a defaulted residential mortgage loan included in a pool of residential mortgage loans backing such residential Mortgage-Backed Securities. While the nature or extent of limitations on foreclosure or exercise of other remedies that may be enacted cannot be predicted, any such governmental actions that interfere with the foreclosure process or are designed to protect customers could increase the costs of such foreclosures or exercise of other remedies in respect of residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by a Fund, delay the timing or reduce the amount of recoveries on defaulted residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by a Fund, and consequently, could adversely impact the yields and distributions a Fund may receive in respect of its ownership of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by residential mortgage loans.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

To the extent consistent with its investment policies, each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in both government guaranteed and privately issued mortgage pass-through securities ("Mortgage Pass-Throughs") that are fixed or adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities which provide for monthly payments that are a "pass-through" of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees or other amounts paid to any guarantor, administrator and/or servicer of the underlying mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally may be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

The following discussion describes certain aspects of only a few of the wide variety of structures of Mortgage Pass-Throughs that are available or may be issued.

General Description of Certificates. Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be issued in one or more classes of senior certificates and one or more classes of subordinate certificates. Each such class may bear a different pass-through rate. Generally, each certificate will evidence the specified interest of the holder thereof in the payments of principal or interest or both in respect of the mortgage pool comprising part of the trust fund for such certificates.

Any class of certificates may also be divided into subclasses entitled to varying amounts of principal and interest. If a REMIC election has been made, certificates of such subclasses may be entitled to payments on the basis of a stated principal balance and stated interest rate, and payments among different subclasses may be made on a sequential, concurrent, pro rata or disproportionate basis, or any combination thereof. The stated interest rate on any such subclass of certificates may be a fixed rate or one which varies in direct or inverse relationship to an objective interest index.

Generally, each registered holder of a certificate will be entitled to receive its pro rata share of monthly distributions of all or a portion of principal of the underlying mortgage loans or of interest on the principal balances thereof, which accrues at the applicable mortgage pass-through rate, or both. The difference between the mortgage interest rate and the related mortgage pass-through rate (less the amount, if any, of retained yield) with respect to each mortgage loan will generally be paid to the servicer as a servicing fee. Because certain adjustable rate mortgage loans included in a mortgage pool may provide for deferred interest (i.e., negative amortization), the amount of interest actually paid by a mortgagor in any month may be less than the amount of interest accrued on the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan during the relevant period at the applicable mortgage interest rate. In such event, the amount of interest that is treated as deferred interest will generally be added to the principal balance of the related mortgage loan and will be distributed pro rata to certificate-holders as principal of such mortgage loan when paid by the mortgagor in subsequent monthly payments or at maturity.

Government Guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities. There are several types of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities currently available, including guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates and multiple class securities, which include guaranteed Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Certificates ("REMIC Certificates"), other collateralized mortgage obligations and SMBS. A Fund or Underlying Fund is permitted to invest in other types of Mortgage-Backed Securities that may be available in the future to the extent consistent with its investment policies and objective.

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A Fund's investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities may include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, such as Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Ginnie Mae securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which means that the U.S. Government guarantees that the interest and principal will be paid when due. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, and as a result, they have been historically viewed by the market as high quality securities with low credit risks. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities and the liquidity and value of a Fund's portfolio.

There is risk that the U.S. Government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. A Fund or Underlying Fund may purchase U.S. Government Securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by a Fund may greatly exceed such issuers' current resources, including such issuers' legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Below is a general discussion of certain types of guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities in which a Fund may invest.

Ginnie Mae Certificates. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee the timely payment of the principal of and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration ("FHA"), or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration ("VA"), or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. In order to meet its obligations under any guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the United States Treasury in an unlimited amount. The National Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government is pledged to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae of amounts due on Ginnie Mae certificates.

Fannie Mae Certificates. Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an act of the United States Congress. Generally, Fannie Mae Certificates are issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae and represent an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans (a "Pool") formed by Fannie Mae. A Pool consists of residential mortgage loans either previously owned by Fannie Mae or purchased by it in connection with the formation of the Pool. The mortgage loans may be either conventional mortgage loans (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency) or mortgage loans that are either insured by the FHA or guaranteed by the VA. However, the mortgage loans in Fannie Mae Pools are primarily conventional mortgage loans. The lenders originating and servicing the mortgage loans are subject to certain eligibility requirements established by Fannie Mae. Fannie Mae has certain contractual responsibilities. With respect to each Pool, Fannie Mae is obligated to distribute scheduled installments of principal and interest after Fannie Mae's servicing and guaranty fee, whether or not received, to Certificate holders. Fannie Mae also is obligated to distribute to holders of Certificates an amount equal to the full principal balance of any foreclosed mortgage loan, whether or not such principal balance is actually recovered. The obligations of Fannie Mae under its guaranty of the Fannie Mae Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae. See "Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae" below.

Freddie Mac Certificates. Freddie Mac is a publicly held U.S. Government sponsored enterprise. A principal activity of Freddie Mac currently is the purchase of first lien, conventional, residential and multifamily mortgage loans and participation interests in such mortgage loans and their resale in the form of mortgage securities, primarily Freddie Mac Certificates. A Freddie Mac Certificate represents a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans or participations in mortgage loans (a "Freddie Mac Certificate group") purchased by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac Certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by such Freddie Mac Certificate (whether or not received on the underlying loans). Freddie Mac also guarantees to each registered Certificate holder ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans, without any offset or deduction, but does not, generally, guarantee the timely payment of scheduled principal. The obligations of Freddie Mac under its guaranty of Freddie Mac Certificates are obligations solely of Freddie Mac. See "Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae" below.

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The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Under the direction of FHFA (as defined below), Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have entered into a joint initiative to develop a common securitization platform ("CSP") for the issuance of a uniform Mortgage-Backed Security ("UMBS") (the "Single Security Initiative"), which would generally align the characteristics of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Certificates. The Single Security Initiative is intended to maximize liquidity for both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Mortgage-Backed Securities in the "to-be-announced" market. The CSP began issuing UMBS in June 2019. While the initial effects of the issuance of UMBS on the market for mortgage-related securities have been relatively minimal, the long-term effects are still uncertain.

Conventional Mortgage Loans. The conventional mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans normally with original terms to maturity of between five and thirty years. Substantially all of these mortgage loans are secured by first liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac's and Fannie Mae's ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 6, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency ("FHFA"). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator's appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury has entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which established the U.S. Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the U.S. Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the U.S. Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac's and Fannie Mae's respective portfolios of mortgages and Mortgage-Backed Securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. On June 16, 2010, FHFA ordered Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac's stock de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") after the price of common stock in Fannie Mae fell below the NYSE minimum average closing price of $1 for more than 30 day

The FHFA and the White House have made public statements regarding plans to consider ending the conservatorships of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. In the event that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are taken out of conservatorship, it is unclear how the capital structure of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac would be constructed and what effects, if any, there may be on Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's creditworthiness and guarantees of certain Mortgage-Backed Securities. It is also unclear whether the Treasury would continue to enforce its rights or perform its obligations under the senior preferred stock programs. Should Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's conservatorship end, there could be an adverse impact on the value of their securities, which could cause losses to a Fund.

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Each Fund (except the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities are generally backed by pools of

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conventional (i.e., non-government guaranteed or insured) mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally will be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

Ratings. The ratings assigned by a rating organization to Mortgage Pass-Throughs generally address the likelihood of the receipt of distributions on the underlying mortgage loans by the related certificate-holders under the agreements pursuant to which such certificates are issued. A rating organization's ratings normally take into consideration the credit quality of the related mortgage pool, including any credit support providers, structural and legal aspects associated with such certificates, and the extent to which the payment stream on such mortgage pool is adequate to make payments required by such certificates. A rating organization's ratings on such certificates do not, however, constitute a statement regarding frequency of prepayments on the related mortgage loans. In addition, the rating assigned by a rating organization to a certificate may not address the possibility that, in the event of the insolvency of the issuer of certificates where a subordinated interest was retained, the issuance and sale of the senior certificates may be recharacterized as a financing and, as a result of such recharacterization, payments on such certificates may be affected. A rating organization may downgrade or withdraw a rating assigned by it to any Mortgage Pass-Through at any time, and no assurance can be made that any ratings on any Mortgage Pass-Throughs included in a Fund will be maintained, or that if such ratings are assigned, they will not be downgraded or withdrawn by the assigning rating organization.

In the recent past, rating agencies have placed on credit watch or downgraded the ratings previously assigned to a large number of mortgage-backed securities (which may include certain of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which a Fund may have invested or may in the future be invested), and they may continue to do so in the future. In the event that any Mortgage-Backed Security held by a Fund is placed on credit watch or downgraded, the value of such Mortgage-Backed Security may decline and the Fund may consequently experience losses in respect of such Mortgage-Backed Security.

Credit Enhancement. Mortgage pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher yield than government and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, Mortgage Pass-Throughs may contain elements of credit support. Credit support falls generally into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pools of mortgages, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof, to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such credit support can be provided by, among other things, payment guarantees, letters of credit, pool insurance, subordination, or any combination thereof.

Subordination; Shifting of Interest; Reserve Fund. In order to achieve ratings on one or more classes of Mortgage Pass-Throughs, one or more classes of certificates may be subordinate certificates which provide that the rights of the subordinate certificate-holders to receive any or a specified portion of distributions with respect to the underlying mortgage loans may be subordinated to the rights of the senior certificate holders. If so structured, the subordination feature may be enhanced by distributing to the senior certificate-holders on certain distribution dates, as payment of principal, a specified percentage (which generally declines over time) of all principal payments received during the preceding prepayment period ("shifting interest credit enhancement"). This will have the effect of accelerating the amortization of the senior certificates while increasing the interest in the trust fund evidenced by the subordinate certificates. Increasing the interest of the subordinate certificates relative to that of the senior certificates is intended to preserve the availability of the subordination provided by the subordinate certificates. In addition, because the senior certificate-holders in a shifting interest credit enhancement structure are entitled to receive a percentage of principal prepayments which is greater than their proportionate interest in the trust fund, the rate of principal prepayments on the mortgage loans may have an even greater effect on the rate of principal payments and the amount of interest payments on, and the yield to maturity of, the senior certificates.

In addition to providing for a preferential right of the senior certificate-holders to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool, a reserve fund may be established relating to such certificates (the "Reserve Fund"). The Reserve Fund may be created with an initial cash deposit by the originator or servicer and augmented by the retention of distributions otherwise available to the subordinate certificate-holders or by excess servicing fees until the Reserve Fund reaches a specified amount.

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The subordination feature, and any Reserve Fund, are intended to enhance the likelihood of timely receipt by senior certificate-holders of the full amount of scheduled monthly payments of principal and interest due to them and will protect the senior certificate-holders against certain losses; however, in certain circumstances the Reserve Fund could be depleted and temporary shortfalls could result. In the event that the Reserve Fund is depleted before the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, senior certificate-holders will nevertheless have a preferential right to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool to the extent of the then outstanding subordinated amount. Unless otherwise specified, until the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, on any distribution date any amount otherwise distributable to the subordinate certificates or, to the extent specified, in the Reserve Fund will generally be used to offset the amount of any losses realized with respect to the mortgage loans ("Realized Losses"). Realized Losses remaining after application of such amounts will generally be applied to reduce the ownership interest of the subordinate certificates in the mortgage pool. If the subordinated amount has been reduced to zero, Realized Losses generally will be allocated pro rata among all certificate-holders in proportion to their respective outstanding interests in the mortgage pool.

Alternative Credit Enhancement. As an alternative, or in addition to the credit enhancement afforded by subordination, credit enhancement for Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be provided through bond insurers, or at the mortgage loan-level through mortgage insurance, hazard insurance, or through the deposit of cash, certificates of deposit, letters of credit, a limited guaranty or by such other methods as are acceptable to a rating agency. In certain circumstances, such as where credit enhancement is provided by bond insurers, guarantees or letters of credit, the security is subject to credit risk because of its exposure to the credit risk of an external credit enhancement provider.

Voluntary Advances. Generally, in the event of delinquencies in payments on the mortgage loans underlying the Mortgage Pass-Throughs, the servicer may agree to make advances of cash for the benefit of certificate-holders, but generally will do so only to the extent that it determines such voluntary advances will be recoverable from future payments and collections on the mortgage loans or otherwise.

Optional Termination. Generally, the servicer may, at its option with respect to any certificates, repurchase all of the underlying mortgage loans remaining outstanding at such time if the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loans is less than a specified percentage (generally 5-10%) of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date specified with respect to such series.

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Each Fund (except the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights, Equity Index, Global Trends Allocation and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in multiple class securities including collateralized mortgage obligations ("CMOs") and REMIC Certificates. These securities may be issued by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or by trusts formed by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. In general, CMOs are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by, and multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities represent direct ownership interests in, a pool of mortgage loans or Mortgage-Backed Securities the payments on which are used to make payments on the CMOs or multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities.

Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest on Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates ("PCs"). PCs represent undivided interests in specified level payment, residential mortgages or participations therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction but the receipt of the required payments may be delayed. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal of certain PCs.

CMOs and guaranteed REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are types of multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities (the "Mortgage Assets"). The obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, respectively. See "Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae."

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CMOs and REMIC Certificates are issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a "tranche," is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as "sequential pay" CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, "parallel pay" CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as "Z-Bonds"), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class ("PAC") certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates that generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes or REMIC Certificates (the "PAC Certificates"), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the PAC Certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than other PAC classes.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities ("CMBS") are a type of Mortgage Pass-Through that are primarily backed by a pool of commercial mortgage loans. The commercial mortgage loans are, in turn, generally secured by commercial mortgaged properties (such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property). CMBS generally entitle the holders thereof to receive payments that depend primarily on the cash flow from a specified pool of commercial or multifamily mortgage loans. CMBS will be affected by payments, defaults, delinquencies and losses on the underlying mortgage loans. The underlying mortgage loans generally are secured by income producing properties such as office properties, retail properties, multifamily properties, manufactured housing, hospitality properties, industrial properties and self storage properties. Because issuers of CMBS have no significant assets other than the underlying commercial real estate loans and because of the significant credit risks inherent in the underlying collateral, credit risk is a correspondingly important consideration with respect to the related CMBS. Certain of the mortgage loans underlying CMBS constituting part of the collateral interests may be delinquent, in default or in foreclosure.

Commercial real estate lending may expose a lender (and the related Mortgage-Backed Security) to a greater risk of loss than certain other forms of lending because it typically involves making larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, in the case of certain commercial mortgage loans, repayment of loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties depends upon the ability of the related real estate project to generate income sufficient to pay debt service, operating expenses and leasing commissions and to make necessary repairs, tenant improvements and capital improvements, and in the case of loans that do not fully amortize over their terms, to retain sufficient value to permit the borrower to pay off the loan at maturity through a sale or refinancing of the mortgaged property. The net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks and social unrest and civil disturbances. In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have a higher degree of geographic concentration in a few states or regions. Any deterioration in the real estate market or economy or adverse events in such states or regions, may increase the rate of delinquency and default experience (and as a consequence, losses) with respect to mortgage loans related to properties in such state or region. Pools of mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may also have a higher degree of concentration in certain types of commercial properties. Accordingly, such pools of mortgage loans represent higher exposure to risks

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particular to those types of commercial properties. Certain pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS consist of a fewer number of mortgage loans with outstanding balances that are larger than average. If a mortgage pool includes mortgage loans with larger than average balances, any realized losses on such mortgage loans could be more severe, relative to the size of the pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the pool were distributed among a larger number of mortgage loans. Certain borrowers or affiliates thereof relating to certain of the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have had a history of bankruptcy. Certain mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have been exposed to environmental conditions or circumstances. The ratings in respect of certain of the CMBS comprising the Mortgage-Backed Securities may have been withdrawn, reduced or placed on credit watch since issuance. In addition, losses and/or appraisal reductions may be allocated to certain of such CMBS and certain of the collateral or the assets underlying such collateral may be delinquent and/or may default from time to time.

CMBS held by a Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. Realized losses in respect of the mortgage loans included in the CMBS pool and trust expenses generally will be allocated to the most subordinated class of securities of the related series. Accordingly, to the extent any CMBS is or becomes the most subordinated class of securities of the related series, any delinquency or default on any underlying mortgage loan may result in shortfalls, realized loss allocations or extensions of its weighted average life and will have a more immediate and disproportionate effect on the related CMBS than on a related more senior class of CMBS of the same series. Further, even if a class is not the most subordinate class of securities, there can be no assurance that the subordination offered to such class will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust. CMBS are typically not guaranteed or insured, and distributions on such CMBS generally will depend solely upon the amount and timing of payments and other collections on the related underlying commercial mortgage loans.

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in SMBS, which are derivative multiclass mortgage securities, issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities or non-governmental originators. SMBS are usually structured with two different classes: one that receives substantially all of the interest payments (the interest-only, or "IO" and/or the high coupon rate with relatively low principal amount, or "IOette"), and the other that receives substantially all of the principal payments (the principal-only, or "PO"), from a pool of mortgage loans.

Certain SMBS may not be readily marketable. The market value of POs generally is unusually volatile in response to changes in interest rates. The yields on IOs and IOettes are generally higher than prevailing market yields on other Mortgage-Backed Securities because their cash flow patterns are more volatile and there is a greater risk that the initial investment will not be fully recouped. A Fund's investments in SMBS may require the Fund to sell certain of its portfolio securities to generate sufficient cash to satisfy certain income distribution requirements. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in SMBS.

Municipal Securities

General. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in fixed income securities issued by or on behalf of states, territories and possessions of the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities thereof ("Municipal Securities"), the interest on which is exempt from regular federal income tax (i.e., excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes but not necessarily exempt from the federal alternative minimum tax or from the income taxes of any state or local government). In addition, Municipal Securities include participation interests in such securities the interest on which is, in the opinion of bond counsel or counsel selected by the Investment Adviser, excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes. The Funds may revise their definition of Municipal Securities in the future to include other types of securities that currently exist, the interest on which is or will be, in the opinion of such counsel, excluded from gross income for federal income tax purposes, provided that investing in such securities is consistent with each Fund's investment objective and policies. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may also invest in taxable Municipal Securities.

The yields and market values of Municipal Securities are determined primarily by the general level of interest rates, the creditworthiness of the issuers of Municipal Securities and economic and political conditions affecting such issuers. The yields and market prices of Municipal Securities may be adversely affected by changes in tax rates and policies, which may have less effect on the market for taxable fixed income securities. Moreover, certain types of Municipal Securities, such as housing revenue bonds, involve prepayment risks which could affect the yield on such securities. The credit rating assigned to Municipal Securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such Municipal Securities.

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Dividends paid by the Funds that are derived from interest paid on both tax-exempt and taxable Municipal Securities will be taxable to the Funds' shareholders.

Municipal Securities are often issued to obtain funds for various public purposes including refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and obtaining funds to lend to other public institutions and facilities. Municipal Securities also include certain "private activity bonds" or industrial development bonds, which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to provide financing aid to acquire sites or construct or equip facilities within a municipality for privately or publicly owned corporations.

Investments in Municipal Securities are subject to the risk that the issuer could default on its obligations. Such a default could result from the inadequacy of the sources or revenues from which interest and principal payments are to be made, including property tax collections, sales tax revenue, income tax revenue and local, state and federal government funding, or the assets collateralizing such obligations. Municipal Securities and issuers of Municipal Securities may be more susceptible to downgrade, default, and bankruptcy as a result of recent periods of economic stress. During and following the economic downturn beginning in 2008, several municipalities have filed for bankruptcy protection or have indicated that they may seek bankruptcy protection in the future. In addition, many states and municipalities have been adversely impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as a result of declines in revenues and increased expenditures required to manage and mitigate the outbreak. Revenue bonds, including private activity bonds, are backed only by specific assets or revenue sources and not by the full faith and credit of the governmental issuer.

The two principal classifications of Municipal Securities are "general obligations" and "revenue obligations." General obligations are secured by the issuer's pledge of its full faith and credit for the payment of principal and interest, although the characteristics and enforcement of general obligations may vary according to the law applicable to the particular issuer. Revenue obligations, which include, but are not limited to, private activity bonds, resource recovery bonds, certificates of participation and certain municipal notes, are not backed by the credit and taxing authority of the issuer, and are payable solely from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source. Nevertheless, the obligations of the issuer of a revenue obligation may be backed by a letter of credit, guarantee or insurance. General obligations and revenue obligations may be issued in a variety of forms, including commercial paper, fixed, variable and floating rate securities, tender option bonds, auction rate bonds, zero coupon bonds, deferred interest bonds and capital appreciation bonds.

In addition to general obligations and revenue obligations, there is a variety of hybrid and special types of Municipal Securities. There are also numerous differences in the security of Municipal Securities both within and between these two principal classifications.

For the purpose of applying a Fund's investment restrictions, the identification of the issuer of a Municipal Security which is not a general obligation is made by the Investment Adviser based on the characteristics of the Municipal Security, the most important of which is the source of funds for the payment of principal and interest on such securities.

An entire issue of Municipal Securities may be purchased by one or a small number of institutional investors, including one or more Funds. Thus, the issue may not be said to be publicly offered. Unlike some securities that are not publicly offered, a secondary market exists for many Municipal Securities that were not publicly offered initially and such securities may be readily marketable.

The credit rating assigned to Municipal Securities may reflect the existence of guarantees, letters of credit or other credit enhancement features available to the issuers or holders of such Municipal Securities.

The obligations of the issuer to pay the principal of and interest on a Municipal Security are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Code, and laws, if any, that may be enacted by Congress or state legislatures extending the time for payment of principal or interest or imposing other constraints upon the enforcement of such obligations. There is also the possibility that, as a result of litigation or other conditions, the power or ability of the issuer to pay when due principal of or interest on a Municipal Security may be materially affected.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on Municipal Securities. For example, under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, interest on certain private activity bonds must be included in an investor's federal alternative minimum taxable income. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards the federal income tax status of interest on Municipal Securities or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the liquidity and value of Municipal Securities in a Fund's portfolio.

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Special Risk Considerations Relating to California Municipal Obligations. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in municipal obligations of the State of California ("California" or, as used in this section, the "State"), its public authorities and local governments ("California Municipal Obligations"), and consequently may be affected by political, social, economic, environmental, public health, or other developments within California and by the financial condition of California's political subdivisions, agencies, instrumentalities and public authorities. Provisions of the California Constitution and State statutes that limit the taxing and spending authority of California governmental entities may impair the ability of California governmental issuers to maintain debt service on their obligations. Future federal and California political and economic developments, constitutional amendments, legislative measures, executive orders, administrative regulations, litigation and voter initiatives as well as environmental or public health emergencies could have an adverse effect on the debt obligations of California issuers. Some of the significant financial considerations relating to investments in California Municipal Obligations are summarized below. The following section provides only a brief summary of the complex factors affecting the financial condition of California that could, in turn, adversely affect an Underlying Fund's investments in California Municipal Obligations. This information is based on information publicly available from State authorities and other sources available prior to April 30, 2021, and has not been independently verified. As a result of the severe market volatility and economic downturn following the outbreak of COVID-19, the economic circumstances in California may change negatively and more rapidly than usual, and California may be less able to maintain up-to-date information for the public. It should be noted that the creditworthiness of obligations issued by local issuers may be unrelated to the creditworthiness of obligations issued by the State, and that there is no obligation on the part of California to make payment on such local obligations in the event of default in the absence of a specific guarantee or pledge provided by California. Furthermore, obligations of issuers of California Municipal Obligations are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors. Accordingly, an insolvent municipality may file for bankruptcy, as allowed by Chapter 9 of the Bankruptcy Code. This section provides a financially distressed municipality protection from its creditors while it develops and negotiates a plan for reorganizing its debts. The reorganization of a municipality's debts may be accomplished by extending debt maturities, reducing the amount of principal or interest, refinancing the debt or other measures which may significantly affect the rights of creditors and the value of the securities issued by the municipality and the value of an Underlying Fund's investments. As a result of continuing financial and economic difficulties, several California municipalities have filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 9 or have indicated that they may seek such bankruptcy protection in the future. Additional municipal bankruptcy filings may occur in the future. Any such action could negatively impact the value of an Underlying Fund's investments in the securities of those issuers or other issuers in California.

Certain California Municipal Obligations held by an Underlying Fund may be obligations of issuers that rely in whole or in substantial part on California state government revenues for the continuance of their operations and payment of their obligations. Whether and to what extent the California Legislature will continue to appropriate a portion of the State's General Fund to counties, cities and their various entities, which depend upon State government appropriations, is not entirely certain. To the extent local entities do not receive money from the State government to pay for their operations and services, their ability to pay debt service on obligations held by an Underlying Funds may be impaired.

California Municipal Obligations, including certain tax-exempt securities, in which an Underlying Fund may invest may be obligations payable solely from the revenues of specific institutions, or may be secured by specific properties, which are subject to provisions of California law that could adversely affect the holders of such obligations.

California's economy, the largest state economy in the United States and one of the largest and most diverse in the world, has major components in high technology, trade, entertainment, manufacturing, tourism, construction and services. The makeup of California's economy generally mirrors that of the national economy; and as a result, economic developments that affect such industries may have a similar impact on the State and national economies.

Although California's fiscal health has improved since the economic downturn beginning in 2008, California's General Fund will be materially adversely impacted by the health-related and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts to respond to and mitigate the spread of COVID-19 have had a severe negative impact on the California and national economies and triggered a historic drop and ongoing volatility in the stock market. These efforts are expected to result in significant declines in state revenues from recent levels, as well as increased and ongoing direct expenditures required to address the impact of COVID-19. These expenditures include, but are not limited to, vaccinations, the purchase of personal protective equipment and medical and sanitation supplies, emergency facilities, testing and contact tracing, and housing and food assistance. To help address the public health and economic impact of COVID-19, the federal government passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act"), which provided for approximately $2.2 trillion in disaster relief. Among other things, the CARES Act established the Coronavirus Relief Fund ("CRF"), of which California has received approximately $9.5 billion. In March 2021, the American Rescue Plan was signed into law, which provides an additional $350 billion in emergency funding for state, local, territorial, and Tribal governments. It is not presently possible to predict whether the CRF and American Rescue Plan funds allocated to California will be sufficient to address its economic challenges. In

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addition, it is not presently possible to predict the extent of the short- and long-term harm that COVID-19 could cause to California's economy. A meaningful decline in revenues, which may result from high levels of unemployment and the closure of businesses, could negatively impact California's ability to meet its debt obligations, including with respect to investments held by an Underlying Fund. Moreover, the rate and level at which the federal government has taken on new debt could have a negative impact on its fiscal health, which could lead to prolonged challenges for its economy.

In March 2004, voters approved Proposition 58, which amended the California State Constitution to require balanced budgets in the future, yet this has not prevented the State from enacting budgets that rely on borrowing. Proposition 58 also created the Budget Stabilization Account ("BSA") as a secondary budgetary reserve and established the process for transferring General Fund revenues into the BSA.

Beginning with fiscal year 2015-16, the BSA provisions of Proposition 58 were superseded by Proposition 2. Proposition 2 provides for both paying down debt and other long-term liabilities, and saving for a rainy day by making specified deposits into the BSA. Proposition 2 takes into account California's heavy dependence on the performance of the stock market and the resulting capital gains. Beginning in fiscal year 2015-16, California must calculate capital gains revenues in excess of 8% of General Fund tax revenues and add such amount to 1.5% of the General Fund tax revenues; half of this amount is used to service long-term debt, and the other half of this amount is deposited into the BSA. Proposition 2 also only allows withdrawals from the BSA for a disaster or if spending remains commensurate or below the highest level of spending in the preceding three years. Due to COVID-19, California's Governor declared a budget emergency on June 25, 2020, which allowed the Legislature to suspend the required transfer for fiscal year 2020-21 and will withdraw $7.8 billion from the BSA. The Governor's proposed fiscal year 2021-22 budget projects the BSA will reach a balance of $17.8 billion by fiscal year 2024-25.

Overall, California's real gross domestic product declined by 2.8% in 2020 and totaled approximately $3.0 trillion at current prices, making it the fifth largest economy in the world. The unemployment rate in California grew to a peak of 16.0% in April 2020, but fell to 9.3% as of December 2020. Employment in some of California's largest industries, including trade, transportation, and utilities, education and health services, and professional and business services, declined by 3.7%, 4.7%, and 5.4%, respectively, throughout 2020. Although personal income is projected to have grown by 4.9% in 2020 due largely to transfer payments, it is expected to contract in 2021 by 4.6% as various assistance programs are expected to end.

Revenue bonds represent both obligations payable from State revenue-producing enterprises and projects and conduit obligations payable from revenues paid by private users or local governments of facilities financed by such revenue bonds. Such enterprises and projects include transportation projects, various public works projects, public and private educational facilities (including the California State University and University of California systems), housing, health facilities, and pollution control facilities. State agencies and authorities had approximately $38.6 billion aggregate principal amount of revenue bonds, which are non-recourse to the General Fund, outstanding as of December 31, 2020.

As of April 7, 2021, California's general obligation bonds were assigned ratings of Aa2, AA- and AA- by Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch, respectively. It should be recognized that these ratings are not an absolute standard of quality, but rather general indicators. Such ratings reflect only the view of the originating rating agencies, from which an explanation of the significance of such ratings may be obtained. There is no assurance that a particular rating will continue for any given period of time or that any such rating will not be revised downward or withdrawn entirely if, in the judgment of the agency establishing the rating, circumstances so warrant. A downward revision or withdrawal of such ratings, or either of them, may affect the market price of the State municipal obligations in which an Underlying Fund invests. As of January 1, 2021, California had outstanding approximately $71.9 billion in long-term general obligation bonds.

The Governor's Budget was released in January 2020 and amended by the Revised Budget published in May 2020, which takes into account the projected impact that COVID-19 will have on California's budget. Job losses and business closures caused by the fiscal challenges arising from the outbreak of COVID-19 had a significant adverse impact on California's revenue. The revenue drop combined with increased costs to help address COVID-19 health challenges resulted in a $54.3 billion budget shortfall. The Budget Act signed into law in June 2020 ("2020-21 Enacted Budget") sought to address the shortfall through the use of existing reserves, special fund borrowing, deferrals, cancelled program expansions, and trigger reductions, among other solutions. The 2020-21 Enacted Budget projected to end fiscal year 2020-21 with a $5.8 billion General Fund reserve. General Fund revenues and transfers for fiscal year 2020-21 were projected at $137.7 billion, an increase of $94 million or 0.1% compared with revised estimates for fiscal year 2019-20. General Fund expenditures for fiscal year 2020-21 were projected at $133.9 billion, a decrease of $13.0 billion or 8.9% compared to the previous year.

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The Governor released his proposed budget for fiscal year 2021-22 on January 8, 2021 ("2021-22 Governor's Budget"). The 2021-22 Governor's Budget focuses on supporting and expediting the State's health and economic recovery from the crisis caused by COVID-19. The 2021-22 Governor's Budget projects that General Fund revenues and transfers will be $158.4 billion (a decline of 2.7% relative to the prior year) and expenditures will be $164.5 billion (an increase of 5.5% relative to the prior year). The 2021-22 Governor's Budget projects that the State will begin fiscal year 2022-23 with a surplus of $6.1 billion..

The State is a party to numerous legal proceedings, many of which normally occur in governmental operations and which, if decided against the State, might require the State to make significant future expenditures or impair future revenue sources. Because of the prospective nature of these proceedings, it is not presently possible to predict the ultimate outcome of such proceedings, estimate the potential impact on the ability of the State to make debt service payments, or determine what impact, if any, such proceedings may have on an Underlying Fund's investments in California Municipal Obligations.

Constitutional and statutory amendments as well as budget developments may affect the ability of California issuers to pay interest and principal on their obligations. The overall effect may depend upon whether a particular California tax-exempt security is a general or limited obligation bond and on the type of security provided for the bond. It is possible that measures affecting the taxing or spending authority of California or its political subdivisions may be approved or enacted in the future.

Special Risk Considerations Relating to Illinois Municipal Obligations. Illinois has experienced significant budgetary challenges in recent years. Illinois did not enact a full general fund budget for fiscal year 2016 or for fiscal year 2017, but rather certain expenditures continued to occur through statutory transfers, statutory continuing appropriations, or court orders and consent decrees. Notwithstanding the lack of an enacted general fund budget, Illinois was able to pay all debt service payments on general obligation bonds during fiscal year 2016 and fiscal year 2017 through statutory continuing appropriations or enacted state appropriations from the General Obligation Bond Retirement and Interest Fund. While Illinois was able to pass timely budgets in 2018, 2019, and 2020 any future failures to pass a budget could have an adverse impact on the state's ability to pay outstanding debt obligations, including with respect to debt owned by an Underlying Fund.

The economic and financial condition of Illinois also may be affected by various financial, social, economic, public health, environmental and political factors. While Illinois' economy has become increasingly service-based in recent years, the agricultural and manufacturing industries still constitute a significant portion of the state's economy. The imposition of tariffs on imports by the federal government could negatively impact the agricultural and manufacturing industries if trading partners impose retaliatory tariffs on goods exported from the United States, including from Illinois. A decrease in export revenues could reduce the resources available to Illinois to make payments on its outstanding debt obligations, which could reduce the value or marketability of its Municipal Securities.

In addition, Illinois' General Fund will be materially adversely impacted by the health-related and economic impacts of COVID-19. The effects of COVID-19 and the actions taken to halt its spread have had, and are expected to continue to have a significant negative impact on Illinois' economy. To mitigate the impact of COVID-19, Illinois imposed orders closing many businesses for an extended period, which substantially reduced economic activity, and in turn, reduced the amount of taxable transactions from which the state derives revenues. In addition, Illinois' unemployment rate increased from 3.4% in February 2020 to 16.5% in April 2020, ending 2020 at 8.0%.

To help address the public health and economic impact of COVID-19, the federal government passed the CARES Act, which provided for approximately $2.2 trillion in disaster relief. Among other things, the CARES Act established the CRF, of which Illinois has received approximately $4.9 billion. In March 2021, the American Rescue Plan was signed into law, which provides an additional $350 billion in emergency funding for state, local, territorial, and Tribal governments. It is not presently possible to predict whether the CRF and American Rescue Plan funds allocated to California will be sufficient to address its economic challenges. There can be no guarantee that Illinois will receive all of its allocated federal aid or if such amounts will be sufficient to offset the severe negative impact that COVID-19 has had on Illinois' fiscal health. It is not presently possible to predict the extent of the short- and long-term harm that COVID-19 could cause to Illinois' economy. A meaningful decline in revenues, which may result from high levels of unemployment and the closure of businesses, could negatively impact Illinois' ability to meet its debt obligations, including with respect to investments held by an Underlying Fund.

In addition, in response to COVID-19, the Illinois legislature passed the Coronavirus Urgent Remediation Emergency Borrowing Act ("CURE Borrowing Act") in June 2020. The CURE Borrowing Act authorizes Illinois to borrow money from the Federal Reserve's Municipal Liquidity Facility or other Federal Reserve Bank programs and issue general obligation bonds, notes or other obligations of the state in a principal amount of $5 billion. The proceeds from the CURE Borrowing Act must be used to help address the economic or health challenges resulting from COVID-19. In December 2020, Illinois issued $2 billion in CURE Borrowing Act notes. The rate and level at which the federal and Illinois governments have taken on new debt could have a negative impact on their fiscal health, which could lead to prolonged challenges for their economies.

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Illinois has also faced increasing levels of debt in recent years. As of March 17, 2021, Illinois had approximately $28.1 billion in general obligation bonds outstanding. The ratings assigned to Illinois' general obligation bonds by Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch as of July 23, 2020 were Baa3, BBB, and BBB-, respectively. There is no assurance that these ratings will continue for any given period of time or that they will not be revised or withdrawn entirely by the rating agency if, in the judgment of such rating agency, circumstances so warrant. A downward revision or withdrawal of any such rating may have an adverse effect on the market prices of the securities issued by Illinois, which would in turn negatively impact the performance of an Underlying Fund.

Special Risk Considerations Relating to New York Municipal Obligations. The economic and financial condition of New York may be affected by various financial, social, economic, public health, environmental and political factors. For example, the securities industry is more central to New York's economy than to the national economy, therefore any significant decline in stock market performance could adversely affect the New York's income and employment levels. Furthermore, such financial, social, economic, public health, environmental and political factors can be very complex, may vary from year to year and can be the result of actions taken not only by New York and its agencies and instrumentalities, but also by entities, such as the federal government, that are not under the control of New York.

New York was one of the epicenters of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States. Since the outbreak of began in the United States in early 2020, New York has adopted many restrictive measures intended to slow the spread of COVID-19 and expand health care system capacity. In addition, New York implemented a $40 million special emergency appropriation for pandemic response services and expenses. Such expenses include, but are not limited to, vaccinations, the purchase of personal protective equipment and medical and sanitation supplies; emergency facilities; testing and contact tracing; housing and food assistance; reopening expenses; and certain personnel and telework expenses. The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused economic activity within New York to decline dramatically, which could lead to a decrease in state and municipal revenues. The abrupt halt in economic activity in most industries led to layoffs and furloughs throughout New York. New York's unemployment rate grew from 3.7% in February 2020 to 14.5% in May 2020, and New York expects private sector employment to decline by approximately 7.5% throughout 2020. New York has received approximately $5.1 billion so far from the CRF to help address increased costs due to COVID-19. In addition, New York is expected to receive additional federal funds from the $350 billion in state, local, territorial, and Tribal government disaster relief aid provided for in the American Rescue Plan. However, there can be no assurance that New York will receive additional federal relief or that the funds received will be sufficient to offset the economic impact of COVID-19. Moreover, it is not presently possible to predict the extent of the short- and long-term harm that COVID-19 could cause to New York's economy. The rate and level at which the federal and New York governments have taken on new debt could have a negative impact on their fiscal health, which could lead to prolonged challenges for their economies. A meaningful decline in revenues, which may result from high levels of unemployment and the closure of businesses, could negatively impact New York's ability to meet its debt obligations, including with respect to investments held by an Underlying Fund.

New York City accounts for a significant portion of New York's population and personal income, and New York City's financial health could have a substantial impact on New York in many ways. Notably, New York City accounts for a significant number of New York's COVID-19 cases and has been negatively impacted by the adverse health and economic consequences. New York City continues to require substantial assistance from New York and depends on state aid to be able to balance its budget, meet its obligations, and address the spread of COVID-19. New York could be negatively affected by adverse economic circumstances in New York City.

The ratings assigned to New York's general obligation bonds by Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch as of April 7, 2021 were Aa2, AA+, and AA+, respectively. There is no assurance that these ratings will continue for any given period of time or that they will not be revised or withdrawn entirely by the rating agency if, in the judgment of such rating agency, circumstances so warrant. A downward revision or withdrawal of any such rating may have an adverse effect on the market prices of the securities issued by New York, which would in turn negatively impact the performance of an Underlying Fund.

Special Risk Considerations Relating to Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations. Certain Underlying Funds may invest in municipal obligations of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ("Puerto Rico" or, as used in this section, the "Commonwealth"), its public authorities and local governments ("Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations"), and consequently may be affected by political and economic developments within Puerto Rico and by the financial condition of Puerto Rico's political subdivisions, agencies, instrumentalities and public authorities. Future federal and Puerto Rico political and economic developments, constitutional amendments, legislative measures, executive orders, administrative regulations, litigation and voter initiatives as well as environmental events could have an adverse effect on the debt obligations of Puerto Rican issuers. Some of the significant financial considerations relating to investments

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in Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations are summarized below. The following section provides only a brief summary of the complex factors affecting the financial condition of Puerto Rico that could, in turn, adversely affect an Underlying Fund's investments in Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations. This information is based on information publicly available from Commonwealth authorities and other sources available prior to July 29, 2020 and has not been independently verified.

Puerto Rico and its public corporations are not eligible for protection under Chapter 9 of the Bankruptcy Code, which is the only chapter available to municipalities. Accordingly, in the event that Puerto Rico is unable to meet both the need to fund governmental services and its debt obligations, it may be required to take emergency measures, which may include measures to disburse public funds in accordance with legally established priority norms. The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act ("PROMESA") was signed into law on June 30, 2016, which allows Puerto Rico to restructure its outstanding debt obligations. It also establishes an oversight and management board (the "Oversight Board") that is empowered to approve Puerto Rico's fiscal plans and budgets. The budget process requires the Oversight Board, the Governor, and the Commonwealth's Legislative Assembly to develop a compliant budget. The proposed budget is required to be consistent with a fiscal plan developed by the Oversight Board and the Governor. If the Governor and the Legislative Assembly fail to develop a budget that complies with the fiscal plan approved by the Oversight Board by the day before the first day of the fiscal year for which the budget is being developed, the Oversight Board shall submit a compliant budget to the Governor and the Legislative Assembly, and the Oversight Board's budget is deemed approved and becomes effective. The Oversight Board is comprised of seven members appointed by the president who are nominated by a bipartisan selection process.

The Commonwealth has faced a number of fiscal challenges, including a structural imbalance between its General Fund revenues and expenditures, numerous environmental disasters, and a public health emergency resulting from the spread of COVID-19. The outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020 had a direct negative impact on economic activity in the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth's government implemented measures to help slow the spread of COVID-19 and mitigate its effects, such as closing certain businesses, restricting travel, and implementing a curfew, which halted much of the economic activity in the Commonwealth. Many businesses in the Commonwealth have been adversely impacted by these measures, and many have had to lay off or furlough workers. In addition, the Commonwealth incurred unexpected expenditures to address the spread of COVID-19, which include, but are not limited to, vaccinations, the purchase of personal protective equipment and medical and sanitation supplies, emergency facilities, testing and contact tracing, housing and food assistance, reopening expenses, and certain personnel and telework expenses. The Fiscal Plan for FY 2021 forecasted that the Commonwealth's unemployment rate would increase to approximately 40% in June 2020 but decrease to approximately 16% by June 2021. In addition, the Fiscal Plan estimated an economic impact of approximately $5.7 billion between FY 2020 and FY 2022 due to COVID-19, but the impact could be much greater depending on the trajectory of the spread of the disease and the ability of the policies implemented to address it. Although the federal government has passed several economic relief packages as of the date of this SAI, which would allocate more than $14 billion to the Commonwealth, there can be no assurances that the relief will be sufficient to address the economic harm resulting from the spread of COVID-19 or that the relief will have its intended effect. In addition, the rate and level at which the federal government and the Commonwealth have taken on new debt could have a negative impact on their fiscal health, which could lead to prolonged challenges for their respective economies.

The Commonwealth's Fiscal Plan for FY 2021 was certified by the Oversight Board in May 2020, which provided for approximately $9.8 billion in General Fund revenue against $10.3 billion in General Fund appropriations. The Fiscal Plan for FY 2021 take into account the potential impact that COVID-19 could have on the Commonwealth's economy, including reduced revenue from a sustained spike in unemployment as well as federal relief that has been allocated to the Commonwealth. The Oversight Board certified the Commonwealth's budget on July 1, 2020. The FY 2021 budget provides for approximately $10.0 billion in General Fund expenditures against approximately $10.2 billion in revenue. The expenditures in the FY 2021 budget represent an increase of approximately 10% over FY 2020 spending levels.

In 2017, pursuant to Title III of PROMESA, the Oversight Board filed petitions in federal court on behalf of Puerto Rico and certain of its instrumentalities, including the Puerto Rico Sales Tax Financing Corporation ("COFINA"), the Employees Retirement System ("ERS"), the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Utility ("PREPA"), to begin proceedings to restructure their outstanding debt. As a result of these petitions, the ability of the creditors of Puerto Rico and its instrumentalities that have filed for Title III relief to take action with respect to outstanding obligations has been temporarily stayed. The judge assigned to oversee the Title III proceedings initiated a confidential mediation process administered by five federal judges. In addition, the judge has concurrently overseen legal proceedings related to the Title III petitions and mediation.

In February 2020, the Oversight Board reached a Plan of Agreement with certain Commonwealth creditors to resolve $35 billion of debt and non-debt claims. The Plan of Agreement would reduce the Commonwealth's debt service by 56%, down from $90.4 billion to $39.7 billion, and reduce the Commonwealth's debt and other liabilities by approximately $24 billion to less than $11 billion. The Plan of Agreement is still subject to approval by the Commonwealth's legislature as well as the judge overseeing the Title III petition.

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With respect to the ongoing litigation between the Commonwealth and COFINA, agents for the Commonwealth and COFINA reached an agreement in principle on June 7, 2018 to share sales and use tax revenue and the Pledged Sales Tax Base Amount. The Oversight Board and the COFINA bondholders reached an agreement in August 2018 to restructure the COFINA bonds into a new issuance of bonds, and the judge overseeing the Title III proceeding approved the Plan of Adjustment in February 2019. The Plan of Adjustment restructures approximately $17.0 billion of COFINA debt and provides the Commonwealth with an average annual savings of $456 million through 2057, an overall savings of approximately 32%.

With respect to PREPA's Title III proceeding, a preliminary agreement has been reached between the PREPA bondholders, on one side and PREPA, the Oversight Board, and Fiscal Agency and Financial Advisory Authority, on the other side, to restructure the outstanding PREPA bonds. Under the preliminary agreement, PREPA's obligations with respect to outstanding bonds would be reduced by up to 32.5%. The preliminary agreement is subject to review by the judge overseeing PREPA's Title III proceedings. The proceedings related to the preliminary agreement were delayed as a result of the outbreak of COVID-19. It is not presently possible to predict whether the agreement will be finalized or if there will be any further delays in the proceedings. If PREPA, the Commonwealth, or any other instrumentalities are unable to restructure their debt, the value of their outstanding debt obligations could be adversely impacted, which could be negatively impact investments held by an Underlying Fund.

Puerto Rico's economy is closely linked to that of the rest of the United States, as most of the external factors that affect Puerto Rico's economy are determined by the policies and performance of the mainland economy. However, in recent years, Puerto Rico's economy, which entered a recession in the fourth quarter of 2006, has lagged behind the U.S. economy. In fiscal year 2016, Puerto Rico's gross national product grew by 0.9%, while the United States' gross national product grew by 2.7%. In May 2018, the Oversight Board projected that Puerto Rico's gross national product to decrease by 13.3% on a year-over-year basis, due, in part, to adverse effects from hurricanes that impacted Puerto Rico in 2017 (as discussed below).

Puerto Rico's per capita income in 2016 was $18,485, which was far below the national average ($49,198 during the same period). As of May 2018, the Commonwealth's civilian labor force consisted of approximately 1.09 million individuals. The unemployment rate in Puerto Rico was 9.6% as of May 2018, down from 10.5% in May 2017, but considerably higher than the national average of 3.8%.

Puerto Rico's budget is also impacted by extensive unfunded pension obligations related to the Commonwealth's three public retirement systems, the ERS, the Teachers Retirement System ("TRS") and the Judiciary Retirement System ("JRS"), all of which are funded primarily through appropriations from the general fund. As of July 1 2016, the total actuarial liabilities for the ERS, TRS, and JRS were approximately $38.0 billion, $18.0 billion, and $700 million, respectively. The total annual benefits due from the ERS, TRS, and JRS for fiscal year 2018 total approximately $1.7 billion, $800,000, and $28 million, respectively. In 2017, the Legislative Assembly enacted laws to reform the operation and funding of Puerto Rico's pension systems. Those laws required the ERS to sell its assets and transfer the proceeds to the general fund. In addition, employer contributions to the pension systems, which had been operating on as "pay-as-you-go" basis, were eliminated, and the general fund assumed any payments that the pension systems could not make. Puerto Rico may have to make additional contributions to the pension systems, which could result in reduced funding for other priorities, including payments on its outstanding debt obligations. Alternatively, Puerto Rico may be forced to raise revenue or issue additional debt. Either outcome could increase the pressure on Puerto Rico's budget, which could have an adverse impact on a Fund's investment in Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations.

An additional contributor to the Commonwealth's significant budget deficits is a high level of debt, which the Commonwealth has needed in order to bridge budget gaps, but the servicing of which also exacerbates its ongoing fiscal difficulties. As of May 30, 2018, it was reported that Puerto Rico's consolidated outstanding debt and pension liabilities have grown to over $120 billion, with more than $70 billion in financial debt and more than $50 billion in pension liabilities.

In September 2017, two successive hurricanes - Irma and Maria - caused severe damage to Puerto Rico. Hurricane Irma passed to the north of the Commonwealth, but Hurricane Maria made direct landfall, and the damage caused by both storms was extensive. The Commonwealth's infrastructure was severely damaged by high winds and substantial flooding, and much of the Commonwealth was left without power. Current estimates suggest that Hurricane Maria caused approximately $80 billion in damage and has caused a real decline in gross national product of in the year following the storms. In June 2019, President Trump signed a $19 billion disaster relief bill, of which approximately $1 billion would be allocated to the Commonwealth. In addition, while the Commonwealth's population has declined every year since 2013, the trend was accelerated after the damage caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria displaced residents.

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The damage caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria is expected to have substantially adverse effects on the Commonwealth's economy. In addition to diverting funds to relief and recovery efforts, the Commonwealth is expected to lose revenue as a result of decreased tourism and general business operations. There can be no assurances that the Commonwealth will receive the necessary aid to rebuild from the damage caused by Hurricanes Irma and Maria, and it is not currently possible to predict the long-term impact that Hurricanes Irma and Maria will have on the Commonwealth's economy. All these developments have a material adverse effect on the Commonwealth's finances and negatively impact the payment of principal and interest, the marketability, liquidity and value of securities issued by the Commonwealth that are held by an Underlying Fund.

In late December 2019 and January 2020, a series of earthquakes, including a magnitude 6.4 earthquake, the strongest to hit the island in more than a century, caused an estimated $200 million in damage. The aftershocks from the earthquakes may continue for years, and it is not currently possible to predict the extent of the damage that could arise from any aftershocks. The damage caused by the hurricanes, earthquakes, and the outbreak of COVID-19 is expected to have substantially adverse effects on the Commonwealth's economy. In addition to diverting funds to relief and recovery efforts, the Commonwealth is expected to lose substantial revenue as a result of decreased tourism (including from travel restrictions), decreased general business operations, and other measures implemented to slow the spread of COVID-19. There can be no assurances that the Commonwealth will receive the necessary aid to rebuild from the damage or that future catastrophic weather events, natural disasters, or public health emergencies will not cause similar damage. Any such developments could have an adverse effect on the Commonwealth's finances and negatively impact the payment of principal and interest, the marketability, liquidity, and value of securities issued by the Commonwealth.

As of April 7, 2021, the Commonwealth's general obligation debt was assigned a credit rating of Ca and D by Moody's and Fitch, respectively. In 2018, Standard & Poor's discontinued its unenhanced rating on the Commonwealth's general obligation debt. These ratings represent non-investment grade status. The downgraded credit rating has adversely impacted the liquidity of Puerto Rico's debt securities. There is no assurance that these ratings will continue for any given period of time or that they will not be revised or withdrawn entirely by the rating agency if, in the judgment of such rating agency, circumstances so warrant. A downward revision or withdrawal of any such rating may have an adverse effect on the market prices of the securities issued by the Commonwealth and its political subdivisions, instrumentalities, and authorities.

In addition to the litigation described above, Puerto Rico is a party to numerous legal proceedings, many of which normally occur in governmental operations and which, if decided against the Commonwealth, might require the Commonwealth to make significant future expenditures or impair future revenue sources. Because of the prospective nature of these proceedings, it is not presently possible to predict the ultimate outcome of such proceedings, estimate the potential impact on Puerto Rico's ability to make debt service payments, or determine what impact, if any, such proceedings may have on an Underlying Fund's investments in Puerto Rico Municipal Obligations.

Municipal Leases, Certificates of Participation and Other ParticipationInterests. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in municipal leases, certificates of participation and other participation interests. A municipal lease is an obligation in the form of a lease or installment purchase which is issued by a state or local government to acquire equipment and facilities. Income from such obligations is generally exempt from state and local taxes in the state of issuance. Municipal leases frequently involve special risks not normally associated with general obligations or revenue bonds. Leases and installment purchase or conditional sale contracts (which normally provide for title to the leased asset to pass eventually to the governmental issuer) have evolved as a means for governmental issuers to acquire property and equipment without meeting the constitutional and statutory requirements for the issuance of debt. The debt issuance limitations are deemed to be inapplicable because of the inclusion in many leases or contracts of "non-appropriation" clauses that relieve the governmental issuer of any obligation to make future payments under the lease or contract unless money is appropriated for such purpose by the appropriate legislative body on a yearly or other periodic basis. In addition, such leases or contracts may be subject to the temporary abatement of payments in the event the issuer is prevented from maintaining occupancy of the leased premises or utilizing the leased equipment. Although the obligations may be secured by the leased equipment or facilities, the disposition of the property in the event of non-appropriation or foreclosure might prove difficult, time consuming and costly, and result in a delay in recovering or the failure to fully recover a Fund's original investment. To the extent that a Fund invests in unrated municipal leases or participates in such leases, the credit quality rating and risk of cancellation of such unrated leases will be monitored on an ongoing basis.

Certificates of participation represent undivided interests in municipal leases, installment purchase agreements or other instruments. The certificates are typically issued by a trust or other entity which has received an assignment of the payments to be made by the state or political subdivision under such leases or installment purchase agreements.

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The Funds and certain Underlying Funds may purchase participations in Municipal Securities held by a commercial bank or other financial institution. Such participations provide a Fund with the right to a pro rata undivided interest in the underlying Municipal Securities. In addition, such participations generally provide a Fund with the right to demand payment, on not more than seven days' notice, of all or any part of such Fund's participation interest in the underlying Municipal Securities, plus accrued interest.

Municipal Notes. Municipal Securities in the form of notes generally are used to provide for short-term capital needs, in anticipation of an issuer's receipt of other revenues or financing, and typically have maturities of up to three years. Such instruments may include tax anticipation notes, revenue anticipation notes, bond anticipation notes, tax and revenue anticipation notes and construction loan notes. Tax anticipation notes are issued to finance the working capital needs of governments. Generally, they are issued in anticipation of various tax revenues, such as income, sales, property, use and business taxes, and are payable from these specific future taxes. Revenue anticipation notes are issued in expectation of receipt of other kinds of revenue, such as federal revenues available under federal revenue sharing programs. Bond anticipation notes are issued to provide interim financing until long-term bond financing can be arranged. In most cases, the long-term bonds then provide the funds needed for repayment of the notes. Tax and revenue anticipation notes combine the funding sources of both tax anticipation notes and revenue anticipation notes. Construction loan notes are sold to provide construction financing. These notes are secured by mortgage notes insured by the FHA; however, the proceeds from the insurance may be less than the economic equivalent of the payment of principal and interest on the mortgage note if there has been a default. The obligations of an issuer of municipal notes are generally secured by the anticipated revenues from taxes, grants or bond financing. An investment in such instruments, however, presents a risk that the anticipated revenues will not be received or that such revenues will be insufficient to satisfy the issuer's payment obligations under the notes or that refinancing will be otherwise unavailable.

Tax-Exempt Commercial Paper. Issues of commercial paper typically represent short-term, unsecured, negotiable promissory notes. These obligations are issued by state and local governments and their agencies to finance working capital needs of municipalities or to provide interim construction financing and are paid from general revenues of municipalities or are refinanced with long-term debt. In most cases, tax-exempt commercial paper is backed by letters of credit, lending agreements, note repurchase agreements or other credit facility agreements offered by banks or other institutions.

Pre-Refunded Municipal Securities. The principal of and interest on pre-refunded Municipal Securities are no longer paid from the original revenue source for the securities. Instead, the source of such payments is typically an escrow fund consisting of U.S. Government Securities. The assets in the escrow fund are derived from the proceeds of refunding bonds issued by the same issuer as the pre-refunded Municipal Securities. Issuers of Municipal Securities use this advance refunding technique to obtain more favorable terms with respect to securities that are not yet subject to call or redemption by the issuer. For example, advance refunding enables an issuer to refinance debt at lower market interest rates, restructure debt to improve cash flow or eliminate restrictive covenants in the indenture or other governing instrument for the pre-refunded Municipal Securities. However, except for a change in the revenue source from which principal and interest payments are made, the pre-refunded Municipal Securities remain outstanding on their original terms until they mature or are redeemed by the issuer. Pre-refunded Municipal Securities are often purchased at a price which represents a premium over their face value.

Private Activity Bonds. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may each invest in certain types of Municipal Securities, generally referred to as industrial development bonds (and referred to under current tax law as private activity bonds), which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide privately operated housing facilities, airport, mass transit or port facilities, sewage disposal, solid waste disposal or hazardous waste treatment or disposal facilities and certain local facilities for water supply, gas or electricity. Other types of industrial development bonds, the proceeds of which are used for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated industrial or commercial facilities, may constitute Municipal Securities, although the current federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the size of such issues.

Tender Option Bonds. A tender option bond is a Municipal Security (generally held pursuant to a custodial arrangement) having a relatively long maturity and bearing interest at a fixed rate substantially higher than prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rates. The bond is typically issued with the agreement of a third party, such as a bank, broker-dealer or other financial institution, which grants the security holders the option, at periodic intervals, to tender their securities to the institution and receive the face value thereof. As consideration for providing the option, the financial institution receives periodic fees equal to the difference between the bond's fixed coupon rate and the rate, as determined by a remarketing or similar agent at or near the commencement of such period, that would cause the securities, coupled with the tender option, to trade at par on the date of such determination. Thus, after payment of this fee, the security holder effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term, tax-exempt rate. However, an institution will not be obligated to accept tendered bonds in the event of certain defaults or a significant downgrade in the credit rating assigned to the issuer of the bond.

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Auction Rate Securities. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in auction rate securities. Auction rate securities include auction rate Municipal Securities and auction rate preferred securities issued by closed-end investment companies that invest primarily in Municipal Securities (collectively, "auction rate securities"). Provided that the auction mechanism is successful, auction rate securities usually permit the holder to sell the securities in an auction at par value at specified intervals. The dividend is reset by "Dutch" auction in which bids are made by broker-dealers and other institutions for a certain amount of securities at a specified minimum yield. The dividend rate set by the auction is the lowest interest or dividend rate that covers all securities offered for sale. While this process is designed to permit auction rate securities to be traded at par value, there is some risk that an auction will fail due to insufficient demand for the securities. In certain market environments, auction failures may be more prevalent, which may adversely affect the liquidity and price of auction rate securities. Moreover, between auctions, there may be no secondary market for these securities, and sales conducted on a secondary market may not be on terms favorable to the seller. Thus, with respect to liquidity and price stability, auction rate securities may differ substantially from cash equivalents, notwithstanding the frequency of auctions and the credit quality of the security. A Fund will take the time remaining until the next scheduled auction date into account for the purpose of determining the auction rate securities' duration.

Dividends on auction rate preferred securities issued by a closed-end fund may be designated as exempt from federal income tax to the extent they are attributable to exempt income earned by the fund on the securities in its portfolio and distributed to holders of the preferred securities, provided that the preferred securities are treated as equity securities for federal income tax purposes and the closed-end fund complies with certain tests under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code").

A Fund's investments in auction rate securities of closed-end funds are subject to the limitations prescribed by the Act and certain state securities regulations. The Funds will indirectly bear their proportionate share of any management and other fees paid by such closed-end funds in addition to the advisory fees payable directly by the Funds.

Insurance and Letters of Credit. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in "insured" tax-exempt Municipal Securities. Insured Municipal Securities are securities for which scheduled payments of interest and principal are guaranteed by a private (non-governmental) insurance company. The insurance only entitles a Fund to receive the face or par value of the securities held by the Fund. The insurance does not guarantee the market value of the Municipal Securities or the value of the Shares of a Fund.

The Funds may utilize new issue or secondary market insurance. A new issue insurance policy is purchased by a bond issuer who wishes to increase the credit rating of a security. By paying a premium and meeting the insurer's underwriting standards, the bond issuer is able to obtain a high credit rating (usually, Aaa from Moody's or AAA from Standard & Poor's) for the issued security. Such insurance is likely to increase the purchase price and resale value of the security. New issue insurance policies generally are non-cancelable and continue in force as long as the bonds are outstanding.

A secondary market insurance policy is purchased by an investor (such as a Fund) subsequent to a bond's original issuance and generally insures a particular bond for the remainder of its term. The Funds may purchase bonds which have already been insured under a secondary market insurance policy by a prior investor, or the Funds may directly purchase such a policy from insurers for bonds which are currently uninsured.

An insured Municipal Security acquired by a Fund will typically be covered by only one of the above types of policies.

Standby Commitments.In order to enhance the liquidity of Municipal Securities, certain Underlying Funds may acquire the right to sell a security to another party at a guaranteed price and date. Such a right to resell may be referred to as a "standby commitment" or liquidity put, depending on its characteristics. The aggregate price which an Underlying Fund pays for securities with standby commitments may be higher than the price which otherwise would be paid for the securities. Standby commitments may not be available or may not be available on satisfactory terms.

Standby commitments may involve letters of credit issued by domestic or foreign banks supporting the other party's ability to purchase the security from an Underlying Fund. The right to sell may be exercisable on demand or at specified intervals, and may form part of a security or be acquired separately by an Underlying Fund. In considering whether a security meets an Underlying Fund's quality standards, the particular Underlying Fund will look to the creditworthiness of the party providing the Underlying Fund with the right to sell as well as the quality of the security itself.

Certain Underlying Funds value Municipal Securities which are subject to standby commitments at amortized cost. The exercise price of the standby commitments is expected to approximate such amortized cost. No value is assigned to the standby commitments for purposes of determining an Underlying Fund's NAV. The cost of a standby commitment is carried as unrealized depreciation from the time of purchase until it is exercised or expires. Because the value of a standby commitment is dependent on the ability of the standby commitment writer to meet its obligation to repurchase, an Underlying Fund's policy is to enter into standby commitment transactions only with banks, brokers or dealers which present a minimal risk of default.

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The Investment Adviser understands that the IRS has issued a favorable revenue ruling to the effect that, under specified circumstances, a registered investment company will be the owner of tax exempt municipal obligations acquired subject to a put option. The IRS has subsequently announced that it will not ordinarily issue advance ruling letters as to the identity of the true owner of property in cases involving the sale of securities or participation interests therein if the purchaser has the right to cause the security, or the participation interest therein, to be purchased by either the seller or a third party. Certain Underlying Funds intend to take the position that they are the owner of any Municipal Securities acquired subject to a standby commitment or acquired or held with certain other types of put rights and that tax exempt interest earned with respect to such Municipal Securities will be tax exempt in their hands. There is no assurance that standby commitments will be available to the Underlying Funds nor have the Underlying Funds assumed that such commitments would continue to be available under all market conditions.

Call Risk and Reinvestment Risk. Municipal Securities may include "call" provisions which permit the issuers of such securities, at any time or after a specified period, to redeem the securities prior to their stated maturity. In the event that Municipal Securities held in an Underlying Fund's portfolio are called prior to the maturity, the Underlying Fund will be required to reinvest the proceeds on such securities at an earlier date and may be able to do so only at lower yields, thereby reducing the Underlying Fund's return on its portfolio securities.

Tobacco Settlement Revenue Bonds. Certain Underlying Funds may each invest a portion of its assets in tobacco settlement revenue bonds. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are municipal obligations that are backed entirely by expected revenues to be derived from lawsuits involving tobacco related deaths and illnesses which were settled between certain states and American tobacco companies. Tobacco settlement revenue bonds are secured by an issuing state's proportionate share in the Master Settlement Agreement ("MSA"). The MSA is an agreement, reached out of court in November 1998 between 46 states and nearly all of the U.S. tobacco manufacturers. The MSA provides for annual payments in perpetuity by the manufacturers to the states in exchange for releasing all claims against the manufacturers and a pledge of no further litigation. Tobacco manufacturers pay into a master escrow trust based on their market share, and each state receives a fixed percentage of the payment as set forth in the MSA. A number of states have securitized the future flow of those payments by selling bonds pursuant to indentures or through distinct governmental entities created for such purpose. The principal and interest payments on the bonds are backed by the future revenue flow related to the MSA. Annual payments on the bonds, and thus risk to an Underlying Fund, are highly dependent on the receipt of future settlement payments to the state or its governmental entity.

The actual amount of future settlement payments is further dependent on many factors, including, but not limited to, annual domestic cigarette shipments, reduced cigarette consumption, increased taxes on cigarettes, inflation, financial capability of tobacco companies, continuing litigation and the possibility of tobacco manufacturer bankruptcy. The initial and annual payments made by the tobacco companies will be adjusted based on a number of factors, the most important of which is domestic cigarette consumption. If the volume of cigarettes shipped in the U.S. by manufacturers participating in the settlement decreases significantly, payments due from them will also decrease. Demand for cigarettes in the U.S. could continue to decline due to price increases needed to recoup the cost of payments by tobacco companies. Demand could also be affected by: anti-smoking campaigns, tax increases, reduced advertising, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to minors; elimination of certain sales venues such as vending machines; and the spread of local ordinances restricting smoking in public places. As a result, payments made by tobacco manufacturers could be negatively impacted if the decrease in tobacco consumption is significantly greater than the forecasted decline. A market share loss by the MSA companies to non-MSA participating tobacco manufacturers would cause a downward adjustment in the payment amounts. A participating manufacturer filing for bankruptcy also could cause delays or reductions in bond payments. The MSA itself has been subject to legal challenges and has, to date, withstood those challenges.

Non-Diversified Status

The Strategic Growth Fund and certain Underlying Funds are non-diversified, meaning that they are permitted to invest a larger percentage of their assets in one or more issuers or in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. Thus, the Strategic Growth Fund and certain Underlying Funds may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in their respective portfolios, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments. Because Strategic Growth Fund and certain Underlying Funds are "non-diversified" under the Act, they are subject only to certain federal tax diversification requirements. Pursuant to such requirements, a Fund must diversify its holdings so that, in general, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the fair market value of the Fund's total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government Securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of

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the value of the Fund's total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), two or more issuers controlled by the Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices. Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may write (sell) call and put options on any securities in which it may invest or on any securities index composed of securities in which it may invest. A Fund may write such options on securities that are listed on national domestic securities exchanges or foreign securities exchanges or traded in the over-the-counter market. A call option written by a Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of a call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the "exercise price") on a certain date in the future (the "expiration date") or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser exercises the option, a Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by a Fund as the seller of the call option. A Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund. All call options written by a Fund are covered, which means that such Fund will own the securities subject to the option as long as the option is outstanding or such Fund will use the other methods described below. A Fund's purpose in writing call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, a Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

A put option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. All put options written by a Fund would be covered, which means that such Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. For more information about these practices, see "Description of Investment Securities and Practices - Asset Segregation."

The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, each Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities' market value at the time of purchase.

In the case of a call option, the option may be "covered" if a Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund's books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option may also be covered if a Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies on its books liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A put option may also be covered if a Fund holds a put on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. A Fund may also cover options on securities by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value when added to any margin on deposit that is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. In the case of the Core Fixed Income Fund and certain Underlying Funds, identified cash or liquid assets may be quoted or denominated in any currency.

A Fund may also write (sell) call and put options on any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

A Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index, or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or for additional consideration which has been identified by the Fund on its books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities in its portfolio. A Fund may also cover call and put options by identifying cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option or by owning offsetting options as described above.

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A Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange-traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as "closing purchase transactions."

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may also purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. A Fund may also enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

A Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase, or put options in anticipation of a decrease ("protective puts") in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle a Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities or other instruments exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The purchase of a put option would entitle a Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of a Fund's securities or other instruments. Put options may also be purchased by a Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities or other instruments which it does not own. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities or other instruments decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of put options may be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities or other instruments.

A Fund would purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it would purchase options on individual securities.

Yield Curve Options. The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may enter into options on the yield "spread" or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as "yield curve" options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

A Fund may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, a Fund may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if the Fund owns one of the securities and anticipates purchasing the other security and wants to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. A Fund may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of the Investment Adviser, the Fund will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by a Fund will be "covered." A call (or put) option is covered if the Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Fund's net liability under the two options. Therefore, a Fund's liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of the Fund's liability under the option written by the Fund less the value of the option held by the Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter, and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Currency. A Fund and certain Underlying Funds may, to the extent that it invests in foreign securities, write and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies for the purpose of protecting against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign securities to be acquired. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up

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to the amount of the premium received. If an option that a Fund has written is exercised, the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to a Fund's position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter.

Options on currency may also be used for cross-hedging purposes, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation, or to seek to increase total return when the Investment Adviser anticipates that the currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but the securities quoted or denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not included in the Fund's portfolio.

A currency call option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to sell a specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. A currency put option written by a Fund obligates the Fund to purchase a specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that a Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency's market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency's market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under "Writing and Purchasing Call and Put Options on Securities and Securities Indices" above.

A Fund may terminate its obligations under a call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Such purchases are referred to as "closing purchase transactions." A Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options purchased by the Fund.

A Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities to be acquired by the Fund are quoted or denominated. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

A Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities in its portfolio are quoted or denominated ("protective puts"). The purchase of a put option would entitle a Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the dollar value of a Fund's portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. A Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of underlying currency or portfolio securities.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, the Funds may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. The Funds may write (sell) put and call options on any currency in an attempt to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing call options for additional income, the Funds may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, the Funds accept, in return for the option premium, the risk that they may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency's market value at the time of purchase.

Risks Associated with Options Transactions. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If a Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if a Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation

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may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events will not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers who make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

Transactions by each Fund in options will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert, regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facility or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which a Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of options to seek to increase total return involves the risk of loss if the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of the Investment Adviser to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. If the Investment Adviser is incorrect in its expectation of changes in securities prices or determination of the correlation between the securities or securities indices on which options are written and purchased and the securities in a Fund's investment portfolio, the Fund may incur losses that it would not otherwise incur. The writing of options could increase a Fund's portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Special Risks Associated with Options on Currency. An exchange-traded options position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although a Fund will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time. For some options no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of put options. If a Fund as an option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it will not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency), or dispose of the identified assets, until the option expires or it delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher than anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers' orders.

A Fund may purchase and write over-the-counter options. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by a Fund.

The amount of the premiums that a Fund may pay or receive may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

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Pooled Investment Vehicles

Each Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies and ETFs. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by a Fund. A Fund's investments in pooled investment vehicles are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund's total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies.

Subject to applicable law and/or pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Funds may invest in other investment companies, including ETFs and money market funds, beyond the statutory limits described above or otherwise provided that certain conditions are met. Some of those other investment companies may be funds for which the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. Although the Funds do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, each Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund. Additionally, if any Fund serves as an "underlying Fund" to another Goldman Sachs Fund or unaffiliated investment company, a Fund's ability to invest in other investment companies and private funds may be limited and, under these circumstances, a Fund's investments in other investment companies and private funds will be consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive relief obtained from the SEC.

Each Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, High Quality Floating Rate and Government Money Market Funds) and certain Underlying Funds may purchase shares of investment companies investing primarily in foreign securities, including "country funds." Country funds have portfolios consisting primarily of securities of issuers located in specified foreign countries or regions.

ETFs are shares of pooled investment vehicles issuing shares which are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. An ETF generally represents a portfolio of securities or other assets, which is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries risks of its underlying securities or other assets. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF's shares may fluctuate or lose money. In addition, because they, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF's shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF's NAV; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of a Fund's shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.

Portfolio Maturity

Dollar-weighted average maturity is derived by multiplying the value of each investment by the time remaining to its maturity, adding these calculations, and then dividing the total by the value of a Fund's portfolio. An obligation's maturity is typically determined on a stated final maturity basis, although there are some exceptions. For example, if an issuer of an instrument takes advantage of a maturity-shortening device, such as a call, refunding, or redemption provision, the date on which the instrument is expected to be called, refunded, or redeemed may be considered to be its maturity date. There is no guarantee that the expected call, refund or redemption will occur, and the Fund's average maturity may lengthen beyond the Investment Adviser's expectations should the expected call refund or redemption not occur. Similarly, in calculating its dollar-weighted average maturity, the Fund may determine the maturity of a variable or floating rate obligation according to the interest rate reset date, or the date principal can be recovered on demand, rather than the date of ultimate maturity.

Portfolio Turnover

Each Fund and Underlying Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from price disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for equity securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate of a Fund may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings, cash requirements for redemption of shares and by requirements which enable the Funds to receive favorable tax treatment. The Funds are not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in their investment portfolio from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate. It can change from year to year without notice.

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During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, the Global Trends Allocation Fund's portfolio turnover rate increased from its portfolio turnover rate from the prior year due to volatile market conditions and increased trading.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

Each Equity Fund, the Core Fixed Income Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights ("rights") (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer's earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer's board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.

Warrants and other rights are options that entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. A Fund or Underlying Fund will invest in warrants and rights only if such equity securities are deemed appropriate by the Investment Adviser for investment by the Fund. The Equity Insights Funds have no present intention of acquiring warrants or rights. Warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

Each Equity Fund, the Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds may invest in shares of REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Funds, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. A Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.

Repurchase Agreements

Each Fund and certain Underlying Funds may enter into repurchase agreements with counterparties approved by the Investment Adviser pursuant to procedures approved by the Board of Trustees that furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligations. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. Government Securities may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty's insolvency. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which a Fund purchases securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price. Custody of the securities is maintained by a Fund's custodian (or subcustodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to a Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to a Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to a Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

For purposes of the Act and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from a Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by a Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by a Fund or as being collateral for a loan by a Fund to the seller.

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In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, a Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in price of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and a Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, a Fund may be required to return the security to the seller's estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, a Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction. To minimize this risk, the Funds utilize custodians and subcustodians that the Investment Adviser believes follow customary securities industry practice with respect to repurchase agreements, and the Investment Adviser analyzes the creditworthiness of the obligor, in this case the seller of the securities. But because of the legal uncertainties, this risk, like others associated with repurchase agreements, cannot be eliminated.

Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), a Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price.

Each Fund may not invest in repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days if, as a result thereof, more than 15% of the net assets of that Fund taken at market value (with respect to the Government Money Market Fund, 5% of its total assets measured using the amortized cost method of valuation) would be invested in such investments and other securities which are not readily marketable. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice.

In addition, each Fund, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Restricted Securities

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and Underlying Funds may purchase securities and other financial instruments that are not registered or that are offered in an exempt non-public offering ("Restricted Securities") under the 1933 Act, including securities eligible for resale to "qualified institutional buyers" pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of Restricted Securities may reflect a discount from the price at which such securities trade when they are not restricted, because the restriction makes them less liquid. The amount of the discount from the prevailing market price is expected to vary depending upon the type of security, the character of the issuer, the party who will bear the expenses of registering the Restricted Securities and prevailing supply and demand conditions. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in Restricted Securities.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fixed Income and Global Trends Allocation Funds and certain Underlying Funds may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, a Fund will sell portfolio securities to dealers in U.S. Government Securities or members of the Federal Reserve System, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. For the Core Fixed Income and Global Trends Allocation Funds and certain Underlying Funds, these reverse repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities a Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of a Fund's outstanding shares.

Reverse repurchase agreements are a form of secured borrowing and subject a Fund to the risks associated with leverage, including exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the amount invested. If the securities held by a Fund decline in value while these transactions are outstanding, the NAV of the Fund's outstanding shares will decline in value by proportionately more than the decline in value of the securities. In addition, reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the investment return earned by a Fund (from the investment of the proceeds) will be less than the interest expense of the transaction, that the market value of the securities sold by a Fund will decline below the price the Fund is obligated to pay to repurchase the securities, and that the other party may fail to return the securities in a timely manner or at all.

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When a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it is subject to the risk that the buyer under the agreement may file for bankruptcy, become insolvent or otherwise default on its obligations to the Fund. In the event of a default by the counterparty, there may be delays, costs and risks of loss involved in a Fund's exercising its rights under the agreement, or those rights may be limited by other contractual agreements or obligations or by applicable law. Such an insolvency may result in a loss equal to the amount by which the value of the securities or other assets sold by a Fund exceeds the repurchase price payable by the Fund; if the value of the purchased securities or other assets increases during such a delay, that loss may also be increased. In addition, a Fund may be unable to sell the instruments it acquires with the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement at a time when it would be advantageous to do so, or may be required to liquidate portfolio securities at a time when it would be disadvantageous to do so in order to make payments with respect to its obligations under a reverse repurchase agreement. This could adversely affect a Fund's strategy and result in lower fund returns. A Fund could lose money if it is unable to recover the securities or if the value of investments made by the Fund using the proceeds of the transaction is less than the value of securities.

When a Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The amount of cash or liquid assets so identified is thereafter monitored continuously to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Act.

As discussed in more detail above, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies. In connection with the final rule, the SEC and its staff will rescind and withdraw applicable guidance and relief regarding asset segregation and coverage transactions reflected in a Fund's asset segregation and cover practices discussed herein. For more information about these practices, see the section entitled "Asset Segregation" above.

Risks of Qualified Financial Contracts

Regulations adopted by federal banking regulators under the Dodd-Frank Act, which took effect throughout 2019, require that certain qualified financial contracts ("QFCs") with counterparties that are part of U.S. or foreign global systemically important banking organizations be amended to include contractual restrictions on close-out and cross-default rights. QFCs include, but are not limited to, securities contracts, commodities contracts, forward contracts, repurchase agreements, securities lending agreements and swaps agreements, as well as related master agreements, security agreements, credit enhancements, and reimbursement obligations. If a covered counterparty of a Fund, Underlying Fund or certain of the covered counterparty's affiliates were to become subject to certain insolvency proceedings, the Fund or Underlying Fund may be temporarily unable to exercise certain default rights, and the QFC may be transferred to another entity. These requirements may impact the Fund's or Underlying Fund's credit and counterparty risks.

Short Sales

Certain Underlying Funds may engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which a Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividend which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. There will also be other costs associated with short sales.

An Underlying Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the security declines in price between those dates. This result is the opposite of what one would expect from a cash purchase of a long position in a security. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium or amounts in lieu of interest the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale, and will be also decreased by any transaction or other costs.

Until a Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Fund will (a) identify on its books cash or liquid assets at such a level that the identified assets plus any amount deposited as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short or (b) otherwise cover its short position in accordance with applicable law.

As discussed in more detail above, the SEC adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies. In connection with the final rule, the SEC and its staff will rescind and withdraw applicable guidance and relief regarding asset segregation and coverage transactions reflected in a Fund's asset segregation and cover practices discussed herein. For more information about these practices, see the section entitled "Asset Segregation" above.

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There is no guarantee that a Fund will be able to close out a short position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. During the time that a Fund is short a security, it is subject to the risk that the lender of the security will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same security from another lender. If that occurs, the Fund may be "bought in" at the price required to purchase the security needed to close out the short position, which may be a disadvantageous price.

Short Sales Against the Box

Each Equity Fund (other than the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, International Equity Insights and Equity Index Funds), the High Quality Floating Rate Fund and certain Underlying Fundsmay engage in short sales against the box. In a short sale, the seller sells a borrowed security and has a corresponding obligation to the lender to return the identical security. The seller does not immediately deliver the securities sold and is said to have a short position in those securities until delivery occurs. While a short sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own, a short sale is "against the box" to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. It may be entered into by a Fund, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If a Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises.

If a Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a "constructive sale") on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if a Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which the Fund may effect short sales.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies

The Growth Opportunities Fund, Large Cap Value Fund, Mid Cap Value Fund, and Strategic Growth Fund may invest in stock, warrants, and other securities of special purpose acquisition companies ("SPACs") or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. A SPAC is typically a publicly traded company that raises funds through an initial public offering ("IPO") for the purpose of acquiring or merging with another company to be identified subsequent to the SPAC's IPO. The securities of a SPAC are often issued in "units" that include one share of common stock and one right or warrant (or partial right or warrant) conveying the right to purchase additional shares or partial shares. Unless and until a transaction is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments. If an acquisition or merger that meets the requirements for the SPAC is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the SPAC's shareholders, less certain permitted expenses, and any rights or warrants issued by the SPAC will expire worthless.

Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank check companies without operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity's management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. An investment in a SPAC is subject to a variety of risks, including that (i) a portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended prior to the transaction for payment of taxes and other expenses; (ii) prior to any acquisition or merger, a SPAC's assets are typically invested in U.S. government securities, money market funds and similar investments whose returns or yields may be significantly lower than those of a Fund's other investments; (iii) a Fund generally will not receive significant income from its investments in SPACs (both prior to and after any acquisition or merger) and, therefore, the Fund's investments in SPACs will not significantly contribute to the Fund's distributions to shareholders; (iv) attractive acquisition or merger targets may become scarce if the number of SPACs seeking to acquire operating businesses increases; (v) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all, in which case the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders; (vi) if an acquisition or merger target is identified, a Fund may elect not to participate in, or vote to approve, the proposed transaction or the Fund may be required to divest its interests in the SPAC, due to regulatory or other considerations, in which case the Fund may not reap any resulting benefits; (vii) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a Fund may expire worthless or may be redeemed by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; (viii) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders and/or antitrust and securities regulators; (ix) under any circumstances in which a Fund receives a refund of all or a portion of its original investment (which typically represents a pro rata share of the proceeds of the SPAC's assets, less any applicable taxes), the returns on that investment may be negligible, and the Fund may be subject to opportunity costs to the extent that alternative investments would have produced higher returns; (x) to the extent an acquisition or merger is announced or completed, shareholders who redeem their shares prior to that time may not reap any resulting benefits; (xi) a Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; (xii) an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the

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SPAC may lose value; (xiii) an investment in a SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; (xiv) only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in a SPAC may develop, or there may be no market at all, leaving a Fund unable to sell its interest in a SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC interest's intrinsic value; and (xv) the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time.

Structured Notes

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in structured notes. Structured notes are derivative debt securities, the interest rate and/or principal of which is determined by an unrelated indicator. The value of the principal of and/or interest on structured notes is determined by reference to changes in the return, interest rate or value at maturity of a specific asset, reference rate or index (the "reference instrument") or the relative change in two or more reference instruments. The terms of structured notes may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity, which may result in a loss of invested capital. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may also be increased or decreased, depending upon changes in the applicable reference instruments. Structured notes may be positively or negatively indexed, so that an increase in value of the reference instrument may produce an increase or a decrease in the interest rate or value of the structured note at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rate or the value of the structured note at maturity may be calculated as a specified multiple of the change in the value of the reference instrument; therefore, the value of such note may be very volatile. Structured notes may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured notes may also be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

Temporary Investments

Each Fund (except the Equity Index and Government Money Market Funds) and each Underlying Fund may (to the extent that it is permitted to invest in the following), for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor's, P-2 by Moody's or having a comparable credit rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable credit quality); certificates of deposit; bankers' acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs and other investment companies; and cash items.

Under normal circumstances, the cash positions of the Government Money Market Fund will not exceed 20% of the Fund's net assets plus any borrowings for investment purposes (measured at the time of investment). Under unusual circumstances, including adverse market conditions or the prevailing interest rate environment, or when the Investment Adviser believes there is an insufficient supply of appropriate money market instruments in which to invest, or in the case of unusually large cash inflows or redemptions, the Government Money Market Fund may hold uninvested cash in lieu of appropriate money market instruments. Cash assets are not income-generating and, as a result, the Government Money Market Fund's current yield may be adversely affected during periods when such positions are held. Cash positions may also subject the Government Money Market Fund to additional risks and costs, such as increased exposure to the custodian bank holding the assets and any fees imposed for large cash balances.

The Equity Index Fund will not make investments for defensive purposes, but may invest in short-term debt securities to maintain liquidity, or pending investment in stocks.

When a Fund's assets are invested in such instruments (or are uninvested), the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Trust Preferred Securities

The Fixed Income and Global Trends Allocation Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in trust preferred securities. A trust preferred or capital security is a long dated bond (for example 30 years) with preferred features. The preferred features are that payment of interest can be deferred for a specified period without initiating a default event. From a bondholder's viewpoint, the securities are senior in claim to standard preferred but are junior to other bondholders. From the issuer's viewpoint, the securities are attractive because their interest is deductible for tax purposes like other types of debt instruments.

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U.S. Government Securities

Each Fund and Underlying Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities, which are obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Some U.S. Government Securities (such as U.S. Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) the credit of the issuer. The U.S. Government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future, and the U.S. Government may be unable to pay debts when due.

U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. Government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. These and other factors discussed in the section above, entitled "Illiquid Investments," may impact the liquidity of investments in these participations.

Each Fund and certain Underlying Funds may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program ("STRIPS"). Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury Securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury securities.

Inflation-Protected Securities. The Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in Treasury inflation-protected securities, and in addition, the Fixed Income Funds, Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and certain Underlying Funds may invest in non-U.S. and corporate inflation-protected securities (together, "IPS"), which are securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on IPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the greater of the adjusted or original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of IPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

The values of IPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates will decline, leading to an increase in the value of IPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates will rise, leading to a decrease in the value of IPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period a Fund holds IPS, a Fund may earn less on the IPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in IPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds' inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for IPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

The U.S. Treasury utilizes the CPIU as the measurement of inflation, while other issuers of IPS may use different indices as the measure of inflation. Any increase in principal value of IPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though a Fund holding IPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, a Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If a Fund invests in IPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If a Fund purchases such IPS that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because a Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), a Fund's investment in either zero coupon bonds or IPS may require a Fund to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, a Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

Variable Rate Demand Obligations

The Fixed Income Funds and certain Underlying Funds may invest in "leveraged" inverse floating rate debt instruments ("inverse floaters"), including "leveraged inverse floaters." The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity. Certain inverse floaters may be illiquid investments for purposes of each Fixed Income Fund's limitation on illiquid investments.

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When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

Each Fund (except the Global Trends Allocation Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may purchase securities on a when-issued basis, including TBA ("To Be Announced") securities, or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. TBA securities, which are usually mortgage-backed securities, are purchased on a forward commitment basis with an approximate principal amount and no defined maturity date. These transactions involve a commitment by a Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. In addition, recently finalized rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA") include mandatory margin requirements that require a Fund to post collateral in connection with its TBA transactions. There is no similar requirement applicable to a Fund's TBA counterparties. The required collateralization of TBA trades could increase the cost of TBA transactions to the Fund and impose added operations complexity. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. A Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, a Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. A Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. A Fund may realize a capital gain or loss in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining a Fund's duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities will be calculated from the commitment date. A Fund is generally required to identify on its books cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund's obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, a Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-in-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

Each Fund (other than the Government Money Market Fund) and certain Underlying Funds may invest in zero coupon bonds. The Fixed Income Funds, Global Trends Allocation Fund and certain Underlying Funds also may invest in deferred interest, pay-in-kind ("PIK") and capital appreciation bonds. Zero coupon, deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to zero coupon bonds and deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can be either senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat (i.e., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

The market prices of zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality. Moreover, zero coupon, deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, a Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, a Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The valuation of such investments requires judgment regarding the collection of future payments. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, the Funds are nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally are required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, a Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to the Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax-exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See "TAXATION."

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Special Note Regarding Regulatory Changes and Other Market Events

Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the Fund or the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Future legislation or regulation or other governmental actions could limit or preclude the Fund's ability to achieve its investment objective or otherwise adversely impact an investment in the Fund. Furthermore, worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness of the United States, could have a negative impact on securities markets.

The Funds' investments, payment obligations and financing terms may be based on floating rates, such as LIBOR, EURIBOR and other similar types of reference rates (each, a "Reference Rate"). On July 27, 2017, the Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade nor compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR and certain other Reference Rates after 2021. Such announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR and other Reference Rates on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. This announcement and any additional regulatory or market changes may have an adverse impact on a Fund's investments, performance or financial condition. Until then, the Funds may continue to invest in instruments that reference such rates or otherwise use such Reference Rates due to favorable liquidity or pricing.

In advance of the expected transition date in 2021, regulators and market participants have worked and will seek to work together to identify or develop successor Reference Rates (e.g., the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, which is likely to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR and measures the cost of overnight borrowings through repurchase agreement transactions collateralized with U.S. Treasury securities) and how the calculation of associated spreads (if any) should be adjusted. Additionally, prior to the expected transition date in 2021, it is expected that industry trade associations and participants will focus on the transition mechanisms by which the Reference Rates and spreads (if any) in existing contracts or instruments may be amended, whether through marketwide protocols, fallback contractual provisions, bespoke negotiations or amendments or otherwise. Nonetheless, the termination of certain Reference Rates presents risks to the Funds. At this time, it is not possible to exhaustively identify or predict the effect of any such changes, any establishment of alternative Reference Rates or any other reforms to Reference Rates that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. The elimination of a Reference Rate or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of Reference Rates may affect the value, liquidity or return on certain Fund investments and may result in costs incurred in connection with closing out positions and entering into new trades, adversely impacting a Fund's overall financial condition or results of operations. The impact of any successor or substitute Reference Rate, if any, will vary on an investment-by-investment basis, and any differences may be material and/or create material economic mismatches, especially if investments are used for hedging or similar purposes. In addition, although certain Fund investments may provide for a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate) if the Reference Rate becomes unavailable, certain Fund investments may not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). Accordingly, there may be disputes as to: (i) any successor or substitute Reference Rate; or (ii) the enforceability of any Fund investment that does not provide such a successor or substitute Reference Rate (or terms governing how to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate). The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates may have discretion to determine a successor or substitute Reference Rate, including any price or other adjustments to account for differences between the successor or substitute Reference Rate and the previous rate. The successor or substitute Reference Rate and any adjustments selected may negatively impact a Fund's investments, performance or financial condition, including in ways unforeseen by the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and/or their affiliates. In addition, any successor or substitute Reference Rate and any pricing adjustments imposed by a regulator or by counterparties or otherwise may adversely affect a Fund's performance and/or NAV, and may expose a Fund to additional tax, accounting and regulatory risks.

In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the financial sector experienced reduced liquidity in credit and other fixed income markets, and an unusually high degree of volatility, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets were impacted, issuers that had exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets were particularly affected. The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. Government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010, provides for broad regulation of financial institutions, consumer financial products and services, broker-dealers, over-the-counter derivatives, investment advisers, credit rating agencies and mortgage lending.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Fund's portfolio holdings.

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In addition, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, and political, economic and other conditions and events (including, but not limited to, natural disasters, pandemics, epidemics, and social unrest) in one country, region, or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. Furthermore, the occurrence of, among other events, natural or man-made disasters, severe weather or geological events, fires, floods, earthquakes, outbreaks of disease (such as COVID-19, avian influenza or H1N1/09), epidemics, pandemics, malicious acts, cyber-attacks, terrorist acts or the occurrence of climate change, may also adversely impact the performance of a Fund. Such events may result in, among other things, closing borders, exchange closures, health screenings, healthcare service delays, quarantines, cancellations, supply chain disruptions, lower consumer demand, market volatility and general uncertainty. Such events could adversely impact issuers, markets and economies over the short- and long-term, including in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. A Fund could be negatively impacted if the value of a portfolio holding were harmed by such political or economic conditions or events. Moreover, such negative political and economic conditions and events could disrupt the processes necessary for a Fund's operations. See "Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks" for additional information on operational risks.

Moreover, in response to the outbreak of COVID-19, as with other serious economic disruptions, governmental authorities and regulators are enacting significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, including, among other things, lowering interest rates. Interest rates in the United States are currently at historically low levels. During periods when interest rates are low (or negative), a Fund's yield (or total return) may also be low and fall below zero. Changing interest rates, including rates that fall below zero, may have unpredictable effects on markets, may result in heightened market volatility and may detract from Fund performance to the extent a Fund is exposed to such interest rates and/or volatility. Certain European countries and Japan have pursued negative interest rate policies. A negative interest rate policy is an unconventional central bank monetary policy tool where nominal target interest rates are set with negative value intended to help create self-sustaining growth in the local economy. To the extent a Fund holds a debt instrument with a negative interest rate, the Fund would generate a negative return on that investment. If negative interest rates become more prevalent in the market, investors may seek to reallocate their investment to other income-producing assets, which could further reduce the value of instruments with a negative yield.

Special Note Regarding Operational, Cyber Security and Litigation Risks

An investment in a Fund or Underlying Fund may be negatively impacted because of the operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. The use of certain investment strategies that involve manual or additional processing, such as over-the-counter derivatives, increases these risks. Although the Funds attempt to minimize such failures through controls and oversight, it is not possible to identify all of the operational risks that may affect a Fund or to develop processes and controls that completely eliminate or mitigate the occurrence of such failures. A Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result.

Each Fund is also susceptible to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. In general, cyber-attacks result from deliberate attacks, but other events may have effects similar to those caused by cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among others, stealing or corrupting confidential information and other data that is maintained online or digitally for financial gain, denial-of-service attacks on websites causing operational disruption, and the unauthorized release of confidential information and other data. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its investment adviser, sub-adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediary or other third-party service provider may adversely impact the Fund and its shareholders. These cyber-attacks have the ability to cause significant disruptions and impact business operations; to result in financial losses; to prevent shareholders from transacting business; to interfere with the Funds' calculation of NAV and to lead to violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs and/or additional compliance costs. Similar to operational risk in general, the Funds and their service providers, including GSAM, have instituted risk management systems designed to minimize the risks associated with cyber security. However, there is a risk that these systems will not succeed (or that any remediation efforts will not be successful), especially because the Funds do not directly control the risk management systems of the service providers to the Funds, their trading counterparties or the issuers in which a Fund may invest. Moreover, there is a risk that cyber-attacks will not be detected.

The Funds may be subject to third-party litigation, which could give rise to legal liability. These matters involving the Funds may arise from their activities and investments and could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds, including the expense of defending against claims and paying any amounts pursuant to settlements or judgments. There can be no guarantee that these matters will not arise in the normal course of business. If the Funds were to be found liable in any suit or proceeding, any associated damages and/or penalties could have a materially adverse effect on the Funds' finances, in addition to being materially damaging to their reputation.

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INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to a Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the Act) of the affected Fund. The investment objective of each Fund and all other investment policies or practices of each Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a "majority" of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of (i) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust or a Fund present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or a Fund.

For purposes of the following limitations (except for the asset coverage requirement with respect to borrowing, which is subject to different requirements under the Act), any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, a Fund. With respect to investment restriction number (8) below, each Fund (with the exception of the Global Trends Allocation Fund) is currently classified as a diversified open-end management company under the Act. With respect to the Funds' fundamental investment restriction number (2) below, asset coverage of at least 300% (as defined in the Act), inclusive of any amounts borrowed, must be maintained at all times.

Fundamental Investment Restrictions

As a matter of fundamental policy, a Fund may not:

All Funds Except the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Government Money Market Fund

(1)

Invest 25% or more of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (excluding the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities). (For the purposes of this restriction, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries; telephone companies are considered to be a separate industry from water, gas or electric utilities; personal credit finance companies and business credit finance companies are deemed to be separate industries; and wholly-owned finance companies are considered to be in the industry of their parents if their activities are primarily related to financing the activities of their parents.) This restriction does not apply to investments in municipal securities which have been pre-refunded by the use of obligations of the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities;

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

(1)

Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry;

Government Money Market Fund

(1)

Purchase securities if such purchase would cause more than 25% in the aggregate of the market value of the total assets of the Fund to be invested in the securities of one or more issuers having their principal business activities in the same industry, provided that there is no limitation with respect to, and the Fund reserves freedom of action, when otherwise consistent with its investment policies, to concentrate its investments in obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities, obligations (other than commercial paper) issued or guaranteed by U.S. banks and U.S. branches of U.S. or foreign banks and repurchase agreements and securities loans collateralized by such U.S. government obligations or such bank obligations;

U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value and International Equity Insights Funds

(2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act) or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

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Growth Opportunities, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate and Core Fixed Income Funds

(2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

Global Trends Allocation Fund

(2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings;

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

(2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed) (investments in reverse repurchase agreements would not be subject to this percentage limitation if they are "covered" in accordance with the Act); (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes; (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities; (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law; and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

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Government Money Market Fund

(2)

Borrow money, except (a) the Fund, to the extent permitted by applicable law, may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in transactions in mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings;

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value and International Equity Insights Funds

(3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund's investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions and (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law;

Growth Opportunities, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate, Core Fixed Income, Global Trends Allocation, Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Government Money Market Funds

(3)

Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund's investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law, and (d) loans to affiliates of such Funds to the extent permitted by law;

All Funds

(4)

Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting;

All Funds Except the Core Fixed Income Fund

(5)

Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, securities of real estate investment trusts and mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;

Core Fixed Income Fund

(5)

Hold or deal in real estate (including real estate limited partnerships) or oil, gas or mineral leases, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein, may purchase mortgage-related securities and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities;

All Funds Except Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

(6)

Invest in commodities or commodity contracts, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts that are commodities or commodity contracts;

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

(6)

Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity;

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All Funds

(7)

Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law;

All Funds Except the Global Trends Allocation Fund and Strategic Growth Fund

(8)

Make any investment inconsistent with the Fund's classification as a diversified company under the Act. This restriction does not, however, apply to any Fund classified as a non-diversified company under the Act;

The Global Trends Allocation Fund was previously registered as a non-diversified investment company. Pursuant to current positions of the SEC staff, the Fund's classification has changed from non-diversified to diversified, and the Fund will not be able to become non-diversified unless it seeks and obtains the approval of shareholders. Accordingly, the Fund may not make any investment inconsistent with the Fund's classification as a diversified company under the Act.

Each Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same investment restrictions and policies as the Fund. Greater than 25% of the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio's total assets may be indirectly exposed to a particular industry through its investment in one or more Underlying Funds.

For purposes of the Funds' industry concentration policies, the Investment Adviser may analyze the characteristics of a particular issuer and instrument and may assign an industry classification consistent with those characteristics. The Investment Adviser may, but need not, consider industry classifications provided by third parties, and the classifications applied to Fund investments will be informed by applicable law.

Non-Fundamental Investment Restrictions

In addition to the fundamental policies mentioned above, the Trustees have adopted the following non-fundamental policies with respect to the Government Money Market Fund, which can be changed or amended by action of the Trustees without approval of shareholders. Again, for purposes of the following limitations, any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition of securities by the Fund.

The Government Money Market Fund may not:

(a)

Purchase additional securities if the Fund's borrowings (excluding covered mortgage dollar rolls and such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities) exceed 5% of its net assets; or

(b)

Make short sales of securities, except that the Fund may make short sales against the box; or

(c)

Engage in reverse repurchase transactions, notwithstanding the Fund's fundamental policy that would allow the Fund to borrow through reverse repurchase agreements.

Additional Restrictions Applicable to the Government Money Market Fund

The Government Money Market Fund must also comply, as a non-fundamental policy, with Rule 2a-7 under the Act. While a detailed and technical rule, Rule 2a-7 generally requires money market funds to meet four basic risk-limiting conditions relating to portfolio maturity, portfolio quality, portfolio diversification and portfolio liquidity.

Portfolio maturity. Rule 2a-7 requires that the maximum maturity (as determined in accordance with Rule 2a-7) of any security in the Government Money Market Fund's portfolio not exceed 13 months and the Fund's dollar-weighted average portfolio maturity and dollar-weighted average portfolio life not exceed 60 days or 120 days, respectively.

Portfolio quality. Under Rule 2a-7, the Government Money Market Fund may invest only in "Eligible Securities." Eligible Securities are U.S. dollar-denominated securities that are either (i) U.S. Government Securities, (ii) issued by other investment companies that are money market funds, or (iii) determined by the Investment Adviser to present minimal credit risks to the Fund. In addition, the Fund, as a matter of non-fundamental policy, only invests in First Tier Securities. "First Tier Securities" are (a) securities rated in the highest

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short-term rating category by at least two NRSROs, or if only one NRSRO has assigned a rating, by that NRSRO; (b) securities issued or guaranteed by, or that otherwise allow the Fund under certain conditions to demand payment from, an entity with such ratings; or (c) securities subject to repurchase agreements that are collateralized by First Tier Securities. U.S. Government Securities are considered First Tier Securities. Securities rated in the top two short-term rating categories by at least two NRSROs or by the only NRSRO which has assigned a rating, but which are not First Tier securities are "Second Tier securities." Securities without short-term ratings may be purchased if they are deemed to be of comparable quality by the Investment Adviser to First Tier Securities. In addition, the Fund may generally rely on the credit quality of the guarantee or demand feature in determining the credit quality of a security supported by a guarantee or demand feature. NRSROs include Standard & Poor's, Moody's, Fitch and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited. For a description of their rating categories, see Appendix A.

Portfolio diversification. The Government Money Market Fund may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one issuer (except U.S. Government Securities, repurchase agreements collateralized fully by such securities and certain securities that are backed by escrowed U.S. Government Securities). The Fund may, however, invest up to 25% of its total assets in the First Tier Securities of a single issuer for a period of up to three business days after the purchase thereof. Certain affiliated issuers are treated as a single issuer for purposes of these requirements. Subject to certain exceptions, immediately after the acquisition of any demand features or guarantees (i.e., generally, the right to sell the security at a price equal to its approximate amortized cost (for a demand feature) or principal amount (for a guarantee) plus accrued interest), with respect to all of the assets of the Fund, no more than 10% of the Fund's total assets may be invested in securities issued by or subject to demand features or guarantees issued by the same issuer.

Portfolio liquidity. The Government Money Market Fund is required to maintain a sufficient degree of liquidity necessary to meet reasonably foreseeable redemption requests. In addition, the Fund: (i) must hold at least 10% of its total assets in "daily liquid assets" (as defined in the Prospectus); and (ii) must hold at least 30% of its total assets in "weekly liquid assets" (as defined in the Prospectus). The Fund may not acquire an illiquid security if, after the purchase, more than 5% of the Fund's total assets would consist of illiquid securities.

Defaults and other Adverse Events. In the event that a portfolio security of the Fund experiences a default or certain other adverse events, the Rule imposes additional requirements. Upon the occurrence of (i) a default with respect to a portfolio security (other than an immaterial default unrelated to the financial condition of the issuer), (ii) a portfolio security ceasing to be an Eligible Security (e.g., no longer presents minimal credit risks), or (iii) an event of insolvency (as defined in the Rule) occurring with respect to the issuer of a portfolio security or the provider of any demand feature or guarantee, the Fund will dispose of such security as soon as practicable consistent with achieving an orderly disposition of the security, absent a finding by the Board of Trustees that disposal of the portfolio security would not be in the best interests of the Fund (which determination may take into account, among other factors, market conditions that could affect the orderly disposition of the portfolio security).

"Value" for the purposes of all investment restrictions means the value used in determining a Fund's NAV. "U.S. Government Securities" shall mean securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities.

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust's Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Funds are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the "Board"), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust's Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust's service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise each Fund's daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be "interested persons" of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as "Independent Trustees." Trustees who are deemed to be "interested persons" of the Trust are referred to as "Interested Trustees." The Board is currently composed of seven Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chair, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and its Committees, except as otherwise specified in the applicable Committee charter documents, and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chair's duties, the Chair will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Funds' officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chair may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

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The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular meetings at least six times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1) and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Funds, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

The Board has established five standing committees - Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance, Valuation and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board's oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section "STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES," below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust's leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of April 30, 2021 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees


Name, Address
and Age1

Position(s)

Held with

the Trust

Term of Office

and Length of

Time Served2

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3

Other
Directorships
Held by
Trustee4

Jessica Palmer

Age: 72

Chair of the Board of Trustees Since 2018 (Trustee since 2007)

Ms. Palmer is retired. She was formerly Consultant, Citigroup Human Resources Department (2007-2008); Managing Director, Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) (1984-2006). Ms. Palmer was a Member of the Board of Trustees of Indian Mountain School (private elementary and secondary school) (2004-2009).

Chair of the Board of Trustees-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 None

Dwight L. Bush

Age: 64

Trustee Since 2020

Ambassador Bush is President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates (a financial advisory and private investment firm) (2002-2014 and 2017-present); and was formerly U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco (2014-2017) and a Member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A. (2018-2019). Previously, Ambassador Bush served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019-January 2020).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 None

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Name, Address
and Age1

Position(s)

Held with

the Trust

Term of Office

and Length of

Time Served2

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3

Other
Directorships
Held by Trustee4

Kathryn A. Cassidy

Age: 67

Trustee Since 2015

Ms. Cassidy is retired. Formerly, she was Advisor to the Chairman (May 2014-December 2014); and Senior Vice President and Treasurer (2008-2014), General Electric Company & General Electric Capital Corporation (technology and financial services companies).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 None

Diana M. Daniels

Age: 71

Trustee Since 2007

Ms. Daniels is retired. Formerly, she was Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, The Washington Post Company (1991-2006). Ms. Daniels is a Trustee Emeritus and serves as a Presidential Councillor of Cornell University (2013-Present); former Member of the Legal Advisory Board, New York Stock Exchange (2003-2006) and of the Corporate Advisory Board, Standish Mellon Management Advisors (2006-2007).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 None

Joaquin Delgado

Age: 61

Trustee Since 2020

Dr. Delgado is retired. He is Director, Hexion Inc. (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2019-present); and Director, Stepan Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer) (2011-present); and was formerly Executive Vice President, Consumer Business Group of 3M Company (July 2016-July 2019); and Executive Vice President, Health Care Business Group of 3M Company (October 2012-July 2016). Previously, Dr. Delgado served as an Advisory Board Member of Goldman Sachs Trust and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (October 2019- January 2020).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 Hexion Inc. (a specialty chemical manufacturer); Stepan Company (a specialty chemical manufacturer)

Roy W. Templin

Age: 60

Trustee Since 2013

Mr. Templin is retired. He is Director, Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (a designer and manufacturer of ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions) (2016-Present); and was formerly Chairman of the Board of Directors, Con-Way Incorporated (a transportation, logistics and supply chain management service company) (2014-2015); Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Whirlpool Corporation (an appliance manufacturer and marketer) (2004-2012).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (a ceiling, wall and suspension systems solutions manufacturer)

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Name, Address
and Age1

Position(s)

Held with

the Trust

Term of Office

and Length of

Time Served2

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

Number of
Portfolios in
Fund Complex
Overseen by
Trustee3

Other Directorships
Held by Trustee4

Gregory G. Weaver

Age: 69

Trustee Since 2015

Mr. Weaver is retired. He is Director, Verizon Communications Inc. (2015-Present); and was formerly Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Deloitte & Touche LLP (a professional services firm) (2001-2005 and 2012-2014); and Member of the Board of Directors, Deloitte & Touche LLP (2006-2012).

Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust and Goldman Sachs Trust.

105 Verizon Communications, Inc.
Interested Trustee

James A. McNamara*

Age: 58

President and Trustee Since 2007

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018-Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000-December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998-December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993-April 1998).

President and Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

161 None
*

Mr. McNamara is considered to be an "Interested Trustee" because he holds positions with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

1

Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.

2

Subject to such policies as may be adopted by the Board from time-to-time, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term, until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust's Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust. The Board has adopted policies which provide that each Independent Trustee shall retire as of December 31st of the calendar year in which he or she reaches (a) his or her 75th birthday or (b) the 15th anniversary of the date he or she became a Trustee, whichever is earlier, unless a waiver of such requirements shall have been adopted by a majority of the other Trustees. These policies may be changed by the Trustees without shareholder vote.

3

The Goldman Sachs Fund Complex includes certain other companies listed above for each respective Trustee. As of April 30, 2021, Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of 13 portfolios; Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of 92 portfolios (90 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs Trust II consisted of 18 portfolios (16 of which offered shares to the public); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust consisted of 35 portfolios (20 of which offered shares to the public); and Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund, Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund each consisted of one portfolio. Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund did not offer shares to the public.

4

This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., "public companies") or other investment companies registered under the Act.

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The significance or relevance of a Trustee's particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Funds and their shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee's charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee's experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of April 30, 2021 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.

Jessica Palmer. Ms. Palmer has served as a Trustee since 2007 and Chair of the Board since 2018. Ms. Palmer worked at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking (previously, Salomon Smith Barney/Salomon Brothers) for over 20 years, where she was a Managing Director. While at Citigroup Corporate and Investment Banking, Ms. Palmer was Head of Global Risk Management, Chair of the Global Commitment Committee, Co-Chair of International Investment Banking (New York) and Head of Fixed Income Capital Markets. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Management Committee and Risk Management Operating Committee of Citigroup, Inc. Ms. Palmer was also Assistant Vice President of the International Division at Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. Ms. Palmer was also a member of the Board of Trustees of a private elementary and secondary school. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Palmer is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Dwight L. Bush. Ambassador Bush has served as a Trustee since 2020. Ambassador Bush also serves as President and CEO of D.L. Bush & Associates, a financial advisory and private investment firm. From 2014 to 2017, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Morocco. Prior to his service as U.S. Ambassador, he established and served as CEO of Urban Trust Bank and UTB Education Finance, LLC, an integrated provider of education credit services. Ambassador Bush was previously Vice President of Corporate Development for SLM Corporation (commonly known as Sallie Mae). Formerly, he served as a member of the Board of Directors of Santander Bank, N.A., JER Investors Trust, a specialty real estate finance company, and as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of CASI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Entremed, Inc.) where he was Chairman of the Audit Committee. He also serves as a member of the Board of Directors for several philanthropic organizations, including the Middle East Investment Initiative and the American Council of Young Political Leaders, and has served on the executive committee of Cornell University. Ambassador Bush previously served on the Trust's Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Ambassador Bush is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Kathryn A. Cassidy. Ms. Cassidy has served as a Trustee since 2015. Previously, Ms. Cassidy held several senior management positions at General Electric Company ("GE") and General Electric Capital Corporation ("GECapital") and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 35 years, most recently as Advisor to the Chairman of GECapital and Senior Vice President and Treasurer of GE and GECapital. As Senior Vice President and Treasurer, Ms. Cassidy led capital markets and treasury matters of multiple initial public offerings. Ms. Cassidy was responsible for managing global treasury operations, including global funding, hedging, derivative accounting and execution, cash and liquidity management, cash operations and treasury services, and global regulatory compliance and reporting for liquidity, derivatives, market risk and counterparty credit risk. Ms. Cassidy also serves as a Director of buildOn, a not-for-profit organization, where she serves as Chair of the Finance Committee. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Cassidy is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Diana M. Daniels. Ms. Daniels has served as a Trustee since 2007. Ms. Daniels also serves as a Trustee Emeritus and Presidential Councillor of Cornell University. Ms. Daniels held several senior management positions at The Washington Post Company and its subsidiaries, where she worked for 29 years. While at The Washington Post Company, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President, General Counsel, Secretary to the Board of Directors and Secretary to the Audit Committee. Previously, Ms. Daniels served as Vice President and General Counsel of Newsweek, Inc. Ms. Daniels has also served as Vice Chair and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Cornell University and as a member of the Corporate Advisory Board of Standish Mellon Management Advisors and of the Legal Advisory Board of New York Stock Exchange. Ms. Daniels is also a member of the American Law Institute and of the Advisory Council of the Inter-American Press Association. Based on the foregoing, Ms. Daniels is experienced with legal, financial and investment matters.

Joaquin Delgado. Dr. Delgado has served as a Trustee since 2020. Dr. Delgado is a member of the Board of Directors for Stepan Company, a publicly-traded specialty chemical manufacturer, and Hexion Inc., a privately held specialty chemical manufacturer. Previously, Dr. Delgado held several senior management positions at 3M Company, where he worked for over 30 years, most recently as Executive Vice President of 3M Company's Consumer Business Group. As Executive Vice President, Vice President, and General Manager at 3M Company, Dr. Delgado directed mergers and acquisitions worldwide, and was responsible for managing global

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operations in specialized markets such as semiconductors, consumer electronics, communications, medical and office supplies and software. Dr. Delgado also serves as a member of the Board of Directors of Ballet Austin, a not-for-profit organization. Additionally, he formerly served as a member of the Board of Directors of MacPhail Center for Music, a not-for-profit organization. Dr. Delgado previously served on the Trust's Advisory Board. Based on the foregoing, Dr. Delgado is experienced with financial and investment matters.

Roy W. Templin. Mr. Templin has served as a Trustee since 2013. Mr. Templin is a member of the Board of Directors of Armstrong World Industries, Inc., a ceiling, wall and suspension system solutions manufacturer, where he serves as Chair of the Finance Committee and the Audit Committee, and as a member of the Nominating and Governance Committee. Previously, Mr. Templin served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Con-Way Incorporated, a transportation, logistics and supply-chain management services company, prior to its sale to XPO Logistics, Inc. in 2015. Mr. Templin held a number of senior management positions at Whirlpool Corporation, an appliance manufacturer and marketer, including Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Vice President and Corporate Controller there. At Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served on the Executive Committee and was responsible for all aspects of finance globally, including treasury, accounting, risk management, investor relations, internal auditing, tax and facilities. Prior to joining Whirlpool, Mr. Templin served in several roles at Kimball International, a furniture and electronic assemblies manufacturer, including Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Templin was also a Director of Corporate Finance for Cummins, Inc., a diesel engine manufacturer, a Director of Financial Development at NCR Corporation, a computer hardware and electronics company, and a member of the audit staff of Price Waterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP). Mr. Templin is a certified public accountant and a certified management accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Templin is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

Gregory G. Weaver. Mr. Weaver has served as a Trustee since 2015. Mr. Weaver has been designated as the Board's "audit committee financial expert" given his extensive accounting and finance experience. Mr. Weaver also serves as a Director of Verizon Communications Inc., where he serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. Previously, Mr. Weaver was a partner with Deloitte & Touche LLP for 30 years. He was the firm's first chairman and chief executive officer from 2001-2005, and was elected to serve a second term (2012-2014). While serving as chairman at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Weaver led the audit and enterprise risk services practice, overseeing all operations, strategic positioning, audit quality, and talent matters. Mr. Weaver also served as a member of the firm's Board of Directors for six years where he served on the Governance Committee and Partner Earnings and Benefits Committee and was chairman of the Elected Leaders Committee and Strategic Investment Committee. Mr. Weaver is also a Board member and Audit Committee chair of the YMCA of Westfield, New Jersey. Mr. Weaver has also served as President of the Council of Boy Scouts of America in Long Rivers, Connecticut, President of A Better Chance in Glastonbury, Connecticut, as a member of the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council and as a board member of the Stan Ross Department of Accountancy, Baruch College. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Weaver is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served as a Trustee and President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is an Advisory Director to Goldman Sachs. Prior to retiring as Managing Director at Goldman Sachs in 2017, Mr. McNamara was head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM and was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

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Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the officers of the Trust as of September 24, 2021 is set forth below.


Name, Age and Address

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

James A. McNamara

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 58

Trustee and

President

Since 2007

Advisory Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018 - Present); Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2000 - December 2017); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 - December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993 - April 1998).

President and Trustee-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Joseph F. DiMaria

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 53

Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer Since 2017 (Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer since 2019)

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (November 2015 - Present) and Vice President - Mutual Fund Administration, Columbia Management Investment Advisers, LLC (May 2010 - October 2015).

Treasurer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2016)); Goldman Sachs Trust II (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs ETF Trust (previously Assistant Treasurer (2017)); Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Julien Yoo

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 50

Chief Compliance Officer Since 2019

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2020-Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (December 2014-December 2019); and Vice President, Morgan Stanley Investment Management (2005-2010).

Chief Compliance Officer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Peter W. Fortner

30 Hudson Street Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 63

Assistant Treasurer Since 2000

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000-Present); Principal Accounting Officer and Treasurer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund Complex (2008-Present); Treasurer of Goldman Sachs Philanthropy Fund (2019-Present); and Treasurer of Ayco Charitable Foundation (2020-Present).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Allison Fracchiolla

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 38

Assistant Treasurer Since 2014

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2013-Present).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

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Name, Age and Address

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

Tyler Hanks

222 S. Main St

Salt Lake City, UT 84101

Age: 39

Assistant Treasurer Since 2019

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2016-Present); and Associate, Goldman Sachs (January 2014-January 2016).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Kirsten Frivold Imohiosen

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 51

Assistant Treasurer Since 2019

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2018-Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (May 1999-December 2017).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Steven Z. Indich

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 52

Assistant Treasurer Since 2019

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2010 - Present).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Carol Liu

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 46

Assistant Treasurer Since 2019

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (October 2017 - Present); Tax Director, The Raine Group LLC (August 2015 - October 2017); and Tax Director, Icon Investments LLC (January 2012 - August 2015).

Assistant Treasurer-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Christopher Bradford

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ 07302

Age: 39

Vice President Since 2020

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (January 2014-Present).

Vice President-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund.

Kenneth Cawley

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, IL 60606

Age: 51

Vice President Since 2021

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2017 - Present), Vice President (December 1999-2017); Associate (December 1996-December 1999); Associate, Discover Financial (August 1994-December 1996).

Vice President-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

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Name, Age and Address

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

TP Enders

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 52

Vice President Since 2021

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2012 - Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (April 2004 - December 2011).

Vice President-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

Frank Murphy

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 47

Vice President Since 2019

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2015 - Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2003 - 2014); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2001 - 2002); and Analyst, Goldman Sachs (1999 - 2001).

Vice President-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust.

Kelli Stauffer

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

Vice President Since 2021

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2005-Present).

Vice President-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

Caroline L. Kraus

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 44

Secretary Since 2012

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (January 2016-Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2006-December 2015); Senior Counsel, Goldman Sachs (January 2020-Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (2012-December 2019); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2006-December 2011); and Associate, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, LLP (2002-2006).

Secretary-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust (previously Assistant Secretary (2012)); Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs BDC, Inc.; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit LLC; Goldman Sachs Private Middle Market Credit II LLC; Goldman Sachs Middle Market Lending Corp.; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

David A. Fishman

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 56

Assistant Secretary Since 2001

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 2001 - Present); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs (1997 - December 2001).

Assistant Secretary-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust.

Robert Griffith

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 46

Assistant Secretary Since 2011

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 - Present); Associate General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (December 2014 - Present); Assistant General Counsel, Goldman Sachs (August 2011 - December 2014); Vice President and Counsel, Nomura Holding America, Inc. (2010 - 2011); and Associate, Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP (2005 - 2010).

Assistant Secretary-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust II; Goldman Sachs MLP and Energy Renaissance Fund; Goldman Sachs ETF Trust; Goldman Sachs Credit Income Fund; and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund.

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Name, Age and Address

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

Term of Office and
Length of Time Served1

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

Shaun Cullinan

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

Age: 41

Assistant Secretary Since 2018

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2018 - Present); Vice President, Goldman Sachs (2009 - 2017); Associate, Goldman Sachs (2006 - 2008); Analyst, Goldman Sachs (2004 - 2005).

Assistant Secretary-Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust; Goldman Sachs Trust; and Goldman Sachs Trust II.

1

Officers hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Trustees or until their successors are duly elected and qualified. Each officer holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.

Standing Board Committees

The Audit Committee oversees the audit process and provides assistance to the Board with respect to fund accounting, tax compliance and financial statement matters. In performing its responsibilities, the Audit Committee selects and recommends annually to the Board an independent registered public accounting firm to audit the books and records of the Trust for the ensuing year, and reviews with the firm the scope and results of each audit. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Audit Committee and Mr. Weaver serves as Chair of the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee held six meetings during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

The Governance and Nominating Committee has been established to: (i) assist the Board in matters involving mutual fund governance, which includes making recommendations to the Board with respect to the effectiveness of the Board in carrying out its responsibilities in governing the Funds and overseeing their management; (ii) select and nominate candidates for appointment or election to serve as Independent Trustees and work to retain high-performing Independent Trustees; and (iii) advise the Board on ways to improve its effectiveness. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee held four meetings during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. As stated above, each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the occurrence of certain events. In filling Board vacancies, the Governance and Nominating Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders. Nominee recommendations should be submitted to the Trust at its mailing address stated in the Funds' Prospectuses and should be directed to the attention of the Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust Governance and Nominating Committee.

The Compliance Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the compliance processes: (i) of the Funds; and (ii) insofar as they relate to services provided to the Funds, of the Funds' Investment Adviser, Distributor, administrator (if any), and Transfer Agent, except that compliance processes relating to the accounting and financial reporting processes, and certain related matters, are overseen by the Audit Committee. In addition, the Compliance Committee provides assistance to the Board with respect to compliance matters. The Compliance Committee met six times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Compliance Committee.

The Valuation Committee is authorized to act for the Board in connection with the valuation of portfolio securities held by the Funds in accordance with the Trust's Valuation Procedures. Messrs. McNamara and DiMaria serve on the Valuation Committee. The Valuation Committee met twelve times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

The Contract Review Committee has been established for the purpose of overseeing the processes of the Board for reviewing and monitoring performance under the Funds' investment management, distribution, transfer agency, and certain other agreements with the Funds' Investment Adviser and their affiliates. The Contract Review Committee is also responsible for overseeing the Board's processes for considering and reviewing performance under the operation of the Funds' distribution, service, shareholder administration and other plans, and any agreements related to the plans, whether or not such plans and agreements are adopted pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Act. The Contract Review Committee also provides appropriate assistance to the Board in connection with the Board's approval, oversight and review of the Funds' other service providers including, without limitation, the Funds' fund custodian/accounting agent, sub-transfer agents, professional (legal and accounting) firms and printing firms. The Contract Review Committee met two times during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. All of the Independent Trustees serve on the Contract Review Committee.

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Risk Oversight

The Board is responsible for the oversight of the activities of the Funds and Underlying Funds, including oversight of risk management. Day-to-day risk management with respect to the Funds and Underlying Funds is the responsibility of GSAM or other service providers (depending on the nature of the risk), subject to supervision by GSAM. The risks of the Funds and Underlying Funds include, but are not limited to, liquidity risk, investment risk, compliance risk, operational risk, reputational risk, credit risk and counterparty risk. Each of GSAM and the other service providers have their own independent interest in risk management and their policies and methods of risk management may differ from the Funds', Underlying Funds' and each other's in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result, the Board recognizes that it is not possible to identify all of the risks that may affect the Funds or Underlying Funds or to develop processes and controls to eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects, and that some risks are simply beyond the control of the Funds or GSAM, its affiliates or other service providers.

The Board effectuates its oversight role primarily through regular and special meetings of the Board and Board committees. In certain cases, risk management issues are specifically addressed in reports, presentations and discussions. For example, on an annual basis, GSAM will provide the Board with a written report that addresses the operation, adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust's liquidity risk management program, which is designed to assess and manage the Fund's liquidity risk. GSAM also has a risk management team that assists GSAM in managing investment risk. Representatives from the risk management team meet regularly with the Board to discuss their analysis and methodologies. In addition, investment risk is discussed in the context of regular presentations to the Board on Fund and Underlying Funds strategy and performance. Other types of risk are addressed as part of presentations on related topics (e.g. compliance policies) or in the context of presentations focused specifically on one or more risks. The Board also receives reports from GSAM management on operational risks, reputational risks and counterparty risks relating to the Funds and Underlying Funds.

Board oversight of risk management is also performed by various Board committees. For example, the Audit Committee meets with both the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm and GSAM's internal audit group to review risk controls in place that support the Funds as well as test results, and the Compliance Committee meets with the CCO and representatives of GSAM's compliance group to review testing results of the Funds' compliance policies and procedures and other compliance issues. Board oversight of risk is also performed as needed between meetings through communications between GSAM and the Board. The Board may, at any time and in its discretion, change the manner in which it conducts risk oversight. The Board's oversight role does not make the Board a guarantor of the Funds' investments or activities.

Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares

The following table shows the dollar range of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in the Funds and other portfolios of the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex as of December 31, 2020. Shares of the Funds are offered only to separate accounts of Participating Insurance Companies for the purpose of funding various annuity contracts and variable life insurance policies and are not available for direct investment by the Trustees.

Name of Trustee

Dollar Range of
Equity Securities in
the Funds1

Aggregate Dollar Range of

Equity Securities in All

Portfolios in Fund Complex

Overseen By Trustee

Jessica Palmer

None Over $100,000

Dwight L. Bush2

None None

Kathryn A. Cassidy

None Over $100,000

Diana M. Daniels

None Over $100,000

Joaquin Delgado2

None Over $100,000

James A. McNamara

None Over $100,000

Roy W. Templin

None Over $100,000

Gregory G. Weaver

None Over $100,000
1

Includes the value of shares beneficially owned by each Trustee in each Fund described in this SAI. Shares of the Funds are not offered directly to the public.

2

Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado began serving as Trustees effective January 23, 2020.

As of April 1, 2021, the Trustees and Officers of the Trust as a group owned less than 1% of the outstanding shares of beneficial interest of each Fund.

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Board Compensation

Each Independent Trustee is compensated with a unitary annual fee for his or her services as a Trustee of the Trust and as a member of the Governance and Nominating Committee, Compliance Committee, Contract Review Committee, and Audit Committee. The Chair and "audit committee financial expert" receive additional compensation for their services. The Independent Trustees are also reimbursed for reasonable travel expenses incurred in connection with attending meetings. The Trust may also pay the reasonable incidental costs of a Trustee to attend training or other types of conferences relating to the investment company industry.

The following tables set forth certain information with respect to the compensation of each Trustee of the Trust for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020:

Trustee Compensation1

Name of Trustee

U.S.
Equity
Insights
Fund
Small Cap
Equity
Insights

Fund
Strategic
Growth
Fund
Large
Cap
Value

Fund
Mid
Cap

Value
Fund
International
Equity
Insights

Fund
Growth
Opportunities

Fund

Jessica Palmer2

$ 3,848 $ 3,783 $ 3,871 $ 3,884 $ 3,879 $ 3,783 $ 3,779

Dwight L. Bush3

2,568 2,524 2,583 2,592 2,588 2,524 2,522

Kathryn A. Cassidy

2,568 2,524 2,583 2,592 2,588 2,524 2,522

Diana M. Daniels

2,568 2,524 2,583 2,592 2,588 2,524 2,522

Joaquin Delgado3

2,568 2,524 2,583 2,592 2,588 2,524 2,522

James A. McNamara4

- - - - - - -

Roy W. Templin

2,568 2,524 2,583 2,592 2,588 2,524 2,522

Gregory G. Weaver5

2,989 2,939 3,007 3,017 3,013 2,939 2,936

Name of Trustee

Equity
Index
Fund
High
Quality
Floating
Rate

Fund
Core
Fixed
Income
Fund
Global
Trends
Allocation

Fund
Multi-
Strategy
Alternatives

Portfolio
Government
Money
Market

Fund

Jessica Palmer2

$ 3,809 $ 3,781 $ 3,777 $ 3,858 $ 3,764 $ 4,108

Dwight L. Bush3

2,541 2,523 2,521 2,574 2,512 2,741

Kathryn A. Cassidy

2,541 2,523 2,521 2,574 2,512 2,741

Diana M. Daniels

2,541 2,523 2,521 2,574 2,512 2,741

Joaquin Delgado3

2,541 2,523 2,521 2,574 2,512 2,741

James A. McNamara4

- - - - - -

Roy W. Templin

2,541 2,523 2,521 2,574 2,512 2,741

Gregory G. Weaver5

2,959 2,937 2,935 2,997 2,924 3,191

Name of Trustee

Pension or
Retirement
Benefits Accrued as
Part of the Trust's
Expenses
Total Compensation
From Fund
Complex
(including the
Funds)1

Jessica Palmer2

- $ 511,000

Dwight L. Bush3

- 341,000

Kathryn A. Cassidy

- 341,000

Diana M. Daniels

- 341,000

Joaquin Delgado3

- 341,000

James A. McNamara4

- -

Roy W. Templin

- 341,000

Gregory G. Weaver5

- 397,000
1

Represents fees paid to each Trustee during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

2

Includes compensation as Board Chair.

3

Includes compensation Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado received as Advisory Board Members during the fiscal year. Ambassador Bush and Dr. Delgado began serving as Advisory Board Members effective October 16, 2019 and as Trustees effective January 23, 2020.

4

Mr. McNamara is an Interested Trustee, and as such, receives no compensation from the Funds or the Goldman Sachs Fund Complex.

5

Includes compensation as "audit committee financial expert," as defined in Item 3 of Form N-CSR.

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Miscellaneous

The Trust, the Investment Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and principal underwriter have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 of the Act that permit personnel subject to their particular codes of ethics to invest in securities, including securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds.

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser

As stated in the Funds' Prospectuses, GSAM (formerly, Goldman Sachs Funds Management, L.P.), 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as Investment Adviser to the each Fund and Underlying Fund. GSAM is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs. Prior to the end of April 2003, Goldman Sachs Asset Management, a business unit of the Investment Management Division of Goldman Sachs served as the Fund's investment adviser. On or about April 26, 2003, GSAM assumed Goldman Sachs Asset Management's investment advisory responsibilities for the Funds. SSGA Funds Management, Inc., One Iron Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, serves as Sub-Adviser to the Equity Index Fund. See "Service Providers" in the Funds' Prospectuses for a description of the applicable Investment Adviser's or Sub-Adviser's duties to the Funds.

Founded in 1869, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a publicly-held financial holding company and a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm. Goldman Sachs is a leader in developing portfolio strategies and in many fields of investing and financing, participating in financial markets worldwide and serving individuals, institutions, corporations and governments. Goldman Sachs is also among the principal market sources for current and thorough information on companies, industrial sectors, markets, economies and currencies, and trades and makes markets in a wide range of equity and debt securities 24 hours a day. The firm is headquartered in New York with offices in countries throughout the world. It has trading professionals throughout the United States, as well as in London, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Seoul, Sao Paulo and other major financial centers around the world. The active participation of Goldman Sachs in the world's financial markets enhances its ability to identify attractive investments. Goldman Sachs has agreed to permit the Funds to use the name "Goldman Sachs" or a derivative thereof as part of each Fund's name for as long as each Fund's Management Agreement (as described below) is in effect.

The Management Agreement for the U.S. Equity Insights, Small Cap Equity Insights, Strategic Growth, Large Cap Value, Mid Cap Value and International Equity Insights Funds was initially approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Management Agreement or "interested persons" (as such term is defined in the Act) of any party thereto (the "non-interested Trustees"), on October 21, 1997. The Management Agreements were initially approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, with respect to the Growth Opportunities, Equity Index, High Quality Floating Rate, Core Fixed Income and Government Money Market Funds on August 4, 2005. The Management Agreement for the Global Trends Allocation Fund was initially approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, on December 14, 2011. The Management Agreement for the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio was initially approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, on February 11, 2014. Each Management Agreement with respect to these Funds was most recently approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, on June 16-17, 2020. A discussion regarding the Board of Trustees' basis for approving the Management Agreements is available in the Funds' semi-annual reports dated June 30, 2020.

The Management Agreements will remain in effect with respect to the Funds until June 30, 2021 and will continue in effect with respect to each Fund from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually as set forth in the Management Agreement.

Each Management Agreement will terminate automatically with respect to a Fund if assigned (as defined in the Act). Each Management Agreement is also terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of a Fund on 60 days written notice to the Investment Adviser and by the Investment Adviser on 60 days written notice to the Trust.

The Management Agreements for the Underlying Funds then in existence on April 21, 1997 were last approved by the shareholders of such Underlying Funds on that date. The Management Agreements for those Underlying Funds that commenced investment operations after April 21, 1997 were last approved by the initial sole shareholder of each such Underlying Fund, prior to the Underlying Fund's commencement of operations.

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Pursuant to the Management Agreements, the Investment Adviser is entitled to receive the fees listed below, payable monthly based on each Fund's average daily net assets. Also included below are the actual management fee rates paid by each Fund (after reflection of any management fee waivers, as indicated in the Fund's prospectuses) for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. The management fee waivers will remain in effect through at least April 30, 2022, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate these arrangements without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The management fee waivers may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Actual Rate may not correlate to the Contractual Rate as a result of these management fee waivers that may be in effect from time to time. The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee payable by a Fund in an amount equal to any management fees it earns as an investment adviser to any of the affiliated Underlying Funds in which a Fund invests.

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee payable by a Fund in an amount equal to any management fees it earns as an investment adviser to any of the affiliated funds in which the Fund invests.

Fund

Contractual Rate

Actual Rate
For the Fiscal
Year Ended
December 31, 2020

U.S. Equity Insights

0.62% on the first $1 billion

0.59% on the next $1 billion

0.56% on the next $3 billion

0.55% on the next $3 billion

0.54% over $8 billion

0.54 %

Small Cap Equity Insights

0.70% on the first $2 billion

0.63% on the next $3 billion

0.60% on the next $3 billion

0.59% over $8 billion

0.70 %

Strategic Growth

0.71% on the first $1 billion

0.64% on the next $1 billion

0.61% on the next $3 billion

0.59% on the next $3 billion

0.58% over $8 billion

0.71 %

Large Cap Value

0.72% on the first $1 billion

0.65% on the next $1 billion

0.62% on the next $3 billion

0.60% on the next $3 billion

0.59% over $8 billion

0.68 %

Mid Cap Value

0.77% on the first $2 billion

0.69% on the next $3 billion

0.66% on the next $3 billion

0.65% over $8 billion

0.77 %

Growth Opportunities

0.87% on the first $2 billion

0.78% on the next $3 billion

0.74% on the next $3 billion

0.73% over $8 billion

0.83 %

Equity Index

0.21% on the first $400 million

0.20% over $400 million

0.21 %

International Equity Insights

0.81% on the first $1 billion

0.73% on the next $1 billion

0.69% on the next $3 billion

0.68% on the next $3 billion

0.67% over $8 billion

0.81 %

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High Quality Floating Rate

0.31% on the first $1 billion

0.28% on the next $1 billion

0.27% on the next

$3 billion

0.26% on the next $3 billion

0.25% over $8 billion

0.29%

Core Fixed Income

0.40% on the first $1 billion

0.36% on the next $1 billion

0.34% on the next $3 billion

0.33% on the next $3 billion

0.32% over $8 billion

0.39%

Global Trends Allocation

0.79% on the first $1 billion

0.71% on the next $1 billion

0.68% on the next $3 billion

0.66% on the next $3 billion

0.65% over $8 billion

0.59%

Government Money Market

0.16% 0.16%

Multi-Strategy Alternatives

0.15% 0%

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the amount of fees incurred by each Fund then in existence pursuant to the Management Agreements was as follows:

2020 2019 2018
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver
With Fee
Waiver
Without Fee
Waiver

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 1,594,873 $ 1,831,171 $ 1,658,795 $ 1,904,549 $ 1,956,420 $ 2,189,472

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

581,452 582,184 649,083 649,394 708,952 725,915

Strategic Growth Fund

2,581,818 2,587,267 2,401,112 2,407,661 2,764,394 2,825,965

Large Cap Value Fund

2,846,842 3,007,574 3,186,918 3,330,092 3,509,148 3,715,842

Mid Cap Value Fund

3,090,339 3,099,830 3,730,733 3,744,475 4,801,425 4,877,708

International Equity Insights Fund

670,073 670,183 710,183 710,254 881,211 899,515

Growth Opportunities Fund

588,872 618,788 592,914 624,144 777,942 873,240

Equity Index Fund

352,169 503,097 358,168 511,673 368,167 525,957

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

220,233 231,684 244,861 254,944 225,328 257,316

Core Fixed Income Fund

239,768 248,369 167,933 174,659 195,681 198,497

Global Trends Allocation Fund

1,901,391 2,565,307 2,007,223 2,749,622 2,253,560 3,262,432

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

(2,093 ) 31,529 (1,008 ) 25,725 - 25,114

Government Money Market Fund

1,690,348 1,696,715 1,126,412 1,126,412 1,048,079 1,048,079

Unless required to be performed by others pursuant to agreements with the Funds, the Investment Adviser also performs certain administrative services for each Fund under the Management Agreement. Such administrative services include, subject to the general supervision of the Trustees of the Trust, (i) providing supervision of all aspects of the Fund's non-investment operations; (ii) providing the Fund with personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (iii) arranging for, at the Fund's expense, the preparation of all of the Fund's required tax returns, the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, the periodic updating of the Fund's prospectus and statement of additional information, and the preparation of reports filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities; (iv) maintaining all of the Fund's records; and (v) providing the Fund with adequate office space and all necessary office equipment and services.

The Sub-Advisory Agreement between GSAM and the Sub-Adviser with respect to the Equity Index Fund was initially approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, on August 4, 2005. The Sub-Advisory Agreement was most recently approved by the Trustees, including a majority of the non-interested Trustees, on June 16-17, 2020. A discussion regarding the Board of Trustees' basis for approving the Sub-Advisory Agreement is available in the Equity Index Fund's semi-annual report dated June 30, 2020.

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The Sub-Advisory Agreement will remain in effect until June 30, 2021 and will continue in effect from year to year thereafter provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by (i) the vote of a majority of the Fund's outstanding voting securities or a majority of the Trustees of the Trust, and (ii) the vote of a majority of the non-interested Trustees of the Trust, cast at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically if assigned (as defined in the Act). The Sub-Advisory Agreement is also terminable at any time without penalty by the Trustees of the Trust or by GSAM or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund on 60 days written notice to the Sub-Adviser and by the Sub-Adviser on 60 days written notice to the Trust.

For the services provided and expenses assumed under the Sub-Advisory Agreement, GSAM pays the Sub-Adviser a monthly management fee at the following annual rates of the average daily net assets of the Equity Index Fund:

0.03% on the first $50 million;

0.02% on the next $200 million;

0.01% on the next $750 million; and

0.008% over $1 billion.

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, GSAM has made payments to the Sub-Adviser pursuant to this Sub-Advisory Agreement of $38,540, $39,125, and $40,057, respectively.

Legal Proceedings.

On October 22, 2020, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. announced a settlement of matters involving 1Malaysia Development Bhd. (1MDB), a Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, with the United States Department of Justice as well as criminal and civil authorities in the United Kingdom, Singapore and Hong Kong. Further information regarding the 1MDB settlement can be found at https://www.goldmansachs.com/media-relations/press-releases/current/goldman-sachs-2020-10-22.html. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. previously entered into a settlement agreement with the Government of Malaysia and 1MDB to resolve all criminal and regulatory proceedings in Malaysia relating to 1MDB.

The Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and certain of their affiliates have received exemptive relief from the SEC to permit them to continue serving as investment adviser and principal underwriter for U.S.-registered investment companies.

Portfolio Managers - Other Accounts Managed by the Portfolio Managers

The following table discloses accounts within each type of category listed below for which the portfolio managers are jointly and primarily responsible for day to day portfolio management.

Please note that all of the fixed income portfolios are managed on a team basis. While lead portfolio managers may be associated with accounts in their specific strategy, the entire team is familiar with our general strategies and objectives and multiple individuals are involved in the management of a portfolio. We believe this approach ensures a high degree of continuity of portfolio management style and knowledge.

For each portfolio manager listed below, the total number of accounts managed is a reflection of accounts within the strategy they oversee or manage, as well as accounts which participate in the sector they manage. There are multiple portfolio managers involved with each account.

The Equity Index Fund is managed by the Sub-Adviser's Global Equity Beta Solutions Group. Portfolio managers Michael Feehily, Melissa Kapitulik and Daniel TenPas jointly and primarily have the day-to-day responsibility for management of the Equity Index Fund.

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Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by Account
Type1
Number of Other Accounts and Total Assets for Which
Advisory Fee is Performance Based1

Registered

Investment

Companies

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

Other

Accounts

Registered

Investment

Companies

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

Other

Accounts

Name of

Portfolio Manager

Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

Quantitative Investment Strategies Team

Len Ioffe

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Osman Ali

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Dennis Walsh

25 $ 14,401 12 $ 4,545 11 $ 1,526 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Takashi Suwabe

14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092 14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

Quantitative Investment Strategies Team

Len Ioffe

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Osman Ali

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Dennis Walsh

25 $ 14,401 12 $ 4,545 11 $ 1,526 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Takashi Suwabe

14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092 14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092

Strategic Growth Fund

U.S. Equity Team

Steven M. Barry

16 $ 7,584 14 $ 12,414 45 $ 5,508 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Stephen E. Becker

9 $ 2,153 6 $ 1,267 23 $ 4,964 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Large Cap Value Fund

U.S. Equity Team

Charles "Brook" Dane

9 $ 3,182 7 $ 10,999 29 $ 2,043 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Kevin Martens

8 $ 2,375 0 $ 0 11 $ 912 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Mid Cap Value Fund

U.S. Equity Team

Sung Cho

4 $ 2,484 7 $ 10,999 22 $ 421 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Growth Opportunities Fund

U.S. Equity Team

Steven M. Barry

16 $ 7,584 14 $ 12,414 45 $ 5,508 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Jenny Chang

3 $ 1,570 1 $ 38 6 $ 296 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Equity Index Fund2

Michael Feehily

138 $ 721,342.18 387 $ 727,958.36 395 $ 366,743.60 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Melissa Kapitulik

138 $ 721,342.18 387 $ 727,958.36 395 $ 366,743.60 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Daniel TenPas

138 $ 721,342.18 387 $ 727,958.36 395 $ 366,743.60 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

International Equity Insights Fund

Quantitative Investment Strategies Team

Len Ioffe

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Dennis Walsh

25 $ 14,401 12 $ 4,545 11 $ 1,526 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 0 $ 0

Osman Ali

41 $ 24,588 31 $ 11,220 37 $ 6,619 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 622

Takashi Suwabe

14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092 14 $ 8,693 19 $ 6,406 26 $ 5,092

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

U.S. Fixed Income Team

Dave Fishman

18 $ 312,740 182 $ 231,431 302 $ 82,374 0 $ 0 3 $ 46 2 $ 3,067

John Olivo

18 $ 312,740 182 $ 231,431 302 $ 82,374 0 $ 0 3 $ 46 2 $ 3,067

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Number of Other Accounts Managed and Total Assets by
Account Type1
Number of Other Accounts and Total Assets for Which
Advisory Fee is Performance Based1

Registered

Investment

Companies

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

Other

Accounts

Registered

Investment

Companies

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles

Other

Accounts

Name of

Portfolio Manager

Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed
Number of
Accounts
Assets
Managed

Core Fixed Income Fund

U.S. Fixed Income Team

Ashish Shah

71 $ 364,181 314 $ 268,413 29,244 $ 586,576 0 $ 0 41 $ 14,944 33 $ 17,279

Global Trends Allocation Fund

Quantitative Investment Strategies Team

Federico Gilly

7 $ 6,367 9 $ 3,101 7 $ 1,666 7 $ 6,367 9 $ 3,101 7 $ 1,666

Oliver Bunn

5 $ 4,565 2 $ 669 0 $ 0 5 $ 4,565 2 $ 669 0 $ 0

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

Multi-Asset Solutions Team

Neill Nuttall

25 $ 15,305.90 19 $ 7,684.60 89 $ 128,317.70 0 $ 0 0 $ 0 2 $ 4,347
1

Unless otherwise noted, this information is as of December 31, 2020.

2

Passive equity assets are managed on a team basis. The table refers to accounts of the Global Equity Beta Solutions Group of State Street Global Advisors ("SSGA").

Assets are preliminary, in millions of USD, unless otherwise noted.

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Conflicts of Interest. The Investment Adviser's portfolio managers are often responsible for managing one or more of the Funds as well as other accounts, including proprietary accounts, separate accounts and other pooled investment vehicles, such as unregistered hedge funds. A portfolio manager may manage a separate account or other pooled investment vehicle which may have materially higher fee arrangements than the Funds and may also have a performance-based fee. The side-by-side management of these funds may raise potential conflicts of interest relating to cross trading, the allocation of investment opportunities and the aggregation and allocation of trades.

The Investment Adviser has a fiduciary responsibility to manage all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. The Investment Adviser seeks to provide best execution of all securities transactions and aggregate and then allocate securities to client accounts in a fair and timely manner. To this end, the Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures designed to mitigate and manage the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from side-by-side management. In addition, the Investment Adviser and the Funds have adopted policies limiting the circumstances under which cross-trades may be effected between a Fund and another client account. The Investment Adviser conducts periodic reviews of trades for consistency with these policies. For more information about conflicts of interests that may arise in connection with the portfolio managers' management of the Funds' investments and the investments of other accounts, see "POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST."

Conflicts of Interest (Sub-Adviser).A portfolio manager that has responsibility for managing more than one account may be subject to potential conflicts of interest because he or she is responsible for other accounts in addition to the Equity Index Fund. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of: (a) the portfolio manager's execution of different investment strategies for various accounts; or (b) the allocation of resources or of investment opportunities.

Portfolio managers may manage numerous accounts for multiple clients. These accounts may include registered investment companies, other types of pooled accounts (e.g., collective investment funds), and separate accounts (i.e., accounts managed on behalf of individuals or public or private institutions). Portfolio managers make investment decisions for each account based on the investment objectives and policies and other relevant investment considerations applicable to that portfolio. A potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the portfolio managers' responsibility for multiple accounts with similar investment guidelines. Under these circumstances, a potential investment may be suitable for more than one of the portfolio managers' accounts, but the quantity of the investment available for purchase is less than the aggregate amount the accounts would ideally devote to the opportunity. Similar conflicts may arise when multiple accounts seek to dispose of the same investment. The portfolio managers may also manage accounts whose objectives and policies differ from that of the Fund. These differences may be such that under certain circumstances, trading activity appropriate for one account managed by the portfolio manager may have adverse consequences for another account managed by the portfolio manager. For example, an account may sell a significant position in a security, which could cause the market price of that security to decrease, while the Fund maintained its position in that security.

A potential conflict may arise when the portfolio managers are responsible for accounts that have different advisory fees-the difference in fees could create an incentive for the portfolio manager to favor one account over another, for example, in terms of access to investment opportunities. Another potential conflict may arise when the portfolio manager has an investment in one or more accounts that participate in transactions with other accounts. His or her investment(s) may create an incentive for the portfolio manager to favor one account over another. SSGA FM has adopted policies and procedures reasonably designed to address these potential material conflicts. For instance, portfolio managers are normally responsible for all accounts within a certain investment discipline, and do not, absent special circumstances, differentiate among the various accounts when allocating resources. Additionally, SSGA FM and its advisory affiliates have processes and procedures for allocating investment opportunities among portfolios that are designed to provide a fair and equitable allocation.

Portfolio Managers - Compensation

Compensation for portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser is comprised of a base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation. The base salary is fixed from year to year. Year-end discretionary variable compensation is primarily a function of each portfolio manager's individual performance and his or her contribution to overall team performance; the performance of GSAM and Goldman Sachs; the team's net revenues for the past year which in part is derived from advisory fees, and for certain accounts, performance-based fees; and anticipated compensation levels among competitor firms. Portfolio managers are rewarded, in part, for their delivery of investment performance, which is reasonably expected to meet or exceed the expectations of clients and fund shareholders in terms of: excess return over an applicable benchmark, peer group ranking, risk management and factors specific to certain funds such as yield or regional focus. Performance is judged over 1-,3- and 5-year time horizons.

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For compensation purposes, the benchmarks for these Funds are:

U.S. Equity Insights Fund: S&P 500® Index

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund: Russell 2000® Index

Strategic Growth Fund: Russell 1000® Growth Index

Large Cap Value Fund: Russell 1000® Value Index

Mid Cap Value Fund: Russell Midcap® Value Index

Growth Opportunities Fund: Russell Midcap® Growth Index

Equity Index Fund: S&P 500® Index

International Equity Insights Fund: MSCI EAFE Standard (Net, USD, Unhedged) Index

High Quality Floating Rate Fund: ICE BofAML Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index

Core Fixed Income Fund: Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index

Global Trends Allocation Fund: Global Trends Allocation Composite Index

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio: ICE Bank of America Merrill Lynch Three-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index

The discretionary variable compensation for portfolio managers is also significantly influenced by various factors, including: (1) effective participation in team research discussions and process; and (2) management of risk in alignment with the targeted risk parameters and investment objectives of a Fund. Other factors may also be considered including: (1) general client/shareholder orientation and (2) teamwork and leadership.

Other Compensation-In addition to base salary and year-end discretionary variable compensation, the Investment Adviser has a number of additional benefits in place including (1) a 401(k) program that enables employees to direct a percentage of their base salary and bonus income into a tax-qualified retirement plan; and (2) investment opportunity programs in which certain professionals may participate subject to certain eligibility requirements.

Sub-Adviser's Portfolio Management Team - Equity Index Fund. SSGA's culture is complemented and reinforced by a total rewards strategy that is based on a pay for performance philosophy which seeks to offer a competitive pay mix of base salary, benefits, cash incentives and deferred compensation.

Salary is based on a number of factors, including external benchmarking data and market trends, State Street Bank and Trust Company ("State Street") performance, SSGA performance, and individual overall performance. SSGA's Global Human Resources department regularly participates in compensation surveys in order to provide SSGA with market-based compensation information that helps support individual pay decisions.

Additionally, subject to State Street and SSGA business results, State Street allocates an incentive pool to SSGA to reward its employees. The size of the incentive pool for most business units is based on the firm's overall profitability and other factors, including performance against risk-related goals. For most SSGA investment teams, SSGA recognizes and rewards performance by linking annual incentive decisions for investment teams to the firm's or business unit's profitability and business unit investment performance over a multi-year period.

Incentive pool funding for most active investment teams is driven in part by the post-tax investment performance of fund(s) managed by the team versus the return levels of the benchmark index(es) of the fund(s) on a one-, three- and, in some cases, five-year basis. For most active investment teams, a material portion of incentive compensation for senior staff is deferred over a four-year period into the SSGA Long-Term Incentive ("SSGA LTI") program. For these teams, the SSGA LTI program indexes the performance of these deferred awards against the post-tax investment performance of fund(s) managed by the team. This is intended to align our investment team's compensation with client interests, both through annual incentive compensation awards and through the long-term value of deferred awards in the SSGA LTI program.

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For the passive equity investment team, incentive pool funding is driven in part by the post-tax 1 and 3-year tracking error of the funds managed by the team against the benchmark indexes of the funds.

The discretionary allocation of the incentive pool to the business units within SSGA is influenced by market-based compensation data, as well as the overall performance of each business unit. Individual compensation decisions are made by the employee's manager, in conjunction with the senior management of the employee's business unit. These decisions are based on the overall performance of the employee and, as mentioned above, on the performance of the firm and business unit. Depending on the job level, a portion of the annual incentive may be awarded in deferred compensation, which may include cash and/or Deferred Stock Awards (State Street stock), which typically vest over a four-year period. This helps to retain staff and further aligns SSGA employees' interests with SSGA clients' and shareholders' long-term interests.

SSGA recognizes and rewards outstanding performance by:

Promoting employee ownership to connect employees directly to the company's success.

Using rewards to reinforce mission, vision, values and business strategy.

Seeking to recognize and preserve the firm's unique culture and team orientation.

Providing all employees the opportunity to share in the success of SSGA.

Portfolio Managers - Portfolio Managers' Ownership of Securities in the Funds They Manage

Shares of the Funds are only offered to separate accounts of Participating Insurance Companies for the purpose of funding various annuity contracts and variable life insurance policies and are not available for direct investment by the portfolio managers as of December 31, 2020, unless otherwise noted.

Name of Portfolio Manager

Dollar Range of Equity Securities Beneficially
Owned by Portfolio Manager

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

Osman Ali

None

Len Ioffe

None

Dennis Walsh

None

Takashi Suwabe

None

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

Osman Ali

None

Len Ioffe

None

Dennis Walsh

None

Takashi Suwabe

None

Strategic Growth Fund

Steven M. Barry

None

Stephen E. Becker

None

Large Cap Value Fund

Charles "Brook" Dane

None

Kevin Martens

None

Mid Cap Value Fund

Sung Cho

None

Growth Opportunities Fund

Steven M. Barry

None

Jenny Chang

None

Equity Index Fund

Michael Feehily

None

Melissa Kapitulik

None

Daniel TenPas

None

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Name of Portfolio Manager

Dollar Range of Equity Securities Beneficially
Owned by Portfolio Manager

International Equity Insights Fund

Len Ioffe

None

Dennis Walsh

None

Osman Ali

None

Takashi Suwabe

None

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

Dave Fishman

None

John Olivo

None

Core Fixed Income Fund

Ashish Shah

None

Global Trends Allocation Fund

Federico Gilly

None

Oliver Bunn

None

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

Neill Nuttall

None

Distributor and Transfer Agent

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York 10282, serves as the exclusive Distributor of shares of the Funds pursuant to a "best efforts" arrangement as provided by a distribution agreement with the Trust on behalf of each Fund. Shares of the Funds are offered and sold on a continuous basis by Goldman Sachs, acting as agent. Pursuant to the distribution agreement, each Fund is responsible for, among other things, the payment of all fees and expenses in connection with the preparation and filing of any registration statement and prospectus covering the issue and sale of shares, and the registration and qualification of shares for sale with the SEC and in the various states, including registering the Fund as a broker or dealer. Each Fund will also pay the fees and expenses of preparing, printing and mailing prospectuses annually to existing shareholders and any notice, proxy statement, report, prospectus or other communication to shareholders of the Fund, printing and mailing confirmations of purchases of shares, any issue taxes or any initial transfer taxes, a portion of toll-free telephone service for shareholders, wiring funds for share purchases and redemptions (unless paid by the shareholder who initiates the transaction), printing and postage of business reply envelopes and a portion of the computer terminals used by both the Fund and the Distributor.

The Distributor will pay for, among other things, printing and distributing prospectuses or reports prepared for its use in connection with the offering of the shares to variable annuity and variable insurance accounts and preparing, printing and mailing any other literature or advertising in connection with the offering of the shares to variable annuity and variable insurance accounts. The Distributor will pay all fees and expenses in connection with its qualification and registration as a broker or dealer under federal and state laws, a portion of the toll-free telephone service and of computer terminals, and of any activity which is primarily intended to result in the sale of shares issued by each Fund.

As agent, the Distributor currently offers shares of each Fund on a continuous basis to the separate accounts of Participating Insurance Companies in all states in which such Fund may from time to time be registered or where permitted by applicable law. The distribution agreement provides that the Distributor accepts orders for shares at NAV without sales commission or load being charged. The Distributor has made no firm commitment to acquire shares of any Fund.

Transfer Agent: Goldman Sachs, 71 South Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, serves as the Trust's transfer agent. Under its transfer agency agreement with the Trust, Goldman Sachs has undertaken with the Trust with respect to each Fund to: (i) record the issuance, transfer and redemption of shares, (ii) provide purchase and redemption confirmations and quarterly statements, as well as certain other statements, (iii) provide certain information to the Trust's custodian and the relevant sub-custodian in connection with redemptions, (iv) provide dividend crediting and certain disbursing agent services, (v) maintain shareholder accounts, (vi) provide certain state Blue Sky and other information, (vii) provide shareholders and certain regulatory authorities with tax related information, (viii) respond to shareholder inquiries, and (ix) render certain other miscellaneous services. The fees charged for transfer agency services are calculated daily and payable monthly at an annual rate of 0.02% of the average daily net assets of each Fund. Goldman Sachs may pay to certain intermediaries who perform transfer agent services to shareholders a networking or sub-transfer agent fee. These payments will be made from the transfer agency fees noted above and in the Funds' Prospectuses.

B-132

As compensation for services rendered to the Trust by Goldman Sachs as transfer agent and the assumption by Goldman Sachs of the expenses related thereto, Goldman Sachs received fees net of waivers for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 from the Funds as follows under the fee schedules then in effect:

2020 2019 2018

Fund

Institutional
Shares
Service
Shares
Advisor
Shares
Institutional
Shares
Service
Shares
Advisor
Shares
Institutional
Shares
Service
Shares
Advisor
Shares

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 48,788 $ 10,277 N/A $ 50,292 $ 11,140 N/A $ 54,854 $ 15,768 N/A

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

13,784 2,848 N/A 15,194 3,359 N/A 16,221 4,052 N/A

Strategic Growth Fund

27,801 45,073 N/A 23,645 44,171 N/A 23,517 54,361 N/A

Large Cap Value Fund

29,107 54,429 N/A 31,935 60,560 N/A 35,221 66,549 N/A

Mid Cap Value Fund

57,491 23,017 N/A 65,836 31,415 N/A 72,109 52,772 N/A

International Equity Insights Fund

8,390 8,156 N/A 8,208 9,328 N/A 8,624 13,157 N/A

Growth Opportunities Fund

22 14,202 N/A 15 14,331 N/A 11 18,775 N/A

Equity Index Fund

N/A 33,537 N/A N/A 34109 N/A N/A 35,061 N/A

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

1,002 13,004 $ 940 706 14,381 $ 1,360 73 13,973 $ 1,187

Core Fixed Income Fund

4,541 7,876 N/A 1,331 7,401 N/A 122 9,802 N/A

Global Trends Allocation Fund

54 64,885 N/A 52 69,553 N/A 30 82,557 N/A

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

271 615 3,317 204 341 2,885 120 70 3,158

Government Money Market Fund

107,669 104,420 N/A 69,747 71,055 N/A 56,380 69,667 N/A

Expenses

The Trust, on behalf of each Fund, is responsible for the payment of each Fund's respective expenses. The expenses include, without limitation, the fees payable to the Investment Adviser, the fees and expenses of the Trust's custodian and subcustodians, transfer agent fees and expenses, brokerage fees and commissions, filing fees for the registration or qualification of the Trust's shares under federal or state securities laws, expenses of the organization of the Funds, fees and expenses incurred by the Trust in connection with membership in investment company organizations including, but not limited to, the Investment Company Institute, taxes, interest, costs of liability insurance, fidelity bonds or indemnification, any costs, expenses or losses arising out of any liability of, or claim for damages or other relief asserted against, the Trust for violation of any law, legal, tax and auditing fees and expenses (including the cost of legal and certain accounting services rendered by employees of Goldman Sachs and its affiliates with respect to the Trust), expenses of preparing and setting in type Prospectuses, SAIs, proxy material, reports and notices and the printing and distributing of the same to the Trust's shareholders and regulatory authorities, any fees and expenses assumed by a Fund pursuant to its distribution and service plan, compensation and expenses of its Independent Trustees, the fees and expenses of pricing services, dividend expenses on short sales and extraordinary expenses, if any, incurred by the Trust. Except for fees and expenses under the distribution and service plans applicable to Service Shares or Advisor Shares, and transfer agency fees and expenses, all Fund expenses are borne on a non-class specific basis.

Fees and expenses borne by the Funds relating to legal counsel, registering shares of a Fund, holding meetings and communicating with shareholders may include an allocable portion of the cost of maintaining an internal legal and compliance department. Each Fund may also bear an allocable portion of the Investment Adviser's costs of performing certain accounting services not being provided by the Fund's custodian.

B-133

The imposition of the Investment Adviser's fees, as well as other operating expenses, will have the effect of reducing the total return to investors. From time to time, the Investment Adviser may waive receipt of its fees and/or assume certain expenses of a Fund, which would have the effect of lowering that Fund's overall expense ratio and increasing total return to investors at the time such amounts are waived or assumed, as the case may be.

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit certain "Other Expenses" (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, expenses of shareholder meetings, litigation and indemnification, and extraordinary expenses) for the following Funds to the extent such expenses exceed, on an annual basis, the following percentage of each Fund's average daily net assets through at least April 30, 2022:

Fund

Other
Expenses
Limit

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

0.004 %

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

0.094 %

Strategic Growth Fund

0.014 %

Large Cap Value Fund

0.004 %

Mid Cap Value Fund

0.054 %

Growth Opportunities Fund

0.004 %

Equity Index Fund

0.004 %

International Equity Insights Fund

0.044 %

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

0.034 %

Core Fixed Income Fund

0.004 %

Global Trends Allocation Fund

0.004 %

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

0.204 %

Government Money Market Fund

0.004 %

Prior to these dates, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangements without the approval of the Board of Trustees. These arrangements may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser after such dates, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Funds' "Other Expenses" may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Funds.

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the amounts of certain "Other Expenses" of each Fund were reduced or otherwise limited by the Investment Adviser as follows under the expense limitations that were then in effect:

Fund

2020 2019 2018

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 316,905 $ 298,441 $ 285,577

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

217,819 178,315 148,853

Strategic Growth Fund

254,005 271,880 221,526

Large Cap Value Fund

283,258 293,338 272,479

Mid Cap Value Fund

199,736 150,131 40,624

International Equity Insights Fund

405,335 352,500 339,886

Growth Opportunities Fund

241,817 238,260 224,567

Equity Index Fund

315,684 327,432 252,487

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

254,200 219,873 202,850

Core Fixed Income Fund

315,395 280,552 249,598

Global Trends Allocation Fund

277,458 242,348 195,181

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

214,657 206,503 193,675

Government Money Market Fund

254,519 189,108 235,298

B-134

These Funds have entered into certain expense offset arrangements with the custodian resulting in a reduction on each Fund's expenses. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, each Fund's custody fees were reduced by the following approximate amounts under such arrangement:

Fund

2020 2019 2018

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 5,524 $ 7,235 $ 3,095

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

2,644 3,519 1,119

Strategic Growth Fund

1,117 4,834 2,908

Large Cap Value Fund

793 6,273 4,296

Mid Cap Value Fund

735 8,554 6,773

International Equity Insights Fund

1,266 1,425 1,131

Growth Opportunities Fund

98 920 1,105

Equity Index Fund

1,840 2,331 780

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

3,104 3,761 1,033

Core Fixed Income Fund

2,123 2,151 904

Global Trends Allocation Fund

45,862 46,603 23,047

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

644 600 191

Government Money Market Fund

0 2,061 1,036

Custodian

Except for the Government Money Market Fund, JPMorganChase, 270 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10017, is the custodian of each Fund's portfolio securities and cash. BNYM, One Wall Street, New York, New York 10286, is the custodian of the Government Money Market Fund. JPMorganChase and BNYM also maintain the Trust's accounting records for the Funds for which they serve as custodian. JPMorganChase and BNYM may appoint domestic and foreign sub-custodians and use depositories from time to time to hold certain securities and other instruments purchased by the Trust in foreign countries and to hold cash and currencies for the Trust.

Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 101 Seaport Boulevard, Suite 500, Boston, MA, 02210, is the Funds' independent registered public accounting firm. In addition to audit services, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP provides assistance on certain non-audit matters.

Securities Lending

Pursuant to an agreement between the Growth Opportunities Fund, Large Cap Value Fund, Mid Cap Value Fund, Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio, and Strategic Growth Fund and the Bank of New York Mellon ("BNYM"), the Funds may lend their securities through BNYM as securities lending agent to certain qualified borrowers, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates (the "Securities Agency Lending Agreement"). As securities lending agent of the Funds, BNYM administers the Funds' securities lending program. These services include arranging the securities loans with approved borrowers and collecting fees and rebates due to the Funds from each borrower. BNYM also collects and maintains collateral intended to secure the obligations of each borrower and marks to market daily the value of loaned securities. If a borrower defaults on a loan, BNYM is authorized to exercise contractual remedies as securities lending agent to the Fund and, pursuant to the terms of the Securities Lending Agency Agreement, has agreed to indemnify the Fund for losses due to a borrower's failure to return a lent security, which exclude losses associated with collateral reinvestment. BNYM may also, in its capacity as securities lending agent, invest cash received as collateral in pre-approved investments in accordance with the Securities Lending Agency Agreement. BNYM maintains records of loans made and income derived therefrom and makes available such records that the Funds deem necessary to monitor the securities lending program.

Pursuant to exemptive relief granted by the SEC, the Equity Index Fund, Global Trends Allocation Fund, Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, International Equity Insights Fund, and U.S. Equity Insights Fund have entered into an agreement to lend their securities through a securities lending agent, Goldman Sachs Bank USA doing business as Goldman Sachs Agency Lending ("GSAL"), to certain qualified borrowers, including Goldman Sachs and its affiliates (the "Securities Lending Agency Agreement"). As securities lending agent of the Funds, GSAL administers the Funds' securities lending program. These services include arranging the securities loans with approved borrowers and collecting fees and rebates due to the Funds from each borrower. GSAL also collects and maintains collateral intended to secure the obligations of each borrower and marks to market daily the value of loaned securities. If a borrower defaults on a loan, GSAL is authorized to exercise contractual remedies on behalf of the lending Fund and, pursuant to the terms of the Securities Lending Agency Agreement, has agreed to indemnify the Fund for certain losses, which exclude losses associated with collateral reinvestment.

B-135

GSAL may also, in its capacity as securities lending agent, invest cash received as collateral in pre-approved investments in accordance with the Securities Lending Agency Agreement. GSAL maintains records of loans made and income derived therefrom and makes available such records that the Funds deem necessary to monitor the securities lending program. GSAL will also monitor the Funds' securities lending activities on a daily basis to ensure compliance with the terms of the exemptive relief.

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, the Funds earned income and incurred the following costs and expenses as a result of their securities lending activities:

Growth
Opportunities
Fund
Large Cap
Value Fund
Mid Cap
Value Fund
Multi-
Strategy
Alternatives
Portfolio

Gross Income from Securities Lending Activities1

$ 10,876 $ 35,427 $ 16,232 $ 2,664

Fees and/or Compensation for Securities Lending Activities and Related Services

Revenue Split2

$ 854 $ 821 $ 772 $ 166

Cash Collateral Management Fees3

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Administrative Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Indemnification Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Rebates to Borrowers

$ 2,330 $ 27,218 $ 8,510 $ 1,004

Other Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Aggregate Fees/Compensation for Securities Lending Activities

$ 3,184 $ 28,039 $ 9,282 $ 1,170

Net Income from the Securities Lending Activities

$ 7,692 $ 7,388 $ 6,951 $ 1,494
Strategic
Growth
Fund
Equity Index
Fund
Global Trends
Allocation Fund
Small Cap
Equity
Insights
Fund

Gross Income from Securities Lending Activities1

$ 45,643 $ 1,659 $ 552 $ 33,564

Fees and/or Compensation for Securities Lending Activities and Related Services

Revenue Split2

$ 3,984 $ 150 $ 24 $ 3,238

Cash Collateral Management Fees3

$ 0 $ 147 $ 138 $ 1,125

Administrative Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Indemnification Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Rebates to Borrowers

$ 5,804 $ 8 $ 175 $ 38

Other Fees

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 0

Aggregate Fees/Compensation for Securities Lending Activities

$ 9,788 $ 306 $ 337 $ 4,401

Net Income from the Securities Lending Activities

$ 35,855 $ 1,353 $ 215 $ 29,164

B-136

International Equity
Insights Fund
U.S. Equity Insights
Fund

Gross Income from Securities Lending Activities1

$ 5,084 $ 1,620

Fees and/or Compensation for Securities Lending Activities and Related Services

Revenue Split2

$ 473 $ 155

Cash Collateral Management Fees3

$ 351 $ 69

Administrative Fees

$ 0 $ 0

Indemnification Fees

$ 0 $ 0

Rebates to Borrowers

$ 0 $ 0

Other Fees

$ 0 $ 0

Aggregate Fees/Compensation for Securities Lending Activities

$ 824 $ 224

Net Income from the Securities Lending Activities

$ 4,260 $ 1,395

Amounts shown above may differ from amounts disclosed in the Funds' Annual Report as a result of timing differences, reconciliations, and certain other adjustments.

1

Gross income includes income from the reinvestment of cash collateral, premium income (i.e., rebates paid by the borrower to the lending Fund), loan fees paid by borrowers when collateral is noncash, management fees from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle that are deducted from the vehicle's assets before income is distributed, and any other income.

2

Revenue split represents the share of revenue generated by the securities lending program and paid to BNYM or GSAL.

3

Cash collateral management fees include the contractual management fees deducted from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle that are not included in the revenue split. The contractual management fees are derived from the pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle's most recently available prospectus or offering memorandum. Actual fees incurred from a pooled cash collateral reinvestment vehicle may differ due to other expenses, fee waivers and expense reimbursements.

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

General Categories of Conflicts Associated with the Funds

Goldman Sachs (which, for purposes of this "POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST" section, shall mean, collectively, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., the Investment Adviser and their affiliates, directors, partners, trustees, managers, members, officers and employees) is a worldwide, full-service investment banking, broker-dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets. As such, it provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and individuals. Goldman Sachs acts as broker-dealer, investment adviser, investment banker, underwriter, research provider, administrator, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, derivatives dealer, clearing agent, lender, counterparty, agent, principal, distributor, investor or in other commercial capacities for accounts or companies or affiliated or unaffiliated investment funds (including pooled investment vehicles and private funds). In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises and deals with clients and third parties in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products, for its own account and for the accounts of clients and of its personnel. In addition, Goldman Sachs has direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equities, bank loan and other markets. In certain cases, the Investment Adviser causes the Funds to invest in products and strategies sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs has an interest, either directly or indirectly, or otherwise restricts the Funds from making such investments, as further described herein. In this regard, there are instances when Goldman Sachs' activities and dealings with other clients and third parties affect the Funds in ways that disadvantage the Funds and/or benefit Goldman Sachs or other Accounts.

In addition, the Investment Adviser's activities on behalf of certain other entities that are not investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser create conflicts of interest between such entities, on the one hand, and Accounts (including the Funds), on the other hand, that are the same as or similar to the conflicts that arise between the Funds and other Accounts, as described herein. In managing conflicts of interest that arise as a result of the foregoing, the Investment Adviser generally will be subject to fiduciary requirements. For purposes of this "POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST" section, "Funds" shall mean, collectively, the Funds and any of the other Goldman Sachs Funds, and "Accounts" shall mean Goldman Sachs' own accounts, accounts in which personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest, accounts of Goldman Sachs' clients, including separately managed accounts (or separate accounts), and investment vehicles that Goldman Sachs sponsors, manages or advises, including the Funds.

B-137

The conflicts herein do not purport to be a complete list or explanation of the conflicts associated with the financial or other interests the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs may have now or in the future. Additional information about potential conflicts of interest regarding the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs is set forth in the Investment Adviser's Form ADV. A copy of Part 1 and Part 2A of the Investment Adviser's Form ADV is available on the SEC's website (www.adviserinfo.sec.gov).

The Sale of Fund Shares and the Allocation of Investment Opportunities

Sales Incentives and Related Conflicts Arising from Goldman Sachs' Financial and Other Relationships with Intermediaries

Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, receive benefits and earn fees and compensation for services provided to Accounts (including the Funds) and in connection with the distribution of the Funds. Any such fees and compensation are generally paid directly or indirectly out of the fees payable to the Investment Adviser in connection with the management of such Accounts (including the Funds). Moreover, Goldman Sachs and its personnel, including employees of the Investment Adviser, have relationships (both involving and not involving the Funds, and including without limitation placement, brokerage, advisory and board relationships) with distributors, consultants and others who recommend, or engage in transactions with or for, the Funds. Such distributors, consultants and other parties may receive compensation from Goldman Sachs or the Funds in connection with such relationships. As a result of these relationships, distributors, consultants and other parties have conflicts that create incentives for them to promote the Funds.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, Goldman Sachs and the Funds have in the past made, and may in the future make, payments to authorized dealers and other financial intermediaries and to salespersons to promote the Funds. These payments may be made out of Goldman Sachs' assets or amounts payable to Goldman Sachs. These payments create an incentive for such persons to highlight, feature or recommend the Funds.

Allocation of Investment Opportunities Among the Funds and Other Accounts

The Investment Adviser manages or advises multiple Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and its personnel have an interest) that have investment objectives that are the same or similar to the Funds and that seek to make or sell investments in the same securities or other instruments, sectors or strategies as the Funds. This creates potential conflicts, particularly in circumstances where the availability or liquidity of such investment opportunities is limited (e.g., in local and emerging markets, high yield securities, fixed income securities, regulated industries, small capitalization, direct or indirect investments in private investment funds, investments in master limited partnerships in the oil and gas industry and initial public offerings/new issues).

Accounts (including the Funds) may invest in other Accounts (including the Funds) at or near the establishment of such Accounts, which may facilitate the Accounts achieving a specified size or scale.

The Investment Adviser does not receive performance-based compensation in respect of its investment management activities on behalf of the Funds, but may simultaneously manage Accounts for which the Investment Adviser receives greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees or allocations) than it receives in respect of the Funds. The simultaneous management of Accounts that pay greater fees or other compensation and the Funds creates a conflict of interest as the Investment Adviser has an incentive to favor Accounts with the potential to receive greater fees when allocating resources, services, functions or investment opportunities among Accounts. For instance, the Investment Adviser will be faced with a conflict of interest when allocating scarce investment opportunities given the possibly greater fees from Accounts that pay performance-based fees. To address these types of conflicts, the Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures under which it will allocate investment opportunities in a manner that it believes is consistent with its obligations and fiduciary duties as an investment adviser. However, the availability, amount, timing, structuring or terms of an investment available to the Funds differ from, and performance may be lower than, the investments and performance of other Accounts in certain cases.

To address these potential conflicts, the Investment Adviser has developed allocation policies and procedures that provide that the Investment Adviser's personnel making portfolio decisions for Accounts will make investment decisions for, and allocate investment opportunities among, such Accounts consistent with the Investment Adviser's fiduciary obligations. These policies and procedures may result in the pro rata allocation (on a basis determined by the Investment Adviser) of limited opportunities across eligible Accounts managed by a particular portfolio management team, but in other cases such allocation may not be pro rata. Furthermore, certain investment opportunities sourced by the Investment Adviser, or Goldman Sachs businesses or divisions outside of the Investment Adviser, may be allocated to Goldman Sachs for its own account or investment vehicles organized to facilitate investment by its current or former directors, partners, trustees, managers, members, officers, consultants, employees, and their families and related entities, including employee benefit plans in which they participate, and not to Accounts. See Item 11 ("Code of Ethics, Participation or Interest in Client Transactions and Personal Trading, Participation or Interest in Client Transactions-Certain Effects of the Activities of Goldman Sachs and Advisory Accounts") of the Investment Adviser's Form ADV.

Allocation-related decisions for the Funds and other Accounts are made by reference to one or more factors. Factors may include: the Account's portfolio and its investment horizons and objectives (including with respect to portfolio construction), guidelines and restrictions (including legal and regulatory restrictions affecting certain Accounts or affecting holdings across Accounts); client instructions; strategic fit and other portfolio management considerations, including different desired levels of exposure to certain strategies; the expected future capacity of the Funds and the applicable Accounts; limits on the Investment Adviser's brokerage discretion; cash and liquidity needs and other considerations; the availability (or lack thereof) of other appropriate or substantially similar investment opportunities; and differences in benchmark factors and hedging strategies among Accounts. Suitability considerations, reputational matters and other considerations may also be considered.

B-138

In a case in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser's primary investment vehicles focused on, or to receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy, other Accounts (including the Funds) may not have access to such strategy or may have more limited access than would otherwise be the case. To the extent that such Accounts are managed by areas of Goldman Sachs other than the Investment Adviser, such Accounts will not be subject to the Investment Adviser's allocation policies. Investments by such Accounts may reduce or eliminate the availability of investment opportunities to, or otherwise adversely affect, the Fund. Furthermore, in cases in which one or more Accounts are intended to be the Investment Adviser's primary investment vehicles focused on, or receive priority with respect to, a particular trading strategy or type of investment, such Accounts have specific policies or guidelines with respect to Accounts or other persons receiving the opportunity to invest alongside such Accounts with respect to one or more investments ("Co-Investment Opportunities"). As a result, certain Accounts or other persons will receive allocations to, or rights to invest in, Co-Investment Opportunities that are not available generally to the Funds.

In addition, in some cases the Investment Adviser makes investment recommendations to Accounts that make investment decisions independently of the Investment Adviser. In circumstances in which there is limited availability of an investment opportunity, if such Accounts invest in the investment opportunity at the same time as, or prior to, a Fund, the availability of the investment opportunity for the Fund will be reduced irrespective of the Investment Adviser's policies regarding allocations of investments.

The Investment Adviser, from time to time, develops and implements new trading strategies or seeks to participate in new trading strategies and investment opportunities. These strategies and opportunities are not employed in all Accounts or employed pro rata among Accounts where they are used, even if the strategy or opportunity is consistent with the objectives of such Accounts. Further, a trading strategy employed for a Fund that is similar to, or the same as, that of another Account may be implemented differently, sometimes to a material extent. For example, a Fund may invest in different securities or other assets, or invest in the same securities and other assets but in different proportions, than another Account with the same or similar trading strategy. The implementation of the Fund's trading strategy depends on a variety of factors, including the portfolio managers involved in managing the trading strategy for the Account, the time difference associated with the location of different portfolio management teams, and the factors described above and in Item 6 ("PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDEMANAGEMENT-Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities") of the Investment Adviser's Form ADV.

During periods of unusual market conditions, the Investment Adviser may deviate from its normal trade allocation practices. For example, this may occur with respect to the management of unlevered and/or long-only Accounts that are typically managed on a side-by-side basis with levered and/or long-short Accounts.

The Investment Adviser and the Funds may receive notice of, or offers to participate in, investment opportunities from third parties for various reasons. The Investment Adviser in its sole discretion will determine whether a Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities and investors should not expect that the Fund will participate in any such investment opportunities unless the opportunities are received pursuant to contractual requirements, such as preemptive rights or rights offerings, under the terms of the Fund's investments. Some or all Funds may, from time to time, be offered investment opportunities that are made available through Goldman Sachs businesses outside of the Investment Adviser, including, for example, interests in real estate and other private investments. In this regard, a conflict of interest exists to the extent that Goldman Sachs controls or otherwise influences the terms and pricing of such investments and/or retains other benefits in connection therewith. However, Goldman Sachs businesses outside of the Investment Adviser are under no obligation or other duty to provide investment opportunities to the Funds, and generally are not expected to do so. Further, opportunities sourced within particular portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser may not be allocated to Accounts (including the Funds) managed by such teams or by other teams. Opportunities not allocated (or not fully allocated) to the Funds or other Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser may be undertaken by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), including for Goldman Sachs Accounts, or made available to other Accounts or third parties, and the Funds will not receive any compensation related to such opportunities. Even in the case of an opportunity received by a Fund pursuant to contractual requirements, the Investment Adviser may decide in its discretion that the Fund will not participate in such opportunity for portfolio construction reasons, due to the investment objective and strategies of such Fund, or because the Investment Adviser determines that participation would not be appropriate for such Fund for other reasons, in which case the Investment Adviser may allocate such opportunity to another Account. Additional information about the Investment Adviser's allocation policies is set forth in Item 6 ("PERFORMANCE-BASED FEES AND SIDE-BY-SIDEMANAGEMENT-Side-by-Side Management of Advisory Accounts; Allocation of Opportunities") of the Investment Adviser's Form ADV.

As a result of the various considerations above, there will be cases in which certain Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs and personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest) receive an allocation of an investment opportunity at times that the Funds do not, or when the Funds receive an allocation of such opportunities but on different terms than other Accounts (which may be less favorable). The application of these considerations may cause differences in the performance of different Accounts that employ strategies the same or similar to those of the Funds.

B-139

Multiple Accounts (including the Funds) may participate in a particular investment or incur expenses applicable in connection with the operation or management of the Accounts, or otherwise may be subject to costs or expenses that are allocable to more than one Account (which may include, without limitation, research expenses, technology expenses, expenses relating to participation in bondholder groups, restructurings, class actions and other litigation, and insurance premiums). The Investment Adviser may allocate investment-related and other expenses on a pro rata or different basis. Certain Accounts are, by their terms or by determination of the Investment Adviser, on a case-by-case basis, not responsible for their share of such expenses, and, in addition, the Investment Adviser has agreed with certain Accounts to cap the amount of expenses (or the amount of certain types of expenses) borne by such Accounts, which results in such Accounts not bearing the full share of expenses they would otherwise have borne as described above. As a result, certain Accounts are responsible for bearing a different or greater amount of expenses, while other Accounts do not bear any, or do not bear their full share, of such expenses. The Investment Adviser may bear any such expenses on behalf of certain Accounts and not for others, as it determines in its sole discretion. If the Investment Adviser bears expenses on behalf of an Account and the Account subsequently receives reimbursement for such expenses, the Investment Adviser will generally be entitled to receive all or a portion of the amount of such reimbursement, up to the amount that was borne by the Investment Adviser on behalf of such Account.

Accounts will generally incur expenses with respect to the consideration and pursuit of transactions that are not ultimately consummated ("broken-deal expenses"). Examples of broken-deal expenses include (i) research costs, (ii) fees and expenses of legal, financial, accounting, consulting or other advisers (including the Investment Adviser or its affiliates) in connection with conducting due diligence or otherwise pursuing a particular non-consummated transaction, (iii) fees and expenses in connection with arranging financing for a particular non-consummated transaction, (iv) travel, entertainment and overtime meal and transportation costs, (v) deposits or down payments that are forfeited in connection with, or amounts paid as a penalty for, a particular non-consummated transaction and (vi) other expenses incurred in connection with activities related to a particular non-consummated transaction.

The Investment Adviser has adopted a policy relating to the allocation of broken-deal expenses among Accounts (including the Funds) and other potential investors. Pursuant to the policy, broken-deal expenses generally will be allocated among Accounts in the manner that the Investment Adviser determines to be fair and equitable, which will be pro rata or on a different basis.

Goldman Sachs' Financial and Other Interests May Incentivize Goldman Sachs to Promote the Sale of Fund Shares

Goldman Sachs and its personnel have interests in promoting sales of Fund shares, and the compensation from such sales may be greater than the compensation relating to sales of interests in other Accounts. Therefore, Goldman Sachs and its personnel may have a financial interest in promoting Fund shares over interests in other Accounts.

Management of the Funds by the Investment Adviser

Considerations Relating to Information Held by Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs has established certain information barriers and other policies designed to address the sharing of information between different businesses within Goldman Sachs. As a result of information barriers, the Investment Adviser generally will not have access, or will have limited access, to certain information and personnel, including senior personnel, in other areas of Goldman Sachs relating to business transactions for clients (including transactions in investing, banking, prime brokerage and certain other areas), and generally will not manage the Funds with the benefit of information held by such other areas. Goldman Sachs, due to its access to and knowledge of funds, markets and securities based on its prime brokerage and other businesses, will from time to time make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to interests in investments of the kind held (directly or indirectly) by the Funds in a manner that is adverse to the Funds, and will not have any obligation or other duty to share information with the Investment Adviser.

In limited circumstances, however, including for purposes of managing business and reputational risk, and subject to policies and procedures, personnel on one side of an information barrier may have access to information and personnel on the other side of the information barrier through "wall crossings." The Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest in determining whether to engage in such wall crossings. In addition, Goldman Sachs or the Investment Adviser may determine to move certain personnel, businesses, or business units from one side of an information barrier to the other side of the information barrier. In connection therewith, Goldman Sachs personnel, businesses, and business units that were moved will no longer have access to the personnel, businesses and business units on the side of the information barrier from which they were moved.

Information obtained in connection with such wall crossings and changes to information barriers may limit or restrict the ability of the Investment Adviser to engage in or otherwise effect transactions on behalf of the Funds (including purchasing or selling securities that the Investment Adviser may otherwise have purchased or sold for an Account in the absence of a wall crossing or change to an information barrier). In managing conflicts of interest that arise as a result of the foregoing, the Investment Adviser generally will be subject to fiduciary requirements. Information barriers also exist between certain businesses within the Investment Adviser. The conflicts described herein with respect to information barriers and otherwise with respect to Goldman Sachs and the Investment Adviser also apply to the Asset Management Division of Goldman Sachs (of which the Investment Adviser is a part), as well as to the businesses within the Asset Management Division of Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser). In addition, there may also be circumstances in which, as a result of information held by certain portfolio management teams in the Investment Adviser, the Investment Adviser limits an activity or transaction for a Fund, including if the Fund is managed by a portfolio management team other than the team holding such information.

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In addition, regardless of the existence of information barriers, Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available for the benefit of the Funds any information regarding Goldman Sachs' trading activities, strategies or views, or the activities, strategies or views used for other Accounts. Furthermore, to the extent that the Investment Adviser has developed fundamental analysis and proprietary technical models or other information, Goldman Sachs and its personnel, or other parts of the Investment Adviser, will not be under any obligation or other duty to share certain information with the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds), and the Funds may make investment decisions that differ from those they would have made if Goldman Sachs had provided such information, and be disadvantaged as a result thereof.

Different areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs take views, and make decisions or recommendations, that are different than those of other areas of the Investment Adviser and Goldman Sachs. Different portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser make decisions based on information or take (or refrain from taking) actions with respect to Accounts they advise in a manner different than or adverse to the Funds. Such teams do not share information with the Funds' portfolio management teams, including as a result of certain information barriers and other policies, and will not have any obligation or other duty to do so.

Goldman Sachs operates a business known as Prime Services, which provides prime brokerage, administrative and other services to clients that from time to time involve investment funds (including pooled investment vehicles and private funds) in which one or more Accounts invest ("Underlying Funds") or markets and securities in which Accounts invest. Prime Services and other parts of Goldman Sachs have broad access to information regarding the current status of certain markets, investments and funds and detailed information about fund operators that is not available to the Investment Adviser. In addition, Goldman Sachs from time to time acts as a prime broker to one or more Underlying Funds, in which case Goldman Sachs will have information concerning the investments and transactions of such Underlying Funds that is not available to the Investment Adviser. As a result of these and other activities, parts of Goldman Sachs will possess information in respect of markets, investments, investment advisers that are affiliated or unaffiliated with Goldman Sachs and Underlying Funds, which, if known to the Investment Adviser, might cause the Investment Adviser to seek to dispose of, retain or increase interests in investments held by Accounts or acquire certain positions on behalf of Accounts, or take other actions. Goldman Sachs will be under no obligation or other duty to make any such information available to the Investment Adviser or personnel involved in decision-making for Accounts (including the Funds).

Valuation of the Funds' Investments

The Investment Adviser, while not the primary valuation agent of the Funds, performs certain valuation services related to securities and assets held in the Funds. The Investment Adviser performs such valuation services in accordance with its valuation policies. The Investment Adviser may value an identical asset differently than another division or unit within Goldman Sachs values the asset, including because such other division or unit has information or uses valuation techniques and models that it does not share with, or that are different than those of, the Investment Adviser. This is particularly the case in respect of difficult-to-value assets. The Investment Adviser may also value an identical asset differently in different Accounts, including because different Accounts are subject to different valuation guidelines pursuant to their respective governing agreements (e.g., in connection with certain regulatory restrictions applicable to different Accounts). Differences in valuation should be expected where different third-party vendors are hired to perform valuation functions for the Accounts, the Accounts are managed or advised by different portfolio management teams within the Investment Adviser that employ different valuation policies or procedures, or otherwise. The Investment Adviser will face a conflict with respect to valuations generally because of their effect on the Investment Adviser's fees and other compensation. Furthermore, the application of particular valuation policies with respect to the Funds will, under certain circumstances, result in improved performance of the Funds.

Data and Information Sharing

Accounts, the Investment Adviser, and/or their respective affiliates, portfolio companies and other investments (collectively, the "Data Parties") often possess data and information that they may utilize for various purposes and which they would not otherwise possess in the ordinary course of their businesses. For example, information relating to business operations, trends, budgets, customers or users, assets, funding and other metrics that the Data Parties possess or acquire through their management of Accounts and/or their own businesses and investment activities may be used by Goldman Sachs to identify and/or evaluate potential investments for Accounts and to facilitate the management of Accounts, including through operational improvements. Conversely, Goldman Sachs may use data and information that it has or acquires in connection with an Account's activities for the benefit of Goldman Sachs' own businesses and investment activities and their portfolio companies and other investments.

From time to time, Goldman Sachs may commission third-party research, at an Account's expense, in connection with the diligence of an investment opportunity or in connection with its management of a portfolio investment, and such research is expected to subsequently be available to other investment vehicles (and such persons will generally not be required to compensate an Account for the benefit they receive from such research). Such benefits could be material and Goldman Sachs will have no duty, contractual, fiduciary or otherwise, not to use such information in connection with the business and investment activities of itself, Accounts and/or their portfolio companies and other investments.

Furthermore, except for contractual obligations to third parties to maintain confidentiality of certain information, regulatory limitations on the use of material nonpublic information, and the Data Parties' information walls, Goldman Sachs is generally free to use data and information from an Account's activities to assist in the pursuit of its various other interests and activities, including to trade for the benefit of Goldman Sachs or another Account. Accounts and other sources of such data and information may not receive any financial or other benefit from having provided such data and information to Goldman Sachs. The potential ability to monetize such data and information may create incentives for Goldman Sachs to cause an Account to invest in entities and companies with a significant amount of data that it might not otherwise have invested in or on terms less favorable than it otherwise would have sought to obtain.

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Goldman Sachs' and the Investment Adviser's Activities on Behalf of Other Accounts

The Investment Adviser provides advisory services to the Funds. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel have interests in and advise Accounts that have investment objectives or portfolios similar to, related to or opposed to those of the Funds. Goldman Sachs may receive greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees) from such Accounts than it does from the Funds, in which case Goldman Sachs is incentivized to favor such Accounts. In addition, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), the clients it advises, and its personnel may engage (or consider engaging) in commercial arrangements or transactions with Accounts, and/or compete for commercial arrangements or transactions in the same types of companies, assets securities and other instruments, as the Funds. Such arrangements, transactions or investments adversely affect such Funds by, for example, limiting their ability to engage in such activity or affecting the pricing or terms of such arrangements, transactions or investments. Moreover, a particular Fund on the one hand, and Goldman Sachs or other Accounts, on the other hand, may vote differently on or take or refrain from taking different actions with respect to the same security, which are disadvantageous to the Fund. Additionally, as described below, the Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest arising out of Goldman Sachs' relationships and business dealings in connection with decisions to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of Accounts when doing so would be adverse to Goldman Sachs' relationships or other business dealings with such parties.

Transactions by, advice to and activities of Accounts (including with respect to investment decisions, voting and the enforcement of rights) may involve the same or related companies, securities or other assets or instruments as those in which the Funds invest, and it should be expected that such Accounts engage in a strategy while a Fund is undertaking the same or a differing strategy, any of which could directly or indirectly disadvantage the Fund (including its ability to engage in a transaction or other activities).

In various circumstances, different Accounts make investments as part of a single transaction, including in situations in which multiple Accounts comprise a single "fund family." In these circumstances, the participating Accounts may have different interests, including investment horizons. Similarly, capital contribution and other obligations associated with an investment may extend beyond a particular Account's investment period or expected term. In such circumstances, the Investment Adviser may negotiate the terms of an investment on a collective basis and such terms may not be as favorable, from the perspective of a particular Account, than if the Account had been the sole participating Account. Terms required by one Account (for example, due to regulatory requirements) when it invests may negatively impact the ability of another Account to consummate the investment or may adversely alter its terms. Similarly, one Account may seek to dispose of an investment at a time when it would be desirable for another Account to continue to hold such investment (or vice versa). Depending on the structure of the applicable investment, disposing of a portion of the investment may not be practicable or may have adverse effects on the rights of Accounts continuing to hold the investment. When making an investment decision with respect to an investment in which multiple Accounts are invested, Goldman Sachs may primarily take into account the specific effect such investment decision will have on the Accounts as a whole, and not based on the best interests of any particular Account.

In addition, Goldman Sachs may be engaged to provide advice to an Account that is considering entering into a transaction with a Fund, and Goldman Sachs may advise the Account not to pursue the transaction with the Fund, or otherwise in connection with a potential transaction provide advice to the Account that would be adverse to the Fund. Additionally, if a Fund buys a security and an Account establishes a short position in that same security or in similar securities, such short position may result in the impairment of the price of the security that the Fund holds or could be designed to profit from a decline in the price of the security. A Fund could similarly be adversely impacted if it establishes a short position, following which an Account takes a long position in the same security or in similar securities. Furthermore, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) may make filings in connection with a shareholder class action lawsuit or similar matter involving a particular security on behalf of an Account (including a Fund), but not on behalf of a different Account (including a Fund) that holds or held the same security, or that is invested in or has extended credit to different parts of the capital structure of the same issuer. Accounts may also have different rights in respect of an investment with the same issuer, or invest in different classes of the same issuer that have different rights, including, without limitation, with respect to liquidity. The determination to exercise such rights by the Investment Adviser on behalf of such other Accounts may have an adverse effect on the Funds.

The Funds are expected to transact with a variety of counterparties. Some of these counterparties will also engage in transactions with other Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser or another Goldman Sachs entity. For example, a Fund may directly or indirectly purchase assets from a counterparty at the same time the counterparty (or an affiliate thereof) is also negotiating to purchase different assets from another Account. This creates potential conflicts of interest, particularly with respect to the terms and purchase prices of the sales. For example, Goldman Sachs may receive fees or other compensation in connection with the sale of assets by an Account to a counterparty, which creates an incentive to negotiate a higher purchase price for those assets in a separate transaction where the Fund is a purchaser.

Similarly, a particular Fund may dispose of one or more assets through a block sale that includes assets held by other Accounts or as part of a series of transactions in which assets from multiple Accounts are sold to the same purchaser. This creates potential conflicts of interest, particularly with regard to the determination of the purchase prices of the applicable assets. For example, Goldman Sachs may receive greater fees or other compensation (including performance-based fees) in connection with the sale of assets in other Accounts that participate in a block sale as compared to the compensation that Goldman Sachs receives in connection with the sale of assets by the particular Fund. There can be no assurance that the compensation received by the particular Fund as a result of participating in a block sale would be greater than the compensation that the particular Fund would receive if its assets were sold as part of a standalone transaction. Any such transaction will be effected in accordance with the Investment Adviser's fiduciary obligations.

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Shareholders may be offered access to advisory services through several different Goldman Sachs businesses (including through Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and the Investment Adviser). Different advisory businesses within Goldman Sachs manage Accounts according to different strategies and apply different criteria to the same or similar strategies and have differing investment views in respect of an issuer or a security or other investment. Similarly, within the Investment Adviser, certain investment teams or portfolio managers can have differing or opposite investment views in respect of an issuer or a security, and as a result some or all of the positions a Fund's investment team or portfolio managers take in respect of the Fund will be inconsistent with, or adversely affected by, the interests and activities of the Accounts advised by other investment teams or portfolio managers of the Investment Adviser. Research, analyses or viewpoints will be available to clients or potential clients at different times. Goldman Sachs will not have any obligation or other duty to make available to the Funds any research or analysis at any particular time or prior to its public dissemination. The Investment Adviser is responsible for making investment decisions on behalf of the Funds, and such investment decisions can differ from investment decisions or recommendations by Goldman Sachs on behalf of other Accounts. The timing of transactions entered into or recommended by Goldman Sachs, on behalf of itself or its clients, including the Funds, may negatively impact the Funds or benefit certain other Accounts. For example, if Goldman Sachs, on behalf of one or more Accounts, implements an investment decision or strategy ahead of, or contemporaneously with, or behind similar investment decisions or strategies made for the Funds (whether or not the investment decisions emanate from the same research analysis or other information), it could result, due to market impact or other factors, in liquidity constraints or in certain Funds receiving less favorable investment or trading results or incurring increased costs. Similarly, if Goldman Sachs implements an investment decision or strategy that results in a purchase (or sale) of a security for one Fund, such implementation may increase the value of such security already held by another Account (or decrease the value of such security that such other Account intends to purchase), thereby benefitting such other Account.

Subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser is incentivized to cause the Funds to invest in securities, bank loans or other obligations of companies affiliated with or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs or Accounts have an equity, debt or other interest, or to engage in investment transactions that may result in other Accounts being relieved of obligations or otherwise divested of investments, which may enhance the profitability of Goldman Sachs' or other Accounts' investment in and activities with respect to such companies. The Investment Adviser, in its discretion and in certain circumstances, recommends that certain Funds have ongoing business dealings, arrangements or agreements with persons who are (i) former employees of Goldman Sachs, (ii) affiliates or other portfolio companies of Goldman Sachs or other Accounts, (iii) Goldman Sachs' employees' family members and/or relatives and/or certain of their portfolio companies or (iv) persons otherwise associated with an investor in an Account or a portfolio company or service provider of Goldman Sachs or an Account. The Funds may bear, directly or indirectly, the costs of such dealings, arrangements or agreements. These recommendations, and recommendations relating to continuing any such dealings, arrangements or agreements, pose conflicts of interest and may be based on differing incentives due to Goldman Sachs' relationships with such persons. In particular, when acting on behalf of, and making decisions for, Accounts, the Investment Adviser may take into account Goldman Sachs' interests in maintaining its relationships and business dealings with such persons. As a result, the Investment Adviser faces conflicts of interest arising out of Goldman Sachs' relationships and business dealings in connection with decisions to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of Accounts when doing so would be adverse to Goldman Sachs' relationships or other business dealings with such parties.

When the Investment Adviser wishes to place an order for different types of Accounts (including the Funds) for which aggregation is not practicable, the Investment Adviser may use a trade sequencing and rotation policy to determine which type of Account is to be traded first. Under this policy, each portfolio management team may determine the length of its trade rotation period and the sequencing schedule for different categories of clients within this period provided that the trading periods and these sequencing schedules are designed to be reasonable. Within a given trading period, the sequencing schedule establishes when and how frequently a given client category will trade first in the order of rotation. The Investment Adviser may deviate from the predetermined sequencing schedule under certain circumstances, and the Investment Adviser's trade sequencing and rotation policy may be amended, modified or supplemented at any time without prior notice to clients.

Potential Conflicts Relating to Follow-On Investments

From time to time, the Investment Adviser provides opportunities to Accounts (including potentially the Funds) to make investments in companies in which certain Accounts have already invested. Such follow-on investments can create conflicts of interest, such as the determination of the terms of the new investment and the allocation of such opportunities among Accounts (including the Funds). Follow-on investment opportunities may be available to the Funds notwithstanding that the Funds have no existing investment in the issuer, resulting in the assets of the Funds potentially providing value to, or otherwise supporting the investments of, other Accounts. Accounts (including the Funds) may also participate in releveraging, recapitalization, and similar transactions involving companies in which other Accounts have invested or will invest. Conflicts of interest in these and other transactions arise between Accounts (including the Funds) with existing investments in a company and Accounts making subsequent investments in the company, which have opposing interests regarding pricing and other terms. The subsequent investments may dilute or otherwise adversely affect the interests of the previously-invested Accounts (including the Funds).

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Diverse Interests of Shareholders

It should be expected that the various types of investors in and beneficiaries of the Funds, including to the extent applicable the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, have conflicting investment, tax and other interests with respect to their interests in the Funds. When considering a potential investment for a Fund, the Investment Adviser will generally consider the investment objectives of the Fund, not the investment objectives of any particular investor or beneficiary. The Investment Adviser makes decisions, including with respect to tax matters, from time to time that will be more beneficial to one type of investor or beneficiary than another, or to the Investment Adviser and its affiliates than to investors or beneficiaries unaffiliated with the Investment Adviser. In addition, Goldman Sachs faces certain tax risks based on positions taken by the Funds, including as a withholding agent. Goldman Sachs reserves the right on behalf of itself and its affiliates to take actions adverse to the Funds or other Accounts in these circumstances, including withholding amounts to cover actual or potential tax liabilities.

Selection of Service Providers

The Funds expect to engage service providers (including attorneys and consultants) that in certain cases also provide services to Goldman Sachs and other Accounts. In addition, certain service providers to the Investment Adviser or Funds are also portfolio companies or other affiliates of the Investment Adviser or other Accounts (for example, a portfolio company of an Account may retain a portfolio company of another Account). To the extent it is involved in such selection, the Investment Adviser intends to select these service providers based on a number of factors, including expertise and experience, knowledge of related or similar products, quality of service, reputation in the marketplace, relationships with the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs or others, and price. These service providers may have business, financial, or other relationships with Goldman Sachs (including its personnel), which may influence the Investment Adviser's selection of these service providers for the Funds. In such circumstances, there is a conflict of interest between Goldman Sachs (acting on behalf of the Funds) and the Funds or between Funds if the Funds determine not to engage or continue to engage these service providers.

The Investment Adviser may, in its sole discretion, determine to provide, or engage or recommend an affiliate of the Investment Adviser to provide, certain services to the Funds, instead of engaging or recommending one or more third parties to provide such services. Subject to the governance requirements of a particular Fund and applicable law, the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, as applicable, will receive compensation in connection with the provision of such services. As a result, the Investment Adviser faces a conflict of interest when selecting or recommending service providers for the Funds. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the selection or recommendation of service providers for the Funds will be conducted in accordance with the Investment Adviser's fiduciary obligations to the Funds. The service providers selected or recommended by the Investment Adviser may charge different rates to different recipients based on the specific services provided, the personnel providing the services, the complexity of the services provided or other factors. As a result, the rates paid with respect to these service providers by a Fund, on the one hand, may be more or less favorable than the rates paid by Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, on the other hand. In addition, the rates paid by the Investment Adviser or the Funds, on the one hand, may be more or less favorable than the rates paid by other parts of Goldman Sachs or Accounts managed by other parts of Goldman Sachs, on the other hand. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), its personnel, and/or Accounts may hold investments in companies that provide services to entities in which the Funds invest generally, and, subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may refer or introduce such companies' services to entities that have issued securities held by the Funds.

Investments in Goldman Sachs Funds

To the extent permitted by applicable law, the Funds will, from time to time invest in money market and/or other funds sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs. In connection with any such investments, a Fund, to the extent permitted by the Act, will pay all advisory, administrative or Rule 12b-1 fees applicable to the investment. To the extent consistent with applicable law, certain Funds that invest in other funds sponsored, managed or advised by Goldman Sachs pay advisory fees to the Investment Adviser that are not reduced by any fees payable by such other funds to Goldman Sachs as manager of such other funds (i.e., there will be "double fees" involved in making any such investment, which would not arise in connection with the direct allocation of assets by investors in the Funds to such other funds). In such circumstances, as well as in all other circumstances in which Goldman Sachs receives any fees or other compensation in any form relating to the provision of services, no accounting or repayment to the Funds will be required.

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The Investment Adviser, from time to time, manages Accounts (including the Funds), which may, individually or in the aggregate, own a substantial amount of the Funds. Further, the Investment Adviser, its affiliates, or another entity (i.e., a seed investor) may invest in the Funds at or near the establishment of such Funds, which may facilitate the Funds achieving a specified size or scale. Seed investors may contribute all or a majority of the assets in the Fund. There is a risk that such seed investors may redeem their investments in the Fund. Such redemptions could have a significant negative impact on the Fund, including on its liquidity.

Goldman Sachs May In-Source or Outsource

Subject to applicable law, Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, may from time to time and without notice to investors in-source or outsource certain processes or functions in connection with a variety of services that it provides to the Funds in its administrative or other capacities. Such in-sourcing or outsourcing may give rise to additional conflicts of interest.

Distributions of Assets Other Than Cash

With respect to redemptions from the Funds, the Funds will, in certain circumstances, have discretion to decide whether to permit or limit redemptions and whether to make distributions in connection with redemptions in the form of securities or other assets, and in such case, the composition of such distributions. In making such decisions, the Investment Adviser will sometimes have a potentially conflicting division of loyalties and responsibilities to redeeming investors and remaining investors.

Goldman Sachs Will Act in a Capacity Other Than Investment Adviser to the Funds

Investments in and Advice Regarding Different Parts of an Issuer's Capital Structure

In some cases, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or Accounts, on the one hand, and the Funds, on the other hand, invest in or extend credit to different parts of the capital structure of a single issuer. As a result, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or Accounts may take actions that adversely affect the Funds. In addition, in some cases, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) advises Accounts with respect to different parts of the capital structure of the same issuer, or classes of securities that are subordinate or senior to securities, in which the Funds invest. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) is able to pursue rights, provide advice or engage in other activities, or refrain from pursuing rights, providing advice or engaging in other activities, on behalf of itself or other Accounts with respect to an issuer in which the Funds have invested, and such actions (or inaction) may have a material adverse effect on the Funds.

For example, in the event that Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or an Account holds loans, securities or other positions in the capital structure of an issuer that ranks senior in preference to the holdings of a Fund in the same issuer, and the issuer experiences financial or operational challenges, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser), acting on behalf of itself or the Account, may seek a liquidation, reorganization or restructuring of the issuer that has, or terms in connection with the foregoing, that have, an adverse effect on or otherwise conflict with the interests of the Fund's holdings in the issuer. In connection with any such liquidation, reorganization or restructuring, the Fund's holdings in the issuer may be extinguished or substantially diluted, while Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or another Account recovers some or all of the amounts due to them. In addition, in connection with any lending arrangements involving the issuer in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or an Account participates, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or the Account may seek to exercise its rights under the applicable loan agreement or other document, in a manner detrimental to the Fund. In situations in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) holds positions in multiple parts of the capital structure of an issuer across Accounts (including the Funds), the Investment Adviser may not pursue actions or remedies available to the Fund, as a result of legal and regulatory requirements or otherwise.

These potential issues are examples of conflicts that Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) will face in situations in which the Funds, and Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) or other Accounts, invest in or extend credit to different parts of the capital structure of a single issuer. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) addresses these issues based on the circumstances of particular situations. For example, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) relies on information barriers between different Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) business units or portfolio management teams. Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) in some circumstances relies on the actions of similarly situated holders of loans or securities rather than, or in connection with, taking such actions itself on behalf of the Funds.

As a result of the various conflicts and related issues described above and the fact that conflicts will not necessarily be resolved in favor of the interests of the Funds, the Funds could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) and other Accounts (including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser) achieve profits generally or with respect to particular holdings in the same issuer, or could achieve lower profits or higher losses than would have been the case had the conflicts described above not existed. It should be expected that the negative effects described above will be more pronounced in connection with transactions in, or the Funds' use of, small capitalization, emerging market, distressed or less liquid strategies.

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Principal and Cross Transactions

When permitted by applicable law and the Investment Adviser's policies, the Investment Adviser, acting on behalf of certain Funds (for example, those employing taxable fixed income, municipal bond fixed income and structured investment strategies), may (but is under no obligation or other duty to) enter into transactions in securities and other instruments with or through Goldman Sachs or in Accounts managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates and cause the Funds to engage in transactions in which the Investment Adviser acts as principal on its own behalf (principal transactions), advises both sides of a transaction (cross transactions) and acts as broker for, and receives a commission from, the Funds on one side of a transaction and a brokerage account on the other side of the transaction (agency cross transactions). There are potential conflicts of interest, regulatory issues or restrictions contained in the Investment Adviser's internal policies relating to these transactions which could limit the Investment Adviser's determination and/or ability to engage in these transactions for Accounts (including the Funds). In certain circumstances such as when Goldman Sachs is the only or one of a few participants in a particular market or is one of the largest such participants, such limitations will eliminate or reduce the availability of certain investment opportunities to Accounts (including the Funds) or impact the price or terms on which transactions relating to such investment opportunities may be effected.

Goldman Sachs will have a potentially conflicting division of loyalties and responsibilities to the parties in such transactions. The Investment Adviser has developed policies and procedures in relation to such transactions and conflicts. Cross transactions may disproportionately benefit some Accounts relative to other Accounts, including the Funds, due to the relative amount of market savings obtained by the Accounts, and cross transactions may be effected at different prices for different Accounts due to differing legal and/or regulatory requirements applicable to such Accounts. Certain Accounts are also prohibited from participating in cross transactions, even if consent is obtained. Where principal, cross or agency cross transactions are not prohibited, such transactions will be effected in accordance with fiduciary requirements and applicable law (which include disclosure and consent).

Goldman Sachs Acting in Multiple Commercial Capacities

To the extent permitted by applicable law, an issuer in which a Fund has an interest may hire Goldman Sachs to provide underwriting, merger advisory, other financial advisory, placement agency, foreign currency hedging, research, asset management services, brokerage services or other services to the issuer. Furthermore, Goldman Sachs sponsors, manages, advises or provides services to affiliated Underlying Funds (or their personnel) in which the Funds invest. Goldman Sachs may be entitled to compensation in connection with the provision of such services, and the Funds will not be entitled to any such compensation. Goldman Sachs will have an interest in obtaining fees and other compensation in connection with such services that are favorable to Goldman Sachs, and in connection with providing such services takes commercial steps in its own interest, or advises the parties to which it is providing services, or takes other actions. Such actions may benefit Goldman Sachs. For example, Goldman Sachs may require repayment of all or part of a loan from a company in which an Account (including a Fund) holds an interest, which could cause the company to default or be required to liquidate its assets more rapidly, which could adversely affect the value of the company and the value of the Funds invested therein. If Goldman Sachs advises a company to make changes to its capital structure, the result would be a reduction in the value or priority of a security held (directly or indirectly) by one or more Funds. In addition, underwriters, placement agents or managers of initial public offerings, including Goldman Sachs, often require the Funds who hold privately placed securities of a company to execute a lock-up agreement prior to such company's initial public offering restricting the resale of the securities for a period of time before and following the IPO. As a result, the Investment Adviser will be restricted from selling the securities in such Funds at a more favorable price. Actions taken or advised to be taken by Goldman Sachs in connection with other types of transactions may also result in adverse consequences for the Funds. Goldman Sachs faces conflicts of interest in providing and selecting services for the Funds because Goldman Sachs provides many services and has many commercial relationships with companies and affiliated and unaffiliated Underlying Funds (or their applicable personnel). Providing services to the Funds and companies (or their personnel) in which the Funds invest enhances Goldman Sachs' relationships with various parties, facilitates additional business development and enables Goldman Sachs to obtain additional business and/or generate additional revenue. The Funds will not be entitled to compensation related to any such benefit to businesses of Goldman Sachs. In addition, such relationships may adversely impact the Funds, including, for example, by restricting potential investment opportunities, as described below, incentivizing the Investment Adviser to take or refrain from taking certain actions on behalf of the Funds when doing so would be adverse to such business relationships, and/or influencing the Investment Adviser's selection or recommendation of certain investment products and/or strategies over others.

Certain of Goldman Sachs' activities on behalf of its clients also restrict investment opportunities that are otherwise available to the Funds. For example, Goldman Sachs is often engaged by companies as a financial advisor, or to provide financing or other services, in connection with commercial transactions that are potential investment opportunities for the Funds. There are circumstances in which the Funds are precluded from participating in such transactions as a result of Goldman Sachs' engagement by such companies. In addition, in connection with an equity offering of securities of a portfolio company for which Goldman Sachs is acting as an underwriter, Accounts may, in certain instances, be subject to regulatory restrictions (in addition to contractual restrictions) on their ability to sell equity securities of the portfolio company for a period after completion of the offering. Goldman Sachs reserves the right to act for these companies in such circumstances, notwithstanding the potential adverse effect on the Funds.

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Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) also represents creditor or debtor companies in proceedings under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code (and equivalent non-U.S. bankruptcy laws) or prior to these filings. From time to time, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) serves on creditor or equity committees. It should be expected that these actions, for which Goldman Sachs may be compensated, will limit or preclude the flexibility that the Funds otherwise have to buy or sell securities issued by those companies, as well as certain other assets. Please also see "-Management of the Funds by the Investment Adviser-Considerations Relating to Information Held by Goldman Sachs" above and "-Potential Limitations and Restrictions on Investment Opportunities and Activities of Goldman Sachs and the Funds" below.

Subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser is incentivized to cause the Funds to invest in securities, bank loans or other obligations of companies affiliated with or advised by Goldman Sachs or in which Goldman Sachs or Accounts have an equity, debt or other interest, or to engage in investment transactions that may result in Goldman Sachs or other Accounts being relieved of obligations or otherwise divested of investments. For example, subject to applicable law certain Funds may acquire securities or indebtedness of a company affiliated with Goldman Sachs directly or indirectly through syndicate or secondary market purchases, or make a loan to, or purchase securities from, a company that uses the proceeds to repay loans made by Goldman Sachs. These activities by a Fund may enhance the profitability of Goldman Sachs or other Accounts with respect to their investment in and activities relating to such companies. The Fund will not be entitled to compensation as a result of this enhanced profitability.

To the extent permitted by applicable law, Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser) creates, writes, sells, issues, invests in or acts as placement agent or distributor of derivative instruments related to the Funds, or with respect to underlying securities or assets of the Funds or which are be otherwise based on or seek to replicate or hedge the performance of the Funds. Such derivative transactions, and any associated hedging activity, may differ from and be adverse to the interests of the Funds.

Goldman Sachs makes loans to, and enters into margin, asset-based or other credit facilities or similar transactions with, clients, companies or individuals that are secured by publicly or privately held securities or other assets, including a client's Fund shares as described above. Some of these borrowers are public or private companies, or founders, officers or shareholders in companies in which the Funds (directly or indirectly) invest, and such loans may be secured by securities of such companies, which may be the same as, pari passu with, or more senior or junior to, interests held (directly or indirectly) by the Funds. In connection with its rights as lender, Goldman Sachs acts to protect its own commercial interest and may take actions that adversely affect the borrower, including by liquidating or causing the liquidation of securities on behalf of a borrower or foreclosing and liquidating such securities in Goldman Sachs' own name. Such actions will adversely affect the Funds (if, for example, a large position in a security is liquidated, among the other potential adverse consequences will be that the value of such security will decline rapidly and the Funds will in turn decline in value or will be unable to liquidate their positions in such security at an advantageous price or at all). In addition, Goldman Sachs may make loans to shareholders or enter into similar transactions that are secured by a pledge of, or mortgage over, a shareholder's Fund shares, which would provide Goldman Sachs with the right to redeem such Fund shares in the event that such shareholder defaults on its obligations. These transactions and related redemptions may be significant and may be made without notice to the shareholders.

Code of Ethics and Personal Trading

Each of the Funds and Goldman Sachs, as each Fund's Investment Adviser and Distributor, has adopted a Code of Ethics (the "Code of Ethics") in compliance with Section 17(j) of the Act designed to provide that personnel of the Investment Adviser, and certain additional Goldman Sachs personnel who support the Investment Adviser, comply with applicable federal securities laws and place the interests of clients first in conducting personal securities transactions. The Code of Ethics imposes certain restrictions on securities transactions in the personal accounts of covered persons to help avoid conflicts of interest. Subject to the limitations of the Code of Ethics, covered persons buy and sell securities or other investments for their personal accounts, including investments in the Funds, and also take positions that are the same as, different from, or made at different times than, positions taken (directly or indirectly) by the Funds. The Codes of Ethics are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC's Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies may also be obtained after paying a duplicating fee by electronic request to [email protected] Additionally, all Goldman Sachs personnel, including personnel of the Investment Adviser, are subject to firm-wide policies and procedures regarding confidential and proprietary information, information barriers, private investments, outside business activities and personal trading.

Proxy Voting by the Investment Adviser

The Investment Adviser has implemented processes designed to prevent conflicts of interest from influencing proxy voting decisions that it makes on behalf of advisory clients, including the Funds, and to help ensure that such decisions are made in accordance with its fiduciary obligations to its clients. Notwithstanding such proxy voting processes, proxy voting decisions made by the Investment Adviser in respect of securities held by the Funds may benefit the interests of Goldman Sachs and/or Accounts other than the Funds. For a more detailed discussion of these policies and procedures, see the section of this SAI entitled "PROXY VOTING."

B-147

Potential Limitations and Restrictions on Investment Opportunities and Activities of Goldman Sachs and the Funds

The Investment Adviser restricts its investment decisions and activities on behalf of the Funds in various circumstances, including as a result of applicable regulatory requirements, information held by the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs, Goldman Sachs' roles in connection with other clients and in the capital markets (including in connection with advice it gives to such clients or commercial arrangements or transactions that are undertaken by such clients or by Goldman Sachs), Goldman Sachs' internal policies and/or potential reputational risk in connection with Accounts (including the Funds). In certain cases, the Investment Adviser will not engage in transactions or other activities for, or enforce certain rights in favor of, one or more Funds due to Goldman Sachs' activities outside the Funds (e.g., the Investment Adviser may refrain from making investments for the Funds that would cause Goldman Sachs to exceed position limits or cause Goldman Sachs to have additional disclosure obligations and may limit purchases or sales of securities in respect of which Goldman Sachs is engaged in an underwriting or other distribution) and regulatory requirements, policies and reputational risk assessments.

In addition, in certain circumstances, the Investment Adviser restricts, limits or reduces the amount of a Fund's investment, or restricts the type of governance or voting rights it acquires or exercises, where the Fund (potentially together with Goldman Sachs and other Accounts) exceeds a certain ownership interest, or possesses certain degrees of voting or control or has other interests. For example, such limitations may exist if a position or transaction could require a filing or license or other regulatory or corporate consent, which could, among other things, result in additional costs and disclosure obligations for, or impose regulatory restrictions on, Goldman Sachs, including the Investment Adviser, or on other Accounts, or where exceeding a threshold is prohibited or results in regulatory or other restrictions. In certain cases, restrictions and limitations will be applied to avoid approaching such threshold. Circumstances in which such restrictions or limitations arise include, without limitation: (i) a prohibition against owning more than a certain percentage of an issuer's securities; (ii) a "poison pill" that has a dilutive impact on the holdings of the Fund should a threshold be exceeded; (iii) provisions that cause Goldman Sachs to be considered an "interested stockholder" of an issuer; (iv) provisions that cause Goldman Sachs to be considered an "affiliate" or "control person" of the issuer; and (v) the imposition by an issuer (through charter amendment, contract or otherwise) or governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization (through law, rule, regulation, interpretation or other guidance) of other restrictions or limitations. In addition, due to regulatory restrictions, certain Accounts are prohibited from, or are subject to certain restrictions when, trading with or through Goldman Sachs, engaging Goldman Sachs as a service provider or purchasing investments issued or managed by Goldman Sachs.

When faced with the foregoing limitations, Goldman Sachs will generally avoid exceeding the threshold because exceeding the threshold could have an adverse impact on the ability of the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs to conduct its business activities. The Investment Adviser may also reduce a Fund's interest in, or restrict a Fund from participating in, an investment opportunity that has limited availability or where Goldman Sachs has determined to cap its aggregate investment in consideration of certain regulatory or other requirements so that other Accounts that pursue similar investment strategies are able to acquire an interest in the investment opportunity. In some cases, the Investment Adviser determines not to engage in certain transactions or activities beneficial to the Funds because engaging in such transactions or activities in compliance with applicable law would result in significant cost to, or administrative burden on, the Investment Adviser or create the potential risk of trade or other errors.

The Investment Adviser generally is not permitted to use material non-public information in effecting purchases and sales in transactions for the Funds that involve public securities. The Investment Adviser may limit an activity or transaction (such as a purchase or sale transaction) which might otherwise be engaged in by the Funds, including as a result of information held by Goldman Sachs (including the Investment Adviser or its personnel). For example, directors, officers and employees of Goldman Sachs may take seats on the boards of directors of, or have board of directors observer rights with respect to, companies in which Goldman Sachs invests on behalf of the Funds. To the extent a director, officer or employee of Goldman Sachs were to take a seat on the board of directors of, or have board of directors observer rights with respect to, a public company, the Investment Adviser (or certain of its investment teams) may be limited and/or restricted in its or their ability to trade in the securities of the company. In addition, any such director, officer or employee of Goldman Sachs that is a member of the board of directors of a portfolio company may have duties in his or her capacity as a director that conflict with the Investment Adviser's duties to Accounts, and may act in a manner that disadvantages or otherwise harms a Fund and/or Goldman Sachs. In the event the Investment Adviser declines access to, or otherwise does not receive, material non-public information regarding an issuer, the Investment Adviser may base investment decisions with respect to securities of such issuer solely on public information, thereby limiting the amount of information available to the Investment Adviser in connection with such investment decisions.

Different areas of Goldman Sachs come into possession of material non-public information regarding an issuer of securities held by an Underlying Fund in which an Account invests. In the absence of information barriers between such different areas of Goldman Sachs or under certain other circumstances, the Account will be prohibited, including by internal policies, from trading, redeeming from or otherwise disposing of such security or such Underlying Fund during the period such material non-public information is held by such other part of Goldman Sachs, which period may be substantial. As a result, the Account would not be permitted to redeem from an Underlying Fund in whole or in part during periods when it otherwise would have been able to do so, which could adversely affect the Account. Other investors in the Underlying Fund that are not subject to such restrictions may be able to redeem from the Underlying Fund during such periods.

B-148

In addition, the Investment Adviser's clients may partially or fully fund a new Account with in-kind securities in which the Investment Adviser is restricted. In such circumstances, the Investment Adviser will generally sell any such securities at the next available trading window, subject to operational and technological limitations (unless such securities are subject to another express arrangement), requiring such Accounts to dispose of investments at an earlier or later date and/or at a less favorable price than would otherwise have been the case had the Investment Adviser not been so restricted. Accounts will be responsible for all tax liabilities that result from any such sale transactions.

The Investment Adviser operates a program reasonably designed to ensure compliance generally with economic and trade sanctions-related obligations applicable directly to its activities (although such obligations are not necessarily the same obligations to which any particular Fund is subject). Such economic and trade sanctions may prohibit, among other things, transactions with and the provision of services to, directly or indirectly, certain countries, territories, entities and individuals. It should be expected that these economic and trade sanctions, if applicable, and the application by the Investment Adviser of its compliance program in respect thereof, will restrict or limit the Funds' investment activities, and may require the Investment Adviser to cause a Fund to sell its position in a particular investment at an inopportune time and/or when the Investment Adviser would otherwise not have done so.

The Investment Adviser may determine to limit or not engage at all in transactions and activities on behalf of the Funds for reputational, legal or other reasons. Examples of when such determinations may be made include, but are not limited to, where Goldman Sachs is providing (or may provide) advice or services to an entity involved in such activity or transaction, where Goldman Sachs or an Account is or may be engaged in the same or a related activity or transaction to that being considered on behalf of the Funds, where Goldman Sachs or an Account has an interest in an entity involved in such activity or transaction, where there are political, public relations, or other reputational considerations relating to counterparties or other participants in such activity or transaction or where such activity or transaction on behalf of or in respect of the Funds could affect in tangible or intangible ways Goldman Sachs, the Investment Adviser, an Account or their activities.

Goldman Sachs has and seeks to have long-term relationships with many significant participants in the financial markets. Goldman Sachs also has and seeks to have longstanding relationships with, and regularly provides financing, investment banking services and other services to, a significant number of corporations and private equity sponsors, leveraged buyout and hedge fund purchasers, and their respective senior managers, shareholders and partners. Some of these purchasers may directly or indirectly compete with Accounts for investment opportunities. Goldman Sachs considers these relationships in its management of Accounts. In this regard, there may be certain investment opportunities or certain investment strategies that Goldman Sachs (i) does not undertake on behalf of Accounts in view of these relationships, or (ii) refers to clients (in whole or in part) instead of retaining for Accounts. Similarly, Goldman Sachs may take the existence and development of such relationships into consideration in the management of Fund portfolios. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, there may, for example, be certain strategies involving the acquisition, management or realization of particular investments that an Account will not employ in light of these relationships, as well as investment opportunities or strategies that an Account will not pursue in light of their potential impact on other areas of Goldman Sachs or on Account investments or be unable to pursue as a result of non-competition agreements or other similar undertakings made by Goldman Sachs.

Goldman Sachs will consider its client relationships and the need to preserve its reputation in its management of Accounts and, as a result, (i) there may be certain investment opportunities or strategies that Goldman Sachs will not undertake on behalf of Funds or will refer to one or more Funds but not others, (ii) there may be certain rights or activities that Goldman Sachs will not undertake on behalf of Funds (including in respect of director representation and recusal), or (iii) there may be certain investments that, in certain limited circumstances, are sold, disposed of or restructured earlier or later than otherwise expected.

In order to engage in certain transactions on behalf of a Fund, the Investment Adviser will also be subject to (or cause the Fund to become subject to) the rules, terms and/or conditions of any venues through which it trades securities, derivatives or other instruments. This includes, but is not limited to, where the Investment Adviser and/or the Fund are required to comply with the rules of certain exchanges, execution platforms, trading facilities, clearing houses and other venues, or are required to consent to the jurisdiction of any such venues. The rules, terms and/or conditions of any such venue often result in the Investment Adviser and/or the Fund being subject to, among other things, margin requirements, additional fees and other charges, disciplinary procedures, reporting and recordkeeping, position limits and other restrictions on trading, settlement risks and other related conditions on trading set out by such venues.

From time to time, a Fund, the Investment Adviser or its affiliates and/or their service providers or agents are required, or determine that it is advisable, to disclose certain information about the Fund, including, but not limited to, investments held by the Fund, and the names and percentage interest of beneficial owners thereof (and the underlying beneficial owners of such beneficial owners), to third parties, including local governmental authorities, regulatory organizations, taxing authorities, markets, exchanges, clearing facilities, custodians, brokers and trading counterparties of, or service providers to, the Investment Adviser or the Fund. The Investment Adviser generally expects to comply with requests to disclose such information as it so determines including through electronic delivery platforms; however, in some cases, the Investment Adviser will cause the sale of certain assets for the Fund rather than make certain required disclosures, at a time that is inopportune from a pricing or other standpoint. In addition, the Investment Adviser may provide third parties with aggregated data regarding the activities of, or certain performance or other metrics associated with the Accounts, and the Investment Adviser may receive compensation from such third parties for providing them such information.

Goldman Sachs may become subject to additional restrictions on its business activities that could have an impact on the Funds' activities. In addition, the Investment Adviser may restrict its investment decisions and activities on behalf of the Funds and not other Accounts, including Accounts sponsored, managed or advised by the Investment Adviser.

B-149

Brokerage Transactions

The Investment Adviser often selects U.S. and non-U.S. broker-dealers (including affiliates of the Investment Adviser) that furnish the Investment Adviser, the Funds, Investment Adviser affiliates and other Goldman Sachs personnel with proprietary or third-party brokerage and research services (collectively, "brokerage and research services") that provide, in the Investment Adviser's view, appropriate assistance to the Investment Adviser in the investment decision-making process. These brokerage and research services may be bundled with the trade execution, clearing or settlement services provided by a particular broker-dealer and, subject to applicable law, the Investment Adviser may pay for such brokerage and research services with client commissions (or "soft dollars"). There are instances or situations in which such practices are subject to restrictions under applicable law. For example, the EU's Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II ("MiFID II") restricts EU domiciled investment advisers from receiving research and other materials that do not qualify as "acceptable minor non-monetary benefits" from broker-dealers unless the research or materials are paid for by the investment advisers from their own resources or from research payment accounts funded by and with the agreement of their clients.

Accounts differ with regard to whether and to what extent they pay for brokerage and research services through commissions and, subject to applicable law, brokerage and research services may be used to service the Funds and any or all other Accounts throughout the Investment Adviser, including Accounts that do not pay commissions to the broker-dealer relating to the brokerage and research service arrangements. As a result, brokerage and research services (including soft dollar benefits) may disproportionately benefit other Accounts relative to the Funds based on the relative amount of commissions paid by the Funds and in particular those Accounts that do not pay for brokerage and research services or do so to a lesser extent, including in connection with the establishment of maximum budgets for research costs (and switching to execution-only pricing when maximums are met). The Investment Adviser does not attempt to allocate soft dollar benefits proportionately among clients or to track the benefits of brokerage and research services to the commissions associated with a particular Account or group of Accounts.

Aggregation of Orders by the Investment Adviser

The Investment Adviser follows policies and procedures pursuant to which it may (but is not required to) combine or aggregate purchase or sale orders for the same security or other instrument for multiple Accounts (including Accounts in which Goldman Sachs or personnel of Goldman Sachs have an interest) (sometimes referred to as "bunching"), so that the orders can be executed at the same time and block trade treatment of any such orders can be elected when available. The Investment Adviser aggregates orders when the Investment Adviser considers doing so to be operationally feasible and appropriate and in the interests of its clients and may elect block trade treatment when available. In addition, under certain circumstances orders for the Funds may be aggregated with orders for Accounts that contain Goldman Sachs assets.

When a bunched order or block trade is completely filled, or if the order is only partially filled, at the end of the day, the Investment Adviser generally will allocate the securities or other instruments purchased or the proceeds of any sale pro rata among the participating Accounts, based on the Funds' relative sizes. If an order is filled at several different prices, through multiple trades (whether at a particular broker-dealer or among multiple broker-dealers), generally all participating Accounts will receive the average price and pay the average commission, however, this may not always be the case (due to, e.g., odd lots, rounding, market practice or constraints applicable to particular Accounts).

Although it may do so in certain circumstances, the Investment Adviser does not always bunch or aggregate orders for different Funds, elect block trade treatment or net buy and sell orders for the same Fund, if portfolio management decisions relating to the orders are made by different portfolio management teams or if different portfolio management processes are used for different account types, if bunching, aggregating, electing block trade treatment or netting is not appropriate or practicable from the Investment Adviser's operational or other perspective, or if doing so would not be appropriate in light of applicable regulatory considerations, which may differ among Accounts. For example, time zone differences, trading instructions, cash flows, separate trading desks or portfolio management processes may, among other factors, result in separate, non-aggregated,non-netted executions, with orders in the same instrument being entered for different Accounts at different times or, in the case of netting, buy and sell trades for the same instrument being entered for the same Account. The Investment Adviser may be able to negotiate a better price and lower commission rate on aggregated orders than on orders for Funds that are not aggregated, and incur lower transaction costs on netted orders than orders that are not netted. The Investment Adviser is under no obligation or other duty to aggregate or net for particular orders. Where orders for a Fund are not aggregated with other orders, or not netted against orders for the Fund or other Accounts, the Fund will not benefit from a better price and lower commission rate or lower transaction cost that might have been available had the orders been aggregated or netted. Aggregation and netting of orders may disproportionately benefit some Accounts relative to other Accounts, including a Fund, due to the relative amount of market savings obtained by the Accounts. The Investment Adviser may aggregate orders of Accounts that are subject to MiFID II ("MiFID II Advisory Accounts") with orders of Accounts not subject to MiFID II, including those that generate soft dollar commissions (including the Funds) and those that restrict the use of soft dollars. All Accounts included in an aggregated order with MiFID II Advisory Accounts pay (or receive) the same average price for the security and the same execution costs (measured by rate). However, MiFID II Advisory Accounts included in an aggregated order may pay commissions at "execution-only" rates below the total commission rates paid by Accounts included in the aggregated order that are not subject to MiFID II.

B-150

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

The Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser are responsible for decisions to buy and sell securities for the Funds, the selection of brokers and dealers to effect the transactions and the negotiation of brokerage commissions, if any. Purchases and sales of securities may be executed internally by a broker-dealer, effected on an agency basis in a block transaction, or routed to competing market centers for execution. The compensation paid to the broker for providing execution services generally is negotiated and reflected in either a commission or a "net" price. Executions provided on a net price basis, with dealers acting as principal for their own accounts without a stated commission, usually include a profit to the dealer.

In underwritten offerings, securities are purchased at a fixed price which includes an amount of compensation to the underwriter, generally referred to as the underwriter's concession or discount. On occasion, certain money market instruments may be purchased directly from an issuer, in which case no commissions or discounts are paid.

The portfolio transactions for certain Underlying Funds are generally effected at a net price without a broker's commission (i.e., a dealer is dealing with an Underlying Fund as principal and receives compensation equal to the spread between the dealer's cost for a given security and the resale price of such security). In certain foreign countries, debt securities are traded on exchanges at fixed commission rates.

In placing orders for portfolio securities or other financial instruments of a Fund, the Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser are generally required to give primary consideration to obtaining the most favorable execution and net price available. This means that the Investment Adviser or Sub-Adviser will seek to execute each transaction at a price and commission, if any, which provides the most favorable total cost or proceeds reasonably attainable in the circumstances. As permitted by Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ("Section 28(e)"), the Fund may pay a broker who provides brokerage and research services to the Fund an amount of disclosed commission in excess of the commission which another broker would have charged for effecting that transaction. Such practice is subject to a good faith determination by the Trustees that such commission is reasonable in light of the services provided and to such policies as the Trustees may adopt from time to time. While the Investment Adviser generally seeks reasonably competitive spreads or commissions, a Fund will not necessarily be paying the lowest spread or commission available. Within the framework of this policy, the Investment Adviser will consider research and investment services provided by brokers or dealers who effect or are parties to portfolio transactions of a Fund, the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, or their other clients. Such research and investment services are those which brokerage houses customarily provide to institutional investors and include research reports on particular industries and companies; economic surveys and analyses; recommendations as to specific securities; research products including quotation equipment and computer related programs; advice concerning the value of securities, the advisability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities and the availability of securities or the purchasers or sellers of securities; analyses and reports concerning issuers, industries, securities, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy and performance of accounts; services relating to effecting securities transactions and functions incidental thereto (such as clearance and settlement); and other lawful and appropriate assistance to the Investment Adviser in the performance of its decision-making responsibilities.

Such services are used by the Investment Adviser in connection with all of its investment activities, and some of such services obtained in connection with the execution of transactions for a Fund may be used in managing other investment accounts. Conversely, brokers furnishing such services may be selected for the execution of transactions of such other accounts, whose aggregate assets may be larger than those of a Fund's, and the services furnished by such brokers may be used by the Investment Adviser in providing management services for the Trust. The Investment Adviser may also participate in so-called "commission sharing arrangements" and "client commission arrangements" under which the Investment Adviser may execute transactions through a broker-dealer and request that the broker-dealer allocate a portion of the commissions or commission credits to another firm that provides research to the Investment Adviser. The Investment Adviser excludes from use under these arrangements those products and services that are not fully eligible under applicable law and regulatory interpretations - even as to the portion that would be eligible if accounted for separately.

The research services received as part of commission sharing and client commission arrangements will comply with Section 28(e) and may be subject to different legal requirements in the jurisdictions in which the Investment Adviser does business. Participating in commission sharing and client commission arrangements may enable the Investment Adviser to consolidate payments for research through one or more channels using accumulated client commissions or credits from transactions executed through a particular broker-dealer to obtain research provided by other firms. Such arrangements also help to ensure the continued receipt of research services while facilitating best execution in the trading process. The Investment Adviser believes such research services are useful in their investment decision-making process by, among other things, ensuring access to a variety of high quality research, access to individual analysts and availability of resources that the Investment Adviser might not be provided access to absent such arrangements.

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On occasions when the Investment Adviser or Sub-Adviser deems the purchase or sale of a security or other financial instrument to be in the best interest of a Fund as well as its other customers (including any other fund or other investment company or advisory account for which such Investment Adviser acts as investment adviser or sub-investment adviser), the Investment Adviser or Sub-Adviser, to the extent permitted by applicable laws and regulations, may aggregate the securities to be sold or purchased for the Fund with those to be sold or purchased for such other customers in order to obtain the best net price and most favorable execution under the circumstances. In such event, allocation of the securities so purchased or sold, as well as the expenses incurred in the transaction, will be made by the applicable Investment Adviser or Sub-Adviser in the manner it considers to be equitable and consistent with its fiduciary obligations to such Fund and such other customers. In some instances, this procedure may adversely affect the price and size of the position obtainable for a Fund.

Certain Funds may participate in a commission recapture program. Under the program, participating broker-dealers rebate a percentage of commissions earned as Fund portfolio transactions to the particular Fund from which they were generated. The rebated commissions are expected to be treated as realized capital gains of the Funds.

Subject to the above considerations, the Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser may use Goldman Sachs or an affiliate as a broker for a Fund. In order for Goldman Sachs or an affiliate, acting as agent, to effect any portfolio transactions for each Fund, the commissions, fees or other remuneration received by Goldman Sachs or an affiliate must be reasonable and fair compared to the commissions, fees or other remuneration received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities or futures contracts. Furthermore, the Trustees, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, have adopted procedures which are reasonably designed to provide that any commissions, fees or other remuneration paid to Goldman Sachs are consistent with the foregoing standard. Brokerage transactions with Goldman Sachs are also subject to such fiduciary standards as may be imposed upon Goldman Sachs by applicable law.

Commission rates in the U.S. are established pursuant to negotiations with the broker based on the quality and quantity of execution services provided by the broker in the light of generally prevailing rates. The allocation of orders among brokers and the commission rates paid are reviewed periodically by the Trustees. The amount of brokerage commissions paid by a Fund may vary substantially from year to year because of differences in shareholder purchase and redemption activity, portfolio turnover rates and other factors.

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, each Fund paid brokerage commissions as follows.

Fiscal Year Ended

December 31, 2020:

Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid1
Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid to
Goldman
Sachs1
Total
Amount of
Transactions
on which
Commissions
Paid1
Amount of
Transactions
Effected
through

Brokers
Providing

Research
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
to Brokers
Providing
Research2

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 44,913 0 $ 1,203,439,870 (0%) 0 0

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

26,939 118 256,740,426 (0%) 0 0

Strategic Growth Fund

87,692 0 388,092,400 (3%) 60,987,259 12,441

Large Cap Value Fund

169,213 0 494,615,115 (0%) 56,514,818 12,726

Mid Cap Value Fund

469,005 0 913,990,176 (0%) 158,179,323 63,736

Growth Opportunities Fund

30,775 0 116,678,705 (1%) 26,837,313 7,808

Equity Index

2,073 0 43,023,662 (0%) 0 0

International Equity Insights Fund

49,438 0 306,515,318 (0%) 0 0

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

1,063 0 102,321,334 (0%) 0 0

Core Fixed Income Fund

3,438 0 $ 311,383,059 (0%) 0 0

Global Trends Allocation Fund

34,924 0 3,357,450,201 (0%) 0 0

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

533 0 21,152,339 (0%) 0 0

Government Money Market Fund

0 0 0 0 0
1

The figures in the table report brokerage commissions only from securities transactions. Percentages next to each dollar figure represent percentages of total amount of commissions paid to, or transactions effected through, Goldman Sachs and other affiliated broker-dealers.

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2

The information above reflects the full commission amounts paid to brokers that provide research to the Investment Adviser. Only a portion of such commission pays for research and the remainder of such commission is to compensate the broker for execution services, commitment of capital and other services related to the execution of brokerage transactions.

Fiscal Year Ended

December 31, 2019:

Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid1
Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid to
Goldman
Sachs1
Total
Amount of
Transactions
on which
Commissions
Paid1
Amount of
Transactions
Effected
through

Brokers
Providing

Research
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
to Brokers
Providing
Research2

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 42,638 $ 889 (2%) $ 1,177,943,604 (0%) 0 0

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

22,391 259 (1%) 247,595,147 (0%) 0 0

Strategic Growth Fund

71,489 442 (1%) 324,311,786 (0%) $ 320,962,377 $ 70,045

Large Cap Value Fund

183,916 1,870 (1%) 579,675,066 (0%) 566,883,651 180,228

Mid Cap Value Fund

385,684 888 (0%) 833,143,954 (0%) 806,198,335 374,990

Growth Opportunities Fund

29,942 465 (2%) 109,050,383 (2%) 0 0

Equity Index

2,142 0 34,464,291 (0%) 0 0

International Equity Insights Fund

42,958 6 (0%) 274,223,857 (0%) 0 0

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

960 0 81,190,814 (0%) 0 0

Core Fixed Income Fund

4,333 0 293,355,860 (0%) 0 0

Global Trends Allocation Fund

29,955 0 3,203,335,399 (0%) 0 0

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

1,757 0 49,785,403 (0%) 0 0

Government Money Market Fund

0 0 0 0 0
1

The figures in the table report brokerage commissions only from securities transactions. Percentages next to each dollar figure represent percentages of total amount of commissions paid to, or transactions effected through, Goldman Sachs and other affiliated broker-dealers.

2

The information above reflects the full commission amounts paid to brokers that provide research to the Investment Adviser. Only a portion of such commission pays for research and the remainder of such commission is to compensate the broker for execution services, commitment of capital and other services related to the execution of brokerage transactions.

Fiscal Year Ended

December 31, 2018:

Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid1
Total
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid to
Goldman
Sachs1
Total
Amount of
Transactions
on which
Commissions
Paid1
Amount of
Transactions
Effected through
Brokers
Providing

Research
Brokerage
Commissions
Paid
to Brokers
Providing
Research2

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

$ 48,392 $ 17 (0%) $ 1,412,966,331 (0%) 0 0

Small Cap Equity Insights Fund

20,689 49 (0%) 237,247,567 (2%) 0 0

Strategic Growth Fund

90,620 3,349 (4%) 626,575,361 (3%) $ 579,391,685 $ 82,768

Large Cap Value Fund

519,547 52,336 (10%) 1,299,324,463 (10%) 1,060,510,953 409,275

Mid Cap Value Fund

647,513 59,403 (9%) 1,549,849,916 (11%) 1,268,585,423 553,232

Growth Opportunities Fund

55,567 4,214 (8%) 224,332,551 (7%) 0 0

Equity Index

2,122 0 35,641,887 (0%) 0 0

International Equity Insights Fund

59,155 8 (0%) 353,624,047 (0%) 62,341,119 18,210

High Quality Floating Rate Fund

1,034 0 76,044,112 (0%) 0 0

Core Fixed Income Fund

4,894 0 384,895,618 (0%) 0 0

Global Trends Allocation Fund

38,925 0 4,140,140,576 (0%) 0 0

Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio

1,513 0 77,809,411 (0%) 0 0

Government Money Market Fund

0 0 0 0 0
1

The figures in the table report brokerage commissions only from securities transactions. Percentages next to each dollar figure represent percentages of total amount of commissions paid to, or transactions effected through, Goldman Sachs and other affiliated broker-dealers.

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2

The information above reflects the full commission amounts paid to brokers that provide research to the Investment Adviser. Only a portion of such commission pays for research and the remainder of such commission is to compensate the broker for execution services, commitment of capital and other services related to the execution of brokerage transactions.

Funds' Investments in Regular Broker-Dealers

During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, the Trust's regular "broker-dealers," as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the Act, were: Barclays Capital Inc., BMO Capital Markets Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Liquidnet, Inc., Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, National Financial Services LLC, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated and UBS Securities LLC.

As of December 31, 2020, those Funds not listed below held no securities of their regular broker-dealers. As of the same date, the following Funds held the following amounts of securities of their regular broker-dealers, as defined in Rule 10b-1 under the Act, or their parents.

Fund

Broker/Dealer

Amount

Core Fixed Income Fund

Bank of America Corp. $ 1,065,977

Core Fixed Income Fund

Citigroup, Inc. $ 597,636

Core Fixed Income Fund

JPMorgan Chase & Co. $ 945,154

Core Fixed Income Fund

Morgan Stanley $ 1,104,301

Equity Index Fund

Bank of America Corp. $ 1,346,522

Equity Index Fund

Citigroup, Inc. $ 747,936

Equity Index Fund

JPMorgan Chase & Co. $ 2,253,713

Equity Index Fund

Morgan Stanley $ 569,895

Large Cap Value Fund

JPMorgan Chase & Co. $ 15,847,916

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

Bank of America Corp. $ 4,955,105

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

Citigroup, Inc. $ 3,945,022

U.S. Equity Insights Fund

JPMorgan Chase & Co. $ 428,914

NET ASSET VALUE

General. In accordance with procedures adopted by the Trustees, the NAV per share of each class of each Fund is calculated by determining the value of the net assets attributed to each class of that Fund and dividing by the number of outstanding shares of that class. All securities (except for those of the Government Money Market Fund) are generally valued on each Business Day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally, but not always, 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) or such other time as the New York Stock Exchange or National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System ("NASDAQ") market may officially close. The term "Business Day" means any day the New York Stock Exchange is open for trading which is Monday through Friday except for holidays. The New York Stock Exchange is closed on the following holidays: New Year's Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Washington's Birthday, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas. Certain Fund shares may be priced on such days if the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association ("SIFMA") recommends that bond markets remain open for all or part of the day.

NAV per share of each share class of the Government Money Market Fund is generally calculated by the Fund's fund accounting agent on each business day as of 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Shares may also be priced periodically throughout the day by the Fund's fund accounting agent. Except as provided below, Fund shares will be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is open, except for days on which the Federal Reserve Bank is closed for local holidays. Shares of the Fund may be priced on days on which the Federal Reserve Bank is closed for local holidays (i.e., Columbus Day and Veterans Day). Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed, although Fund shares may be priced on days when the New York Stock Exchange is closed if the SIFMA recommends that the bond markets remain open for all or part of the day. On any business day when the SIFMA recommends that the bond markets close early, the Fund reserves the right to close at or prior to the SIFMA recommended closing time. If the Fund does so, it will cease granting same business day credit for purchase and redemption orders received after the Fund's closing time and credit will be given on the next business day.

The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time.

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The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted. The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC. In addition, each Fund may compute its NAV as of any time permitted pursuant to any exemption, order or statement of the SEC or its staff.

For the purpose of calculating the NAV per share of the Funds, investments are valued under valuation procedures established by the Trustees. Portfolio securities of a Fund and the Underlying Funds for which accurate market quotations are readily available are generally valued as follows: (i) equity securities listed on any U.S. or foreign stock exchange or on the NASDAQ will be valued at the last sale price or the official closing price on the exchange or system in which they are principally traded on the valuation date. If there is no sale or official closing price on the valuation date, equity securities may be valued at the closing bid price for long positions or the closing ask price for short positions at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time. If the relevant exchange or system has not closed by the above-mentioned time for determining a Fund's NAV, the securities will be valued at the last sale price or official closing price, or if not available at the bid price at the time the NAV is determined; (ii) over-the-counter equity securities not quoted on NASDAQ will be valued at the last sale price on the valuation day or, if no sale occurs, at the last bid price for long positions or the last ask price for short positions, at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time; (iii) equity securities for which no prices are obtained under sections (i) or (ii), including those for which a pricing service supplies no exchange quotation or a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to not represent fair value, will be valued through the use of broker quotes, if possible; (iv) fixed income securities will be valued via electronic feeds from independent pricing services to the administrator using evaluated prices provided by a recognized pricing service and dealer-supplied quotations. Fixed income securities for which a pricing service either does not supply a quotation or supplies a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to not represent fair value, will be valued through the use of broker quotes, if possible; (v) fixed income securities for which accurate market quotations are not readily available will be valued by the Investment Adviser based on Board-approved fair valuation policies that incorporate matrix pricing or valuation models, which utilize certain inputs and assumptions, including, but not limited to, yield or price with respect to comparable fixed income securities and various other factors; (vi) investments in open-end registered investment companies (excluding investments in ETFs) and investments in private funds are valued based on the NAV of those registered investment companies or private funds (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectus or offering memorandum); (vii) spot foreign exchange rates will be valued using a pricing service at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time, and forward foreign currency contracts will be valued by adding forward points provided by an independent pricing service to the spot foreign exchange rates and interpolating based upon maturity dates of each contract or by using outright forward rates, where available (if quotations are unavailable from a pricing service or, if the quotations by the Investment Adviser are believed to be inaccurate, the contracts will be valued by calculating the mean between the last bid and ask quotations supplied by at least one dealer in such contracts); (viii) exchange-traded futures contracts will be valued at the last published settlement price on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, if a sale occurs after the last published settlement price but before the NAV calculation time, at the last sale price at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (ix) exchange-traded options contracts with settlement prices will be valued at the last published settlement price on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, if a sale occurs after the last published settlement price but before the NAV calculation time, at the last sale price at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (x) exchange-traded options contracts without settlement prices will be valued at the midpoint of the bid and ask prices on the exchange where they are principally traded (or, in the absence of two-way trading, at the last bid price for long positions and the last ask price for short positions at the time closest to, but no later than, the NAV calculation time); (xi) over-the-counter derivatives, including, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, credit default swaps, total return index swaps, put/call option combos, total return basket swaps, index volatility and FX variance swaps, will be valued at their fair market value as determined using counterparty supplied valuations, an independent pricing service or valuation models which use market data inputs supplied by an independent pricing service; and (xii) all other instruments, including those for which a pricing service supplies no exchange quotation/price or a quotation that is believed by the Investment Adviser to be inaccurate, will be valued in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Securities may also be valued at fair value in accordance with procedures approved by the Board of Trustees where the Funds' fund accounting agent is unable for other reasons to facilitate pricing of individual securities or calculate the Funds' NAV, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value. Fair values determined in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees may be based on subjective judgments and it is possible that the prices resulting from such valuation procedures may differ materially from the value realized on a sale. In determining the NAV of the Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio, the NAV of the Underlying Funds' shares held by the Portfolio will be their NAV at the time of computation.

The value of all assets and liabilities expressed in foreign currencies will be converted into U.S. dollar values at current exchange rates of such currencies against U.S. dollars as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally, but not always, 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time). If such quotations are not available, the rate of exchange will be determined in good faith under procedures established by the Board of Trustees.

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Generally, trading in securities on European, Asian and Far Eastern securities exchanges and on over-the-counter markets in these regions is substantially completed at various times prior to the close of business on each Business Day in New York (i.e., a day on which the New York Stock Exchange is open for trading). In addition, European, Asian or Far Eastern securities trading generally or in a particular country or countries may not take place on all Business Days in New York. Furthermore, trading takes place in various foreign markets on days which are not Business Days in New York and days on which the Funds' and Underlying Funds' NAVs are not calculated. Such calculation does not take place contemporaneously with the determination of the prices of the majority of the portfolio securities used in such calculation. For investments in foreign equity securities, "fair value" prices will be provided by an independent third-party pricing (fair value) service (if available), in accordance with fair value procedures approved by the Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV. If the independent third-party pricing (fair value) service does not provide a fair value for a particular security or if the value does not meet the established criteria for the Funds and Underlying Funds, the most recent closing price for such a security on its principal exchange will generally be its fair value on such date.

The Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining a Fund's or Underlying Fund's NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man-made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading limits or suspensions.

In general, fair value represents a good faith approximation of the current value of an asset and may be used when there is no public market or possibly no market at all for an asset. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures or by other investors. The fair value of an asset may not be the price at which that asset is ultimately sold.

The proceeds received by each Fund and each other series of the Trust from the issue or sale of its shares, and all net investment income, realized and unrealized gain and proceeds thereof, subject only to the rights of creditors, will be specifically allocated to such Fund or particular series and constitute the underlying assets of that Fund or series. The underlying assets of each Fund will be segregated on the books of account, and will be charged with the liabilities in respect of such Fund and with a share of the general liabilities of the Trust. Expenses of the Trust with respect to the Funds and the other series of the Trust are generally allocated in proportion to the NAVs of the respective Funds or series except where allocations of expenses can otherwise be fairly made.

Each Fund relies on various sources to calculate its NAV. The ability of the Funds' fund accounting agent to calculate the NAV per share of each share class of the Funds is subject to operational risks associated with processing or human errors, systems or technology failures, cyber attacks and errors caused by third party service providers, data sources, or trading counterparties. Such failures may result in delays in the calculation of a Fund's NAV and/or the inability to calculate NAV over extended time periods. The Funds may be unable to recover any losses associated with such failures. In addition, if the third party service providers and/or data sources upon which a Fund directly or indirectly relies to calculate its NAV or price individual securities are unavailable or otherwise unable to calculate the NAV correctly, it may be necessary for alternative procedures to be utilized to price the securities at the time of determining the Fund's NAV.

GovernmentMoney Market Fund. The Government Money Market Fund's securities are valued using the amortized cost method of valuation in an effort to maintain a constant NAV of $1.00 per share, which the Board of Trustees has determined to be in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders. This method involves valuing a security at cost on the date of acquisition and thereafter assuming a constant accretion of a discount or amortization of a premium to maturity, regardless of the impact of fluctuating interest rates and other factors on the market value of the instrument. While this method provides certainty in valuation, it may result in periods during which value, as determined by amortized cost, is higher or lower than the price the Fund would receive if it sold the instrument. During such periods, the yield to an investor in the Fund may differ somewhat from that obtained in a similar investment company which uses available market quotations to value all of its portfolio securities. During periods of declining interest rates, the quoted yield on shares of the Fund may tend to be higher than a like computation made by a fund with identical investments utilizing a method of valuation based upon market prices and estimates of market prices for all of its portfolio instruments. Thus, if the use of amortized cost

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resulted in a lower aggregate portfolio value on a particular day, a prospective investor in the Fund would be able to obtain a somewhat higher yield if he or she purchased shares of the Fund on that day, than would result from investment in a fund utilizing solely market values, and existing investors in the Fund would receive less investment income. The converse would apply in a period of rising interest rates.

The Trustees have established procedures designed to stabilize, to the extent reasonably possible, the Government Money Market Fund's price per share as computed for the purpose of sales and redemptions at $1.00. Such procedures include review of the Fund by the Trustees, at such intervals as they deem appropriate, to determine whether the Fund's NAV calculated by using available market quotations (or an appropriate substitute which reflects market conditions) deviates from $1.00 per share based on amortized cost, as well as review of methods used to calculate the deviation. If such deviation exceeds 1/2 of 1%, the Trustees will promptly consider what action, if any, will be initiated. In the event the Trustees determine that a deviation exists which may result in material dilution or other unfair results to investors or existing shareholders, they will take such corrective action as they regard to be necessary and appropriate, including the sale of portfolio instruments prior to maturity to realize capital gains or losses or to shorten average portfolio maturity; withholding part or all of dividends or payment of distributions from capital or capital gains; redeeming shares in-kind; or establishing a NAV per share by using available market quotations or equivalents. In addition, in order to stabilize the NAV per share at $1.00 (or otherwise minimize principal volatility), the Trustees have the authority (i) to reduce or increase the number of shares outstanding on a pro rata basis, and (ii) to offset each shareholder's pro rata portion of the deviation between the NAV per share and $1.00 from the shareholder's accrued dividend account or from future dividends. The Fund may hold cash for the purpose of stabilizing its NAV per share. Holdings of cash, on which no return is earned, would tend to lower the yield on the Fund's shares.

In order to continue to use the amortized cost method of valuation for the Fund's investments, the investments of the Fund must comply with Rule 2a-7 under the Act.

Errors and Corrective Actions

The Investment Adviser will report to the Board of Trustees any material breaches of investment objective, policies or restrictions and any material errors in the calculation of the NAV of a Fund or Underlying Fund or the processing of purchases and redemptions. Depending on the nature and size of an error, corrective action may or may not be required. Corrective action may involve a prospective correction of the NAV only, correction of any erroneous NAV and compensation to a Fund or Underlying Fund, or correction of any erroneous NAV, compensation to a Fund or Underlying Fund and reprocessing of individual shareholder transactions. The Trust's policies on errors and corrective action limit or restrict when corrective action will be taken or when compensation to a Fund or Underlying Fund or its shareholders will be paid, and not all mistakes will result in compensable errors. As a result, neither a Fund or Underlying Fund nor its shareholders who purchase or redeem shares during periods in which errors accrue or occur may be compensated in connection with the resolution of an error. Shareholders will generally not be notified of the occurrence of a compensable error or the resolution thereof absent unusual circumstances. As discussed in more detail under "NET ASSET VALUE," a Fund's portfolio securities may be priced based on quotations for those securities provided by pricing services. There can be no guarantee that a quotation provided by a pricing service will be accurate.

SHARES OF THE TRUST

Each Fund is a series of Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust, which was formed under the laws of the state of Delaware on September 16, 1997. The Trustees have authority under the Trust's Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares of beneficial interest in separate series, without further action by shareholders. The Trustees also have authority to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes. As of April 30, 2021, the Trustees have classified shares in each Fund as a class of shares called Service Shares, have classified additional shares in the following Funds as a second class of shares called Institutional Shares: U.S. Equity Insights Fund, Small Cap Equity Insights Fund, Strategic Growth Fund, Large Cap Value Fund, Mid Cap Value Fund, Growth Opportunities Fund, International Equity Insights Fund, High Quality Floating Rate Fund, Core Fixed Income Fund, Global Trends Allocation Fund, Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio and Government Money Market Fund, and have also classified additional shares in the following Funds as a third class or shares called Advisor Shares: High Quality Floating Rate Fund and Multi-Strategy Alternatives Portfolio. Additional series and classes may be added in the future.

Each Service Share, Institutional Share and Advisor Share of a Fund represents a proportionate interest in the assets belonging to the applicable class of the Fund. All expenses of a Fund are borne at the same rate by each class of shares, except that fees and expenses under distribution and service plans are borne exclusively by Service Shares and Advisor Shares, as applicable. The Trustees may determine in the future that it is appropriate to allocate other expenses differently among classes of shares and may do so to the extent consistent with the rules of the SEC and positions of the IRS. Each class of shares may have different minimum investment requirements and be entitled to different shareholder services. In addition, the fees and expenses under the distribution and service plans for Service Shares and Advisor Shares may be subject to fee waivers or reimbursements, as discussed more fully in the Funds' Prospectuses.

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It is possible that a participating insurance company or its affiliate may offer different classes of shares (i.e., Service Shares, Institutional Shares and Advisor Shares) to its customers and thus receive different compensation with respect to different classes of shares of each Fund. Dividends paid by each Fund, if any, with respect to each class of shares will be calculated in the same manner, at the same time on the same day and will be in the same amount, except for differences caused by the fact that the respective plan fees relating to a particular class will be borne exclusively by that class. Similarly, the NAV per share may differ depending upon the class of shares purchased.

Certain aspects of the shares may be altered after advance notice to shareholders if it is deemed necessary in order to satisfy certain tax regulatory requirements.

When issued for the consideration described in the Funds' prospectuses, shares are fully paid and non-assessable. The Trustees may, however, cause shareholders, or shareholders of a particular series or class, to pay certain custodian, transfer, servicing or similar agent charges by setting off the same against declared but unpaid dividends or by reducing share ownership (or by both means). In the event of liquidation, shareholders are entitled to share pro rata in the net assets of the applicable class of the relevant Fund available for distribution to such shareholders. All shares are freely transferable and have no preemptive, subscription or conversion rights. The Trustees may require shareholders to redeem Shares for any reason under terms set by the Trustees.

The Act requires that where more than one series of shares exists, each series must be preferred over all other series in respect of assets specifically allocated to such series. In addition, Rule 18f-2 under the Act provides that any matter required to be submitted by the provisions of the Act or applicable state law, or otherwise, to the holders of the outstanding voting securities of an investment company such as the Trust shall not be deemed to have been effectively acted upon unless approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of each series affected by such matter. Rule 18f-2 further provides that a series shall be deemed to be affected by a matter unless the interests of each series in the matter are substantially identical or the matter does not affect any interest of such series. However, Rule 18f-2 exempts the selection of independent public accountants, the approval of principal distribution contracts and the election of trustees from the separate voting requirements of Rule 18f-2.

The Trust is not required to hold annual meetings of shareholders and does not intend to hold such meetings. In the event that a meeting of shareholders is held, each share of the Trust will be entitled, as determined by the Trustees without the vote or consent of the shareholders, either to one vote for each share or to one vote for each dollar of NAV represented by such share on all matters presented to shareholders including the election of Trustees (this method of voting being referred to as "dollar based voting"). However, to the extent required by the Act or otherwise determined by the Trustees, series and classes of the Trust will vote separately from each other. Shareholders of the Trust do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of Trustees. Meetings of shareholders of the Trust, or any series or class thereof, may be called by the Trustees, certain officers or upon the written request of holders of 10% or more of the shares entitled to vote at such meetings. The Trustees will call a special meeting of shareholders for the purpose of electing Trustees if, at any time, less than a majority of Trustees holding office at the time were elected by shareholders. The shareholders of the Trust will have voting rights only with respect to the limited number of matters specified in the Declaration of Trust and such other matters as the Trustees may determine or may be required by law.

The Declaration of Trust provides for indemnification of Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust unless the recipient is adjudicated (i) to be liable by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person's office or (ii) not to have acted in good faith in the reasonable belief that such person's actions were in the best interest of the Trust. The Declaration of Trust provides that, if any shareholder or former shareholder of any series is held personally liable solely by reason of being or having been a shareholder and not because of the shareholder's acts or omissions or for some other reason, the shareholder or former shareholder (or the shareholder's heirs, executors, administrators, legal representatives or general successors) shall be held harmless from and indemnified against all loss and expense arising from such liability. The Trust, acting on behalf of any affected series, must, upon request by such shareholder, assume the defense of any claim made against such shareholder for any act or obligation of the series and satisfy any judgment thereon from the assets of the series.

The Declaration of Trust permits the termination of the Trust or of any series or class of the Trust (i) by a majority of the affected shareholders at a meeting of shareholders of the Trust, series or class; or (ii) by a majority of the Trustees without shareholder approval if the Trustees determine, in their sole discretion, that such action is in the best interest of the Trust, such series, such class or their respective shareholders. The Trustees may consider such factors as they, in their sole discretion, deem appropriate in making such determination, including (i) the inability of the Trust or any series or class to maintain its assets at an appropriate size; (ii) changes in laws or regulations governing the Trust, series, or class or affecting assets of the type in which it invests; or (iii) economic developments or trends having a significant adverse impact on the business or operations of the Trust or series.

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The Declaration of Trust authorizes the Trustees without shareholder approval to cause the Trust, or any series thereof, to merge or consolidate with any corporation, association, trust or other organization or sell or exchange all or substantially all of the property belonging to the Trust or any series thereof. In addition, the Trustees, without shareholder approval, may adopt a master-feeder structure by investing all or a portion of the assets of a series of the Trust in the securities of another open-end investment company with substantially the same investment objective, restrictions and policies.

The Declaration of Trust permits the Trustees to amend the Declaration of Trust without a shareholder vote. However, shareholders of the Trust have the right to vote on any amendment (i) that would adversely affect the voting rights of shareholders; (ii) that is required by law to be approved by shareholders; (iii) that would amend the provisions of the Declaration of Trust regarding amendments and supplements thereto; or (iv) that the Trustees determine to submit to shareholders.

The Trustees may appoint separate Trustees with respect to one or more series or classes of the Trust's shares (the "Series Trustees"). Series Trustees may, but are not required to, serve as Trustees of the Trust or any other series or class of the Trust. To the extent provided by the Trustees in the appointment of Series Trustees, the Series Trustees may have, to the exclusion of any other Trustees of the Trust, all the powers and authorities of Trustees under the Declaration of Trust with respect to such Series or Class, but may have no power or authority with respect to any other series or class.

Shareholder and Trustee Liability

Under Delaware Law, the shareholders of the Funds are not generally subject to liability for the debts or obligations of the Trust. Similarly, Delaware law provides that a series of the Trust will not be liable for the debts or obligations of any other series of the Trust. However, no similar statutory or other authority limiting statutory trust shareholder liability exists in other states. As a result, to the extent that a Delaware statutory trust or a shareholder is subject to the jurisdiction of courts of such other states, the courts may not apply Delaware law and may thereby subject the Delaware statutory trust shareholders to liability. To guard against this risk, the Declaration of Trust contains an express disclaimer of shareholder liability for acts or obligations of a series. Notice of such disclaimer will normally be given in each agreement, obligation or instrument entered into or executed by a series of the Trust. The Declaration of Trust provides for indemnification by the relevant series for all loss suffered by a shareholder as a result of an obligation of the series. The Declaration of Trust also provides that a series shall, upon request, assume the defense of any claim made against any shareholder for any act or obligation of the series and satisfy any judgment thereon. In view of the above, the risk of personal liability of shareholders of a Delaware statutory trust is remote.

In addition to the requirements under Delaware law, the Declaration of Trust provides that shareholders of a series may bring a derivative action on behalf of the series only if the following conditions are met: (a) shareholders eligible to bring such derivative action under Delaware law who hold at least 10% of the outstanding shares of the series, or 10% of the outstanding shares of the class to which such action relates, shall join in the request for the Trustees to commence such action; and (b) the Trustees must be afforded a reasonable amount of time to consider such shareholder request and to investigate the basis of such claim. The Trustees will be entitled to retain counsel or other advisers in considering the merits of the request and may require an undertaking by the shareholders making such request to reimburse the series for the expense of any such advisers in the event that the Trustees determine not to bring such action.

The Declaration of Trust further provides that the Trustees will not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law, but nothing in the Declaration of Trust protects a Trustee against liability to which he or she would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office.

TAXATION

Shares of the Funds are offered to Separate Accounts that fund variable annuity contracts and variable insurance policies issued by Participating Insurance Companies. See the prospectuses for such contracts for a discussion of the special taxation of insurance companies with respect to the Separate Accounts, the variable annuity contracts, variable insurance policies and the holders thereof.

The following is only a summary of certain additional tax considerations generally affecting the Funds and their shareholders that are not described in the Prospectuses. The discussions below and in the Prospectuses are not intended as substitutes for careful tax planning. Each prospective investor is urged to consult his or her own tax adviser with respect to the specific federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of investing in a Fund. The summary is based on the laws in effect on April 30, 2021, which are subject to change.

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General

The holders of variable life insurance policies or annuity contracts should not be subject to tax with respect to distributions made on, or redemptions of, Fund shares, assuming that the variable life insurance policies and annuity contracts qualify under the Code, as life insurance or annuities, respectively, and that the Separate Account shareholders are treated as owners of the Fund shares. Thus, this summary does not describe the tax consequences to a holder of a life insurance policy or annuity contract as a result of the ownership of such policies or contracts. Policy or contract holders must consult the prospectuses of their respective policies or contracts for information concerning the federal income tax consequences of owning such policies or contracts. This summary also does not describe the tax consequences applicable to the owners of the Fund shares because the Fund shares will be sold only to insurance companies. Thus, purchasers of Fund shares must consult their own tax advisers regarding the federal, state, and local tax consequences of owning Fund shares.

Each of the Funds has elected to be treated and intends to qualify for each of its taxable years as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of Subtitle A, Chapter 1, of the Code. Qualification as a regulated investment company under the Code requires, among other things, that (1) a Fund derive at least 90% of its gross income for its taxable year from dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans and gains from the sale or other disposition of stocks or securities or foreign currencies, income from qualified publicly traded partnerships or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures, and forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies (the "90% gross income test"); and (2) the Fund diversify its holdings so that, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the market value of such Fund's total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government Securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of such Fund's total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies) or two or more issuers controlled by the Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships. For purposes of the 90% gross income test, income that a Fund earns from equity interests in certain entities that are not treated as corporations (e.g., partnerships or trusts) for U.S. tax purposes will generally have the same character for such Fund as in the hands of such an entity; consequently, a Fund may be required to limit its equity investments in such entities that earn fee income, rental income, or other nonqualifying income. In addition, future Treasury regulations could provide that qualifying income under the 90% gross income test will not include gains from foreign currency transactions that are not directly related to a Fund's principal business of investing in stock or securities or options and futures with respect to stock or securities. Using foreign currency positions or entering into foreign currency options, futures and forward or swap contracts for purposes other than hedging currency risk with respect to securities in a Fund's portfolio or anticipated to be acquired may not qualify as "directly-related" under these tests.

If a Fund complies with such provisions, then in any taxable year in which such Fund distributes, in compliance with the Code's timing and other requirements, at least 90% of its "investment company taxable income" (which includes dividends, taxable interest, taxable accrued original issue discount and market discount income, income from securities lending, any net short term capital gain in excess of net long term capital loss, certain net realized foreign exchange gains and any other taxable income other than "net capital gain," as defined below, and is reduced by deductible expenses), and at least 90% of the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest income (if any) over certain disallowed deductions, such Fund (but not its shareholders) will be relieved of federal income tax on any income of the Fund, including long term capital gains, distributed to shareholders. However, if a Fund retains any investment company taxable income or "net capital gain" (the excess of net long term capital gain over net short term capital loss), it will be subject to a tax at regular corporate rates on the amount retained, or, if the shortfall in distributions is large enough, a Fund could be disqualified as a regulated investment company.

Each Fund intends to distribute for each taxable year to its shareholders all or substantially all of its investment company taxable income, net capital gain and any net tax-exempt interest. Exchange control or other foreign laws, regulations or practices may restrict repatriation of investment income, capital or the proceeds of securities sales by foreign investors such as a Fund and may therefore make it more difficult for such a Fund to satisfy the distribution requirements described above, as well as the excise tax distribution requirements described below. However, each Fund generally expects to be able to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy such requirements from new investors, the sale of securities or other sources. If for any taxable year a Fund does not qualify as a regulated investment company, it will be taxed on all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain at corporate rate without any deduction for dividends paid.

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Each Fund intends to comply with the diversification requirements imposed by Section 817(h) of the Code and the regulations thereunder (the "Diversification Requirements"). Under Code Section 817(h), a variable life insurance or annuity contract will not be treated as a life insurance policy or annuity contract, respectively, under the Code, unless the Separate Account upon which such contract or policy is based is "adequately diversified." A Separate Account will be adequately diversified if it satisfies one of two alternative tests set forth in the U.S. Treasury regulations. Specifically, the U.S. Treasury regulations provide that, except as permitted by the "safe harbor" discussed below, as of the end of each calendar quarter (or within 30 days thereafter) no more than 55% of the Separate Account's total assets may be represented by any one investment, no more than 70% by any two investments, no more than 80% by any three investments and no more than 90% by any four investments. For this purpose, all securities of the same issuer are considered a single investment, and each U.S. government agency and instrumentality is considered a separate issuer. As a safe harbor, a Separate Account will be treated as being adequately diversified if the diversification requirements under Subchapter M are satisfied and no more than 55% of the value of the account's total assets are cash and cash items, U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies. In addition, a Separate Account with respect to a variable life insurance contract is treated as adequately diversified to the extent of its investment in securities issued by the United States Treasury.

For purposes of these alternative diversification tests, a Separate Account investing in shares of a regulated investment company generally will be entitled to "look through" the regulated investment company to its pro rata portion of the regulated investment company's assets, provided that the shares of such regulated investment company are held only by insurance companies and certain fund managers (a "Closed Fund"). Each Fund will be a Closed Fund.

IRS Notice 2016-32 provides that a "government money market fund," as such term is defined in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, will generally be deemed to meet the Diversification Requirements for an insurance company separate account investing in such a fund. The guidance does not extend to fund-of-funds structures where the account invests in an insurance-dedicated fund that invests in a portfolio of lower-tier funds that includes a government money market fund. In addition, the guidance does not extend to accounts in which an insurance-dedicated government money market fund is only one of several investments that the account holds.

If the Separate Account upon which a variable contract is based is not "adequately diversified" under the foregoing rules for each calendar quarter, then (i) the variable contract is not treated as a life insurance contract or annuity contract under the Code for all subsequent periods during which such account is not "adequately diversified" and (ii) the holders of such contract must include as ordinary income the "income on the contract" for each taxable year. Further, the income on a life insurance contract for all prior taxable years is treated as received or accrued during the taxable year of the policyholder in which the contract ceases to meet the definition of a "life insurance contract" under the Code. The "income on the contract" is, generally, the excess of (i) the sum of the increase in the net surrender value of the contract during the taxable year and the cost of the life insurance protection provided under the contract during the year, over (ii) the premiums paid under the contract during the taxable year. In addition, if a Fund did not constitute a Closed Fund, the holders of the contracts and annuities which invest in the Fund through a Separate Account might be treated as owners of Fund shares and might be subject to tax on distributions made by the Fund.

To avoid a 4% federal excise tax, each Fund must generally distribute (or be deemed to have distributed) by December 31 of each calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of 98% of its taxable ordinary income (taking into account certain deferrals and elections) for the calendar year, 98.2% of the excess of its capital gains over its capital losses (generally computed on the basis of the one-year period ending on October 31 of such year), and all taxable ordinary income and the excess of capital gains over capital losses for all previous years that were not distributed for those years and on which the Fund paid no federal income tax. For federal income tax purposes, dividends declared by a Fund in October, November or December to shareholders of record on a specified date in such a month and paid during January of the following year are taxable to such shareholders, and deductible by the Fund, as if paid on December 31 of the year declared. The excise tax provisions described above do not apply to a regulated investment company, like the Funds, all of whose shareholders at all times during the calendar year are segregated asset accounts of life insurance companies where the shares are held in connection with variable contracts, and certain qualified pension plans, tax-exempt entities and certain other entities. (For this purpose, any shares of a Fund attributable to an investment in the Fund not exceeding $250,000 made in connection with the organization of the Fund shall not be taken into account.) Accordingly, if this condition regarding the ownership of shares of the Fund is met, the excise tax will be inapplicable to the Fund. If required to do so, each Fund anticipates that it will generally make timely distributions of income and capital gains in compliance with these requirements so that it will generally not be required to pay the excise tax.

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Each Fund is permitted to carry forward losses indefinitely. As of December 31, 2020, the following Funds had capital loss carryforwards approximating the amounts indicated, expiring in the years indicated:

Large Cap
Value Fund
Mid Cap
Value Fund
Multi-
Strategy
Alternatives
Portfolio
International
Equity
Insights
Fund
High Quality
Floating
Rate Fund

Perpetual Long-term

$ 0 $ 0 $ 0 $ 2,522,288 $ 1,242,514

Perpetual Short-term

$ 5,732,311 $ 2,823,748 $ 247,553 $ 9,204,202 $ 305,245

Certain of the Funds will be subject to foreign taxes on their income (possibly including, in some cases, capital gains) from foreign securities. Tax conventions between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes in some cases.

Investments in lower-rated securities may present special tax issues for a Fund to the extent actual or anticipated defaults may be more likely with respect to such securities. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as when a Fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount, or market discount; when and to what extent deductions may be taken for bad debts or worthless securities; how payments received on obligations in default should be allocated between principal and income; and whether exchanges of debt obligations in a workout context are taxable. These and other issues will be addressed by a Fund, in the event it invests in such securities, in order to seek to eliminate or minimize any adverse tax consequences.

State and Local

Each Fund may be subject to state or local taxes in jurisdictions in which such Fund may be deemed to be doing business. In addition, in those states or localities which have income tax laws, the treatment of such Fund and its shareholders under such laws may differ from their treatment under federal income tax laws, and investment in such Fund may have tax consequences for shareholders different from those of a direct investment in such Fund's portfolio securities.

PROXY VOTING

The Trust, on behalf of the Funds, has delegated the voting of portfolio securities to the Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser. For client accounts for which the Investment Adviser has voting discretion, the Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures (the "Proxy Voting Policy") for the voting of proxies. Under the Proxy Voting Policy, the Investment Adviser's guiding principles in performing proxy voting are to make decisions that favor proposals that in the Investment Adviser's view tend to maximize a company's shareholder value and are not influenced by conflicts of interest. To implement these guiding principles for investments in publicly-traded equities, the Investment Adviser has developed customized proxy voting guidelines (the "Guidelines") that they generally apply when voting on behalf of client accounts. Attached as Appendix B is a summary of the Guidelines. These Guidelines address a wide variety of individual topics, including, among other matters, shareholder voting rights, anti-takeover defenses, board structures, the election of directors, executive and director compensation, reorganizations, mergers, issues of corporate social responsibility and various shareholder proposals. The Proxy Voting Policy, including the Guidelines, is reviewed periodically to ensure that it continues to be consistent with the Investment Adviser's guiding principles. The Guidelines embody the positions and factors the Investment Adviser generally considers important in casting proxy votes.

The Investment Adviser has retained a third-party proxy voting service ("Proxy Service"), currently Institutional Shareholder Services, to assist in the implementation and administration of certain proxy voting-related functions including, without limitation, operational, recordkeeping and reporting services. The Proxy Service also prepares a written analysis and recommendation (a "Recommendation") of each proxy vote that reflects the Proxy Service's application of the Guidelines to particular proxy issues. While it is the Investment Adviser's policy generally to follow the Guidelines and Recommendations from the Proxy Service, the Investment Adviser's portfolio management teams ("Portfolio Management Teams") may on certain proxy votes seek approval to diverge from the Guidelines or a Recommendation by following an "override" process. Such decisions are subject to a review and approval process, including a determination that the decision is not influenced by any conflict of interest. A Portfolio Management Team that receives approval through the override process to cast a proxy vote that diverges from the Guidelines and/or a Recommendation may vote differently than other Portfolio Management Teams that did not seek to override that vote. In forming their views on particular matters, the Portfolio Management Teams are also permitted to consider applicable regional rules and practices, including codes of conduct and other guides, regarding proxy voting, in addition to the Guidelines and Recommendations. The Investment Adviser may hire other service providers to replace or supplement the Proxy Service with respect to any of the services the Investment Adviser currently receives from the Proxy Service.

GSAM conducts periodic due diligence meetings with the Proxy Service which include, but are not limited to, a review of the Proxy Service's general organizational structure, new developments with respect to research and technology, work flow improvements and internal due diligence with respect to conflicts of interest.

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From time to time, the Investment Adviser may face regulatory, compliance, legal or logistical limits with respect to voting securities that they may purchase or hold for client accounts, which can affect the Investment Adviser's ability to vote such proxies, as well as the desirability of voting such proxies. Among other limits, federal, state and foreign regulatory restrictions or company specific ownership limits, as well as legal matters related to consolidated groups, may restrict the total percentage of an issuer's voting securities that the Investment Adviser can hold for clients and the nature of the Investment Adviser's voting in such securities. The Investment Adviser's ability to vote proxies may also be affected by, among other things: (i) late receipt of meeting notices; (ii) requirements to vote proxies in person: (iii) restrictions on a foreigner's ability to exercise votes; (iv) potential difficulties in translating the proxy; (v) requirements to provide local agents with unrestricted powers of attorney to facilitate voting instructions; and (vi) requirements that investors who exercise their voting rights surrender the right to dispose of their holdings for some specified period in proximity to the shareholder meeting.

The Investment Adviser has adopted policies and procedures designed to prevent conflicts of interest from influencing its proxy voting decisions that the Investment Adviser makes on behalf of a client account. These policies and procedures include the Investment Adviser's use of the Guidelines and Recommendations from the Proxy Service, the override approval process previously discussed, and the establishment of information barriers between the Investment Adviser and other businesses within The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Notwithstanding such proxy voting policies and procedures, actual proxy voting decisions of the Investment Adviser may have the effect of benefitting the interests of other clients or businesses of other divisions or units of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates.

SSGA Funds Management, Inc., the Sub-Adviser to the Equity Index Fund, has also adopted policies and procedures for the voting of proxies. SSGA FM seeks to vote proxies in the best interests of its clients. In the ordinary course of business, this entails voting proxies in a way which SSGA FM believes will maximize shareholder value of the Fund's holdings. A more detailed description of SSGA FM's proxy voting policy is included in Appendix C of the SAI.

Voting decisions with respect to fixed income securities and the securities of privately held issuers generally will be made by a Fund's managers based on their assessment of the particular transactions or other matters at issue.

Information regarding how the Funds voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available on or through the Funds' website at www.gsam.com/content/gsam/us/en/advisors/resources/client-service/proxyvoting.html without charge and on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

PAYMENTS TO OTHERS (INCLUDING INTERMEDIARIES)

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments to participating insurance companies, and other financial intermediaries and securities dealers ("Intermediaries") and other persons from time to time to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Funds. These payments ("Additional Payments") are made out of the Investment Adviser's, Distributor's and/or their affiliates' own assets (which may come directly or indirectly from fees paid by the Funds), are not an additional charge to the Funds or their shareholders, and do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of a Fund's shares or the amount a Fund receives as proceeds from such purchases. Although paid by the Investment Adviser, Distributor, and/or their affiliates, the Additional Payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees paid by the Funds to the Intermediaries as described in the Funds' Prospectuses and this SAI.

The Additional Payments are intended to compensate Intermediaries and other persons for, among other things: marketing shares of the Funds, which may consist of payments relating to Funds included on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs from time to time sponsored by the recipients; "due diligence" examination and/or review of the Funds from time to time; access to the Intermediaries' registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; "finders" or "referral fees" for directing investors to the Funds; marketing support fees for providing assistance in promoting the sale of Fund shares (which may include promotions in communications with the Intermediaries' customers, registered representatives and salespersons); the support or purchase of technology platforms/software offered by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates or third parties (which may be used by Intermediaries to provide advisory and/or brokerage services to their customers); provision of analytical or other data to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to sales of shares of the Funds; and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Funds, including provision of consultative services to the Investment Adviser or its affiliates relating to marketing of the Funds and/or sale of shares of the Funds. In addition, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make Additional Payments (including through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements) for sub-accounting, administrative, shareholder processing and/or recordkeeping services that are in addition to the transfer agent, shareholder administration, servicing and processing fees paid by the Funds, including Additional Payments to third-party recordkeepers and/or administrators of retirement plan sponsors (which may reduce the cost to retirement plan sponsors for retaining third-party recordkeepers and/or administrators). These Additional Payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these or

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similar services. The Additional Payments may be a fixed dollar amount; may be based on the number of customer accounts maintained by an Intermediary or other person that provides services to you; may be based on a percentage of the value of shares sold to, or held by, customers of the Intermediary or other person involved; or may be calculated on another basis. The Additional Payments are negotiated with each recipient based on a range of factors, including but not limited to the recipient's ability to attract and retain assets (including particular classes of Fund shares), target markets, customer relationships, quality of service and industry reputation. Although the individual components may be higher or lower and the total amount of Additional Payments made to any recipient in any given year will vary, the amount of these Additional Payments (excluding payments made through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements), on average, is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through a recipient.

These Additional Payments may be significant to certain Intermediaries and other persons, and may be an important factor in an Intermediary or other person's willingness to support the sale of the Funds through its distribution system.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may be motivated to make Additional Payments since they promote the sale of Fund shares to clients of the recipients and the retention of those investments by those clients. To the extent recipients sell more shares of the Funds or retain shares of the Funds in their clients' accounts, the Investment Adviser and Distributor benefit from the incremental management and other fees paid by the Funds with respect to those assets.

In addition, certain Intermediaries and other persons may have access to certain research and investment services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates. Such research and investment services ("Additional Services") may include research reports; economic analysis; portfolio analysis, portfolio construction and similar tools and software; business planning services; certain marketing and investor education materials and strategic asset allocation modeling. The recipient may not pay for these products or services or may only pay for a portion of the total cost of these products or services. The cost of the Additional Services and the particular services provided may vary from recipient to recipient.

The Additional Payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates or the Additional Services received by an Intermediary or other person may vary with respect to the type of fund (e.g., equity fund, fixed income fund or money market fund) sold by or through the Intermediary or other person. In addition, the Additional Payment arrangements may include breakpoints in compensation which provide that the percentage rate of compensation varies as the dollar value of the amount sold or invested through an Intermediary or other person increases.

The presence of these Additional Payments or Additional Services, the varying fee structure and the basis on which an Intermediary compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Intermediary, registered representative, salesperson or other person to highlight, feature or recommend funds, including the Funds, or other investments based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. Additionally, if one mutual fund sponsor makes greater distribution payments than another, a recipient of these payments may have an incentive to recommend one fund complex over another. Similarly, if an Intermediary or other person receives more distribution assistance for one share class versus another, that Intermediary or other person may have an incentive to recommend that share class. Because Intermediaries and other persons may be paid varying amounts per class for sub-transfer agency and related recordkeeping services, the service requirements of which also may vary by class, this may create an additional incentive for financial firms and their financial advisers to favor one fund complex over another, or one fund class over another. You should consider whether such incentives exist when evaluating any recommendations from an Intermediary or other person to purchase or sell Shares of the Funds and when considering which share class is most appropriate for you.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and their affiliates made Additional Payments out of their own assets to approximately 195 recipients, totaling approximately $248.6 million (excluding payments made through sub-transfer agency and networking agreements and certain other types of payments described below), with respect to all of the Funds of the Trust, all of the funds in an affiliated investment company, Goldman Sachs Trust, Goldman Sachs Trust II, and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates had contractual arrangements to make Additional Payments to the persons of the Trust, Goldman Sachs Trust, Goldman Sachs Trust II, and Goldman Sachs Real Estate Diversified Income Fund listed below (or their affiliates or successors), among others. This list will change over time, and any additions, modifications or deletions thereto that have occurred since December 31, 2020 are not reflected. Additional persons may receive payments in 2021 and in future years. Certain arrangements are still being negotiated, and there is a possibility that payments will be made retroactively to persons not listed below.

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ADP Broker-Dealer, Inc.

ADP LLC

ADP, Inc.
Allstate Life Insurance Company
Allstate Life Insurance Company of New York
Amalgamated Bank of Chicago
American Enterprise Investment Services, Inc. (AEIS)
American General Life Insurance Company
American National Trust and Investment Management Company dba Old National Trust Company (Oltrust & Co.)
American United Life Insurance Company
Ameriprise Financial Services LLC/Ameriprise financial Services Inc.
Ascensus, LLC.
Associated Trust Company, N.A.
Banc of America Securities LLC
BancorpSouth
Bank of New York
Bankers Trust Company
BB&T Capital Markets
BMO Harris Bank N.A.
BMO Nesbitt Burns
BNY Mellon National Association
BOSC, Inc.
Branch Banking and Trust Company
Brighthouse Life Insurance Company
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
C.M. Life Insurance Company
California Department of Human Resources
Catalyst Corporate Federal Credit Union
Cetera Advisor Networks LLC
Cetera advisors LLC
Cetera Financial Group
Cetera Financial Specialists LLC
Cetera Investment Services LLC
Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.
Citi Custody
Citibank N.A.
Citigroup Global Markets, Inc.
Citizens Bank National Association
CME Shareholder Servicing LLC
Comerica Bank
Comerica Securities, Inc.
Commerce Bank
Commerce Bank, N.A.

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Commerce Trust Co.
Commonwealth Annuity and Life Insurance Company
Commonwealth Equity Services, Inc. dba Commonwealth Financial Network
Companion Life Insurance Company
Compass Bank
Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Connecticut General Life Insurance Company
Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company
Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC
Dain Rauscher Inc.
Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas
Diversified Investment Advisors
Drexel Hamilton, LLC
Dubuque Bank & Trust
Edward D. Jones & Co., L.P.
Farmers New World Life Insurance Company
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC
Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company
Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company, Inc.
Fidelity Investments Institutional Operations Company, Inc.
Fifth Third Bank
Fifth Third Securities Inc.
First Allied Securities Inc
First Hawaiian Bank
First National Bank of Omaha
FIS Business Systems LLC
Forethought Life Insurance Company
Fulton Bank, N.A.
Fulton Financial Advisors, National Association
Genworth Life and Annuity Insurance Company
Genworth Life Insurance Company
Genworth Life Insurance Company of New York
GreatBanc Trust Co.
Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company
GWFS Equities, Inc.; GWFS Equities, Incorporated; GW Capital Management, LLC; Great-West Financial Retirement Plan Services, LLC; Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company; SunTrust Bank; Fifth Third Bank
HANCO
Hartford Life Insurance Company
Hazeltree Fund Services, Inc.

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Hewitt Associates LLC; Alight Solutions LLC
Horace Mann Life Insurance Company
HSBC Bank U.S.A., N.A.
HSBC Bank USA
Hunt, Dupree & Rhine
Huntington Securities
ICMA RC-Services, LLC; ICMA Retirement Corporation; Matrix Financial Solutions; MSCS Financial Services Division of Broadridge Business Process Outsourcing, LLC; Matrix Trust Company; McCready and Keene, In