may act as Authorized Participants on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that Authorized Participants exit the business or are unable to proceed with creation or redemption orders with respect to the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem, Fund shares may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for exchange-traded funds ('ETFs'), such as the Fund, that invest in securities issued by non-U.S. issuers or other securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.
Cloud-based Computing and Data Storage Risk. Companies involved in, or exposed to, cloud-based computing and data storage-related businesses may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel that face intense competition and potentially rapid product obsolescence. These companies may not be exclusively or substantially exposed to the cloud-based computing and data storage-related businesses, but may be exposed, directly or indirectly, to the market and business risks of other companies, industries or sectors. In addition, these companies may depend on intellectual property rights to protect their computing and storage services, which may be difficult to prevent the misappropriation of, and are susceptible to competitors that may develop substantially similar or superior technology.
Cloud-based computing and data storage companies also depend on the services of third-parties, which, if interrupted, may impact their products
and services. These companies are also potential targets for cyberattacks, which may have a materially adverse impact on the performance of these companies. Cloud-based computing may face increasing regulatory scrutiny and legal liability, which may limit the development of this technology and impede the growth of companies that develop or use this technology. Similarly, the collection of data from consumers and other sources, and storage of that data, may face increased scrutiny as regulators consider how data may be collected, stored, safeguarded and used.
Concentration Risk. The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse events that affect the Fund's investments more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund's investments are concentrated in the securities and/or other assets of a particular issuer or issuers, country, group of countries, region, market, industry, group of industries, sector, market segment or asset class.
Currency Risk. Because the Fund's NAV is determined in U.S. dollars, the Fund's NAV could decline if the currency of a non-U.S. market in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar or if there are delays or limits on repatriation of such currency. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the Fund's NAV may change quickly and without warning.
Custody Risk. Less developed securities markets are more likely to experience problems with the clearing and settling of trades, as well as the holding of securities by local banks, agents and depositories.