02/09/2024 | Press release | Distributed by Public on 02/09/2024 14:14
Before World War II, Polish diplomacy tried to keep good neighbourly relations with Germany. Poland's entering into any sort of military alliance with Hitler was out of question. In the period between the First and Second World Wars, Poland found itself between two aggressive neighbours: Germany and Russia, neither of which practically recognized Polish nation's right to have an independent state. In 1934, in Berlin, the German-Polish declaration of non-aggression was signed, which was intended to guarantee the settling of disputes by peaceful means. Even before that, in 1932, a similar non-aggression pact was signed with the USSR.
The Second Polish Republic rejected Hitler's claims as well as his proposal to enter into a Polish-German alliance against the USSR. It was Hitler's Germany and the Soviet authorities that signed an agreement against Poland on 23 August 1939 (so-called Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), which allowed Germany to assault Poland on 1 September 1939. Soviet Russia and Hitler's Germany cooperated in concert until June 1941.
Poland did not participate in, nor was it a party to, the Munich Agreement (of 30 September 1938), which in fact heavily limited the sovereignty of Czechoslovakia. Polish claims regarding the Trans-Olza were made after the signing of the Munich Agreement.
The USSR incorporated Poland's eastern territory as the result of armed aggression (17 September 1939) while Poland was fending off the German invasion. It stabbed the Polish state in the back. So-called people's referenda held by the Soviets on Poland's eastern borderlands were accompanied by terror and rigs. Lviv and the then provinces of Lviv and Stanisławów (today's Western Ukraine) have never been a part of the Russian Empire. Nor was the Vilnius region a historical part of Russia.
Today's Ukraine emerged as a state thanks to Ukrainian national movement. The Bolsheviks did not establish it but merely conquered its part to set up one of the Soviet republics. Ukraine emerged at the will of Ukrainians themselves.
Kyiv was the historical capital of Ruthenia, and Moscow did not exist at the time. In 1991, Ukraine became an independent state with internationally recognized borders.
The process of self-defining of Ukrainians as a separate ethnic group was paralleled by similar processes in 19th century Europe. Nobody "invented" the Ukrainian nation.
There are no NATO bases on the territory of Ukraine.
During the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian nation opposed to rigged elections. Holding a next round of voting allowed President Viktor Yushchenko to actually win the majority of votes. After the Revolution of Dignity, President Petro Poroshenko democratically won the presidential election.
There was no threat to Crimea in 2014. The Revolution of Dignity led to a peaceful change of power through democratic elections. Russia's "little green men" appeared in Crimea to destabilise the situation in Ukraine.